Bong Rae Cho

Ajou University, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (145)603.13 Total impact

  • Hoon Jai Chun, Eun Sun Kim, Bong Rae Cho
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    ABSTRACT: We briefly describe the advantages and limitations of label-free multiphoton microscopy and probe-labeled two-photon microscopy for the endomicroscopic diagnosis. The two methods are complementary and more information can be collected from tissues by combining the two methods. Therefore, parallel efforts should be directed to the development of both label-free MPM and probe-labeled TPM as the diagnostic tool. SCANNING 9999:1-3, 2013. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Scanning 12/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two-photon microscopy (TPM) is a new imaging tool that can detect biological targets deep inside a live tissue. To faciltate the use of TPM in biomedical research, a variety of two-photon (TP) probes for specific applications are needed. In this Forum Article, we describe the design strategy, photophysical properties, and biological imaging applications of a selection of our recent studies in the development of TP probes for metal ions. Small-molecule TP turn-on probes, organelle-targeted probes, and multicolor emissive probes for dual-color imaging are briefly reviewed.
    Inorganic Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a new member of gaseous transmitters, which protects various organs from oxidative stress. In this article, we report a ratiometric two-photon probe, TFCA, which can be excited by 750 nm femtosecond pulses, shows a 110-fold increase in the intensity ratio upon reaction with HS(-) and high selectivity for HS(-), and can visualize the total sulfide ([H2S] + [HS(-)]) distribution in live tissue by two-photon microscopy (TPM). We also developed a kinetic method to quantitatively estimate the total sulfide concentration ([H2S] + [HS(-)]) in live tissues. The kinetic method allowed us to measure the observed rate constants (kobs) for the sulfide-induced deazidation reaction of TFCA in live cells and tissues using TPM. The total sulfide concentration was calculated by using kobs = k2[HS(-)], with the k2 value determined in HEPES/EtOH (1/1, pH = 7.2), and [H2S]/[HS(-)] = [H(+)]/Ka. The total sulfide concentration was found to be nearly zero in HeLa cells and 4-7 µM in rat colon tissues.
    Analytical Chemistry 09/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a multifunctional signaling molecule that exerts neuroprotective effects in oxidative stress. In this article, we report a mitochondria-localized two-photon probe (SHS-M2) that can be excited by 750 nm femtosecond pulses and ratiometrically detect H2S in live astrocytes and living brain slices using two-photon microscopy (TPM). SHS-M2 showed a bright two-photon excited fluorescence and a marked blue-to-yellow emission color change in response to H2S, low cytotoxicity with easy loading and minimum interference from other biologically relevant species including reactive sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen species, thereby allowing quantitative analysis of H2S level. Molecular TPM imaging with SHS-M2 in astrocytes reveals that there is a correlation between the ratiometric analysis and expression levels of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), the major enzyme that catalyzes H2S production. In comparison to wild-type controls, the attenuated H2S production was observed in DJ-1 (a Parkinson's disease gene) knockout astrocytes and brain slices where CBS expression is decreased. These findings demonstrate that reduced H2S levels in astrocytes may contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and SHS-M2 may be useful as a marker to detect a risk of neurodegenerative diseases including PD.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 06/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Chang Su Lim, Bong Rae Cho
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    ABSTRACT: Two-photon microscopy (TPM), which uses two photons of lower energy as the excitation source, is a vital tool in biology and clinical science, due to its capacity to image deep inside intact tissues for a long period of time. To make TPM a more versatile tool in biomedical research, we have developed a variety of two-photon probes for specific applications. In this mini review, we will briefly discuss two-photon probes for lipid rafts, lysosomes, mitochondria, and pH, and their biomedical applications. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 188-194].
    BMB reports 04/2013; 46(4):188-94. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    Hwan Myung Kim, Bong Rae Cho
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria provide the energy of the cells and are the primary site of oxygen consumption and the major source of reactive oxygen species. In mitochondria, metal ions and glutathione play vital roles in maintaining their structure and the redox environment. To understand their roles in mitochondria, it is crucial to monitor each of these chemical species in the mitochondria at the cell, tissue, and organism levels. An ideal tool for such purpose is the use of two-photon microscopy (TPM). Until recently, however, there has been no report on the two-photon (TP) probes suitable for such applications. In this paper, we summarize the mitochondria-targeted TP probes for Zn(2+), H(2)O(2), and thiols, as well as their bioimaging applications.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2013; 2013:323619.
