[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury makes the brain vulnerable to secondary insults. Post-traumatic alterations in intracranial dynamics, such as reduced intracranial compliance (IC), are thought to further potentiate the effects of secondary insults. Reduced IC combined with intracranial volume insults leads to metabolic disturbances in a rat model. The aim of the present study was to discern whether a post-traumatic hypotensive insult in combination with reduced IC caused more pronounced secondary metabolic disturbances in the injured rat brain.
Rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8/group): 1) trauma with hypotension; 2) trauma and reduced IC with hypotension; 3) sham injury with hypotension; and 4) sham injury and reduced IC with hypotension. A weight drop model of cortical contusion trauma was used. IC was reduced by gluing rubber film layers on the inside of bilateral bone flaps before replacement. Microdialysis probes were placed in the perimeter of the trauma zone. Hypotension was induced 2 h after trauma. Extracellular (EC) levels of lactate, pyruvate, hypoxanthine, and glycerol were analyzed.
The trauma resulted in a significant increase in EC dialysate levels of lactate, lactate/pyruvate ratio, hypoxanthine, and glycerol. A slight secondary increase in lactate was noted for all groups but group 2 during hypotension, otherwise no late effects were seen. There were no effects of reduced IC.
In conclusion, reduced IC did not increase the metabolic disturbances caused by the post-traumatic hypotensive insult. The results suggest that a mild to moderate hypotensive insult after initial post-traumatic resuscitation may be tolerated better than an early insult before resuscitation.
Upsala journal of medical sciences 11/2010; 115(4):221-31. DOI:10.3109/03009734.2010.503906 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vulnerability of the brain is considered to be increased after trauma. The present study was undertaken to determine whether intracranial volume insults in the posttraumatic period led to increased metabolic disturbances if intracranial compliance was decreased.
A weight drop technique with a brain compression of 1.5 mm was used for injury. Intracranial compensatory volume was decreased 60 microl by placing rubber film between the dura mater and the bone. Intracranial volume insults were induced using the Bolus injection technique. Microdialysis was used to measure interstitial lactate, pyruvate, hypoxanthine, and glycerol. Fifty-two rats were allocated to trauma and sham groups with 0 to 3 layers of rubber film with and without intracranial volume insults.
In the groups with reduced intracranial volume exposed to intracranial volume insults, the time course of metabolic markers showed higher increases and slower recovery rates than for the other groups. Reduced intracranial volume or intracranial volume insults alone did not cause any changes compared with controls.
These results support the hypothesis that decreased intracranial compliance increases the vulnerability of the brain for secondary volume insults even with intracranial pressure at low levels between the insults. This finding has important clinical implications in that it stresses the need to identify patients with low intracranial compliance so that their treatment can be optimized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent federal regulations allow for emergency research without prospective consent provided that additional protections for the subjects are provided. One of these is community consultation.
To determine how to feasibly consