[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An air-membrane surface (AMS) bioreactor was designed to allow bacteria to grow attached to a surface as a biofilm in contact with air. When Bacillus licheniformis strain EI-34-6, isolated from the surface of a marine alga, was grown in this reactor, cells produced antimicrobial compounds which they did not produce when they were grown in shake flask cultures. An unidentified red pigment was also produced by surface-grown cells but not by planktonically grown cells. Glycerol and ferric iron were important for the production of antimicrobial compounds and the red pigment. Release of these secondary metabolites was not due to the onset of sporulation. Cell-free spent medium recovered from beneath the reactor membrane could induce production of antimicrobial compounds and red pigment in shake flask cultures. Neither glycerol nor ferric iron was required for production of these inducer compounds. Spent medium from beneath the membrane of an AMS bioreactor culture of Bacillus subtilis strain DSM10(T) and Bacillus pumilus strain EI-25-8 could also induce production of antimicrobial compounds and a red pigment in B. licheniformis isolate EI-34-6 grown in shake flask cultures; however, the corresponding spent medium from shake flask cultures of DSM10(T) and EI-25-8 could not. These results suggest that there is a biofilm-specific cross-species signaling system which can induce planktonically grown cells to behave as if they were in a biofilm by regulating the expression of pigments and antimicrobial compounds.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2003; 69(7):3719-27. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Problems with tin and copper antifouling compounds have highlighted the need to develop new environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Bacteria isolated from living surfaces in the marine environment are a promising source of natural antifouling compounds. Four isolates were used to produce extracts that were formulated into ten water-based paints. All but one of the paints showed activity against a test panel of fouling bacteria. Five of the paints were further tested for their ability to inhibit the settlement of barnacle larvae, Balanus amphitrite, and algal spores of Ulva lactuca, and for their ability to inhibit the growth of U. lactuca. Two paints caused a significant decrease in the number of settled barnacles. One paint containing extract of Pseudomonas sp. strain NUDMB50-11, showed excellent activity in all assays. The antifouling chemicals responsible for the activity of the extract were isolated, using bioassay guided fractionation, and their chemical structures determined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A modified roller bottle culture method elicited the production of antimicrobial compounds from 2 epibiotic marine bacterial strains, EI-34-6 and II-111-5, isolated from the surface of the marine alga Palmaria palmata. These isolates, tentatively identified as Bacillus species, were grown as a biofilm on the surface of nutrient glycerol ferric agar (NGFA) and marine Columbia glycerol agar (MCGA) on the inside of a rolling bottle. The biofilm was shown to be stable, and the cells were difficult to remove from the agar surface. The culture supernatant exhibited a different antibiotic spectrum when the strains were grown using the agar roller bottle method compared with shake flask cultures or nonagar roller bottle cultures. These results suggest that biofilm formation is an important factor in the production of antimicrobial compounds by these 2 strains, and roller bottle cultivation also allowed production of these compounds to be increased. The methodology used here has the potential to allow increased production of useful secondary metabolites such as antibiotics from marine epibiotic bacteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial consortium MPD-M, isolated from sediment associated with Colombian mangrove roots, was effective in the treatment of hydrocarbons in water with salinities varying from 0 to 180 g L(-1). Where the salinity of the culture medium surpassed 20 g L(-1), its effectiveness increased when the cells were immobilized on polypropylene fibers. Over the range of salinity evaluated, the immobilized cells significantly enhanced the biodegradation rate of crude oil compared with free-living cells, especially with increasing salinity in the culture medium. Contrary to that observed in free cell systems, the bacterial consortium MPD-M was highly stable in immobilized systems and it was not greatly affected by increments in salinity. Biodegradation was evident even at the highest salinity evaluated (180 g L(-1)), where biodegradation was between 4 and 7 times higher with immobilized cells compared to free cells. The biodegradation of pristane (PR) and phytane (PH) and of the aromatic fraction was also increased using cells immobilized on polypropylene fibers.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 08/2002; 79(2):145-53. · 3.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The known metabolite, enniatin B, and a cyclic tetrapeptide, JM47, which is a new natural product, were extracted from brown rice cultures of a marine fungus, identified as a Fusarium species, isolated from the marine alga Codium fragile. NMR studies, including 15N HMQC and 15N HMBC, established the structure of JM47 as cyclo(Ala-Ala-Aoh-Pro), where Aoh is the amino acid, (2S,9S)-2-amino-8-oxo-9-hydroxydecanoic acid. The absolute stereochemistry of the Aoh side chain carbinol centre was determined using Mosher ester methodology. Analysis of NOESY data assisted by molecular modelling revealed an alternating L-, D-, L-, D-configuration for the tetrapeptide core. The absolute stereochemistry of the core was determined by acidic hydrolysis and chiral TLC analysis of the proline residue. JM47 belongs to the HC-toxin family of cyclic tetrapeptides which possess a 2-amino-8-oxo-9,10-epoxydecanoic acid residue in place of the Aoh unit. This is the first report of an analogue of HC-toxin from a marine Fusarium species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Every surface immersed in the sea rapidly becomes covered with a biofilm. On inanimate surfaces, this is often followed by colonisation by larger organisms, and general macrofouling. On the other hand, the majority of marine organisms remain relatively free from macrofouling, although some may be covered in a thin film of epibiotic bacteria. The role of these bacteria in maintaining the health of the host has received little attention. Here we describe an ecological role for epibiotic bacteria from seaweed surfaces. These epibionts may play a protective role, releasing compounds into the surrounding seawater that help prevent extensive fouling of the surface. These compounds may also have industrial and medical applications. The relative ease of culturing these microbes, compared to other bacteria that produce active compounds suggests seaweed-associated bacteria may be useful in bioprocess applications, such as the production of antimicrobial or antifouling compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two diketopiperazines, cyclo-(L-prolyl-L-glycine) and cyclo-(L-phenylalanyl-4R-hydroxy-L-proline), and 2,4-dibromo-6-chlorophenol were isolated from cultures of the marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea. Cyclo-(L-prolyl-L-glycine) and cyclo-(L-phenylalanyl-4R-hydroxy-L-proline) stimulated antibiotic production in this strain. 