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    ABSTRACT: Since detergent-resistant lipid rafts play important roles in multidrug resistance (MDR), their comprehensive proteomics could provide new insights to understand underlying molecular mechanism of MDR in cancer cells. In the present work, lipid rafts were isolated from MCF-7 and adriamycin-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells and their proteomes were analyzed by label-free quantitative proteomics. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 was measured to be upregulated along with multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (P-gp), caveolin-1 and serum deprivation protein response (SDPR)/cavin-2 in the lipid rafts of MCF-7/ADR cells. PTRF knockdown led to reduction in the amount of lipid rafts on the surface of MCF7/ADR cells as determined by cellular staining with lipid raft-specific dyes such as S-laurdan2 and FITC-conjugated cholera toxin B. PTRF knockdown also reduced MDR in MCF-7/ADR cells. These data indicate that PTRF is necessary for MDR in cancer cells via the fortification of lipid rafts.
    Journal of Proteome Research 12/2012; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual-color imaging: Two-photon probes for lysosomes (BLT-blue) and mitochondria (FMT-green) that can be excited by 750 nm femtosecond laser pulses and emit at λ=400-450 and 550-600 nm, respectively, are reported. They allow simultaneous dual-color imaging of lysosomes and mitochondria in live cells and tissues for a long period of time with minimum interference from pH, photobleaching, or cytotoxicity.
    Chemistry 10/2012; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two-photon microscopy (TPM) has become an indispensable tool in the study of biology and medicine due to the capability of this method for molecular imaging deep inside intact tissues. For the maximum utilization of TPM, a variety of two-photon (TP) probes for specific applications are needed. In this article, we report a small-molecule TP probe (ANO1) for nitric oxide (NO) that shows a rapid and specific NO response, a 68-fold fluorescence enhancement in response to NO, and a maximum TP-action cross-section of 170 GM (GM: 10(-50)  cm(4)  photon(-1) ) upon reaction with excess NO. This probe can be easily loaded into cells and tissues and can real-time monitor NO in living tissues at 100-180 μm depth for longer than 1200 s through the use of TPM, with minimum interference from other biologically relevant species.
    Chemistry 08/2012; 18(39):12388-94. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Establishing probe-based analysis is important for developing multi-photon microscopy (MPM) to make an early diagnosis of colon neoplasm and assess its antioxidant status. Cu(I) and Zn(II) ions are trace elements which roll as cofactors of antioxidant, superoxide dismutase. However, there have been no reports on the features of MPM image using probe of Cu(I) and Zn(II) ions. Our main objective in this study was application of newly developed multi-photon probe (MP) probe on Cu(I) and Zn(II) ions as a tool to assess antioxidative status of colon neoplasm. This study was a pilot study. Colon cancer cell lines (ACT116 and HT-29), NIH3T3 cells and tissues of normal colon mucosa and colon neoplasm obtained during colonoscopic biopsy from 17 patients were stained with MP probes for Cu(I) and Zn(II) (ACu1 and AZn1). Cu(I)/Zn(II) levels in the cells and tissues were determined by detecting MP-excited fluorescence by MPM. MPM images of cells stained with MP probes revealed that Cu(I) was more abundant in ACT116 and HT-29 cells than in NIH3T3 cells, while Zn(II) was more abundant in NIH3T3 cells than in ACT116 and HT-29 cells. Normal tissues had a defined texture, whereas adenoma/adenocarcinoma tissues were amorphous. The level of Cu(I) increased and that of Zn(II) decreased with the transition from normal to adenoma to adenocarcinoma tissue. MPM can be used to determine the relative Cu(I)/Zn(II) levels in cells and colon tissues by using ACu1 and AZn1 as MPM probes. These finding are new research tools for gastroenterologists to assess antioxidant status of colon neoplasm.
    Journal of clinical pathology 07/2012; 65(10):882-7. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a two-photon probe (FS1) which shows a 21-fold two-photon excited fluorescence enhancement in response to H(2)S and can selectively detect H(2)S in a rat hippocampal slice at a depth of 90-190 μm by using two-photon microscopy.
    Chemical Communications 07/2012; 48(67):8395-7. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a highly sensitive two-photon probe (SZn2-Mito) which shows a 70-fold two-photon excited fluorescence enhancement in response to Zn(2+) and can selectively detect mitochondrial Zn(2+) in a rat hippocampal slice at a depth of 100-200 μm by using two-photon microscopy.
    Chemical Communications 03/2012; 48(38):4546-8. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a two-photon fluorescent probe (SHP-Mito) which can ratiometrically detect mitochondrial H(2)O(2) in live cells and intact tissues at >100 μm depth through the use of two-photon microscopy.