2,4-Dibromo-6-chlorophenol showed antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the cystic fibrosis associated pathogen Burkholderia cepacia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All surfaces that are submerged in the sea rapidly become covered by a biofilm. This process, called biofouling, has substantial economic consequences. Paints containing tri-butyl-tin (TBT) and copper compounds are used to protect marine structures by reducing biofouling. However, these compounds have damaging effects on the marine environment, as they are not biodegradable. It has been noted that many seaweeds and invertebrates found in the sea are not covered by a mature biofilm. This is due to the release of compounds into the surrounding seawater that deter the settlement of fouling organisms. In addition, seaweeds and invertebrates have bacteria on their surfaces that produce compounds to deter settling organisms. The production of compounds by bacteria and their living hosts work in concert to protect the hosts' surfaces. All of these compounds can be collected so they may be natural alternatives to TBT and copper compounds. However, the benefits associated with the use of bacteria as sources of these compounds means that bacteria are the organisms of choice for obtaining natural products for antifouling coatings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ecological problems associated with current antifouling technologies have increased interest in the natural strategies that marine organisms use to keep their surfaces clean and free from fouling. Bacteria isolated from living surfaces in the marine environment have been shown to produce chemicals that are potential antifoulants. Active compounds from the cells and culture supernatant of two bacterial strains, FS‐55 and NudMB50–11, isolated from surface of the seaweed, Fucus serratus, and the nudibranch, Archidoris pseudoargus, respectively, were extracted using solid phase extraction. The extracts were combined with acrylic base paint resin and assayed for antifouling activity by measuring their ability to inhibit the growth of fouling bacteria. These formulations were found to be active against fouling bacteria isolated from marine surfaces. The formulation of antifouling paints that incorporate marine microbial natural products is reported here for the first time. This is a significant advance towards the production of an environmentally friendly antifouling paint that utilises a sustainable supply of natural biodegradable compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : A method for screening marine bacteria for the production of microbial repellents has been developed. The spectrophotometer provided quantitative information on bacterial chemotaxis in response to extracts from other strains of marine bacteria. Aqueous extracts were incorporated into an agar plug at the base of a cuvette, which was overlaid with a suspension of a motile strain. Negative chemotaxis of the motile strain in response to diffusion of repellent compounds from the agar could be measured by a fall in the optical density, allowing the direct screening of supernatants for repellent activity. Three strains producing metabolites with a repellent effect on a motile marine bacterium were identified. Antibiotic activity and the repellent effect of the supernatants were compared, with no significant correlation being found. The screening method will therefore allow the identification of bioactive metabolites that would be overlooked using traditional antibiotic screening strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Competition amongst microbes for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful selective force which has led to the evolution of a variety of effective strategies for colonising and growing on surfaces. We are particularly interested in the chemical ecology of marine epibiotic bacteria which live on the surfaces of marine algae or invertebrates. Over 400 strains of surface-associated bacteria from various species of seaweed and invertebrate from Scottish coastal waters were isolated and 35% of them shown to produce antimicrobial compounds. This is a much higher proportion than free living marine isolates or soil bacteria. In addition, many strains which did not normally produce antibiotics could be induced to do so by exposing them to small amounts of live cells, supernatants from other bacterial cultures or other chemicals. Thus the number of strains able to produce antibiotics appears to be much higher than previously thought. Induction of antibiotic production was elicited by other marine epibionts and also by terrestrial human pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. An understanding of this type of chemical induction and the factors regulating non-constitutive secretion of antimicrobial compounds will allow more effective strategies for searching for new chemotherapeutic antibiotics to be designed.
Journal of Biotechnology 05/1999; 70(1-3):27-32. · 3.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the ubiquity of bacteria in the marine environment little is known about the structure and function of microbial communities associated with marine ma‐croorganisms. Using a range of traditional and novel culture methods, 280 isolates of epiphytic marine bacteria from a range of marine algae were obtained in pure culture. Sixty of the 280 isolates (21%) exhibited antibiotic activity against a test battery of fouling bacteria. Fractionation of the culture supernatants derived from two strains, GB3 and AR55, indicated the presence of a multicomponent defence system consisting of both organic and water soluble components. In addition, eight out of 21 strains (38%) screened using a spectro‐photometric chemotaxis assay, produced metabolites capable of eliciting a negative chemotactic response in a motile fouling bacterium. A significant fraction of these isolates therefore have the potential to control the microbial population on the seaweed surface, either through inhibiting the growth, or influencing the tactic behaviour of potentially competing bacteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibiotic producing marine bacteria isolated from surfaces of the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus and the nudibranch Archidoris pseudoargus were exposed to live cells of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and heat-killed cells of Staph. aureus. Twelve out of the 16 marine strains tested showed enhanced antimicrobial activity towards Staph. aureus, E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa following this exposure. Three out of seven strains tested showed enhanced antimicrobial activity when exposed to Ps. aeruginosa and three out of seven strains showed enhanced antimicrobial activity when exposed to E. coli. These results suggest that production of antimicrobial compounds by marine bacteria can be induced by the presence of terrestrial bacteria. This appears to be the first example of cross-species induction and enhancement of antimicrobial activity in marine bacteria and has important implications for the design of antibiotic screening assays and for an understanding of microbial competition in the environment.
Letters in Applied Microbiology 10/1998; 27(3):142-6. · 1.63 Impact Factor