    Chemical Communications 03/2012; 48(29):3518-20. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thin films that benefit from efficient octupolar molecular packing are prepared for second harmonic generation (SHG) and electro-optic (EO) applications. The films are composed of 1,3,5-tricyano-2, 4,6-tris(p-diethylaminostyryl)benzene (TTB) in a ploymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) matrix on aluminum/BK7 glass (Al/BK7) and polyimide/indium tin oxide (PI/ITO) substrates. Octupolar films prepared on both substrates display polycrystalline and cylindrical domains. The molecular orientation, SHG efficiencies, and EO coefficients of the crystalline domains are measured. In the cylinders, the molecular crystal planes are oriented perpendicularly to the major cylinder axis, whereas in the polycrystals, the planes are randomly oriented. While both structures exhibit high and stable SHG and EO efficiencies, the cylinders, in particular, exhibited a very large SHG, a large EO coefficient, and high thermal stability; these characteristics will be useful in second order nonlinear optical applications.
    Advanced Functional Materials 02/2012; 22(4). · 9.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a two-photon turn-on probe (AS1) that can be excited by 780 nm femto-second pulses and visualize glucose uptake and the changes in the intracellular glucose concentration in live cells and tissue by two-photon microscopy.
    Chemical Communications 02/2012; 48(15):2122-4. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular imaging by two-photon microscopy (TPM) has become indispensable to the study of biology/medicine owing to its capability of imaging deep inside intact tissues. To make TPM a more-versatile tool, a large variety of two-photon probes are needed. Herein, we report a new two-photon fluorescent probe (ANi2) that can be excited by 750 nm femtosecond pulses and detect Ni(2+) ions in fresh fish organs at 90-175 μm depth without interference from the pH value or from other biologically relevant species through the use of TPM. TPM images of fish organs labeled with ANi2 revealed that Ni(2+) ions accumulate in fish organs in the order: kidney > heart > gill ≥ liver. Moreover, a linear relationship was found between the two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry intensities (ICP-MS), thereby allowing the quantitative measurement of Ni(2+) ions in live tissue.
    Chemistry 02/2012; 18(7):1953-60. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: pH values go live! A ratiometric two-photon (TP) probe (NP1, see scheme) that has a significant TP action cross-section, high photostability, negligible toxicity, and can estimate pH values in live cells and human tissues by two-photon microscopy is described. NP1 can detect the difference in pH between live cells from the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and the lower esophageal sphincter of patients with and without esophagitis.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 02/2012; 51(11):2673-6. · 13.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiphoton microscopy, relying on the simultaneous absorption of two or more photons by a fluorophore, has come to occupy a prominent place in modern biomedical research with its ability to allow real-time observation of a single cell and molecules in intact tissues. Multiphoton microscopy exhibits nonlinear optical contrast properties, which can make it possible to provide an exceptionally large depth penetration with less phototoxicity. This system becomes more and more an inspiring tool for a non-invasive imaging system to realize "optical biopsy" and to examine the functions of living cells. In this review, we briefly present the physical principles and properties of multiphoton microscopy as well as the current applications in biological fields. In addition, we address what we see as the future potential of multiphoton microscopy for gastroenterologic research.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2011; 17(40):4456-60. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a two-photon fluorescent probe (PN1) that can be excited by 750 nm femto-second pulses, shows high photostability and negligible toxicity, and can visualize H(2)O(2) distribution in live cells and tissue by two-photon microscopy.
    Chemical Communications 09/2011; 47(34):9618-20. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report two-photon Lysotrackers (CLT-blue and CLT-yellow) that can be excited by 750-840 nm femtosecond laser pulses and emit at 470 and 550 nm, respectively. They can be easily loaded into cells and tissue slices for visualization of lysosomes in live cells and tissues for a long period of time through two-photon microscopy. When combined with appropriate two-photon probes for other biological targets, these novel probes would greatly facilitate the two-photon microscopy colocalization experiments.
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry 08/2011; 76(19):8113-6. · 4.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

863 Citations
603.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • Ajou University
      • Division of Energy Systems Research
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Bharathiar University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Coimbatore, State of Tamil Nadu, India
  • 1995–2013
    • Korea University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2012
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 1999–2008
    • Pukyong National University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Dankook University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Yŏng-dong, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2002
    • Texas Tech University
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Lubbock, TX, United States
  • 2001
    • Kyung Hee University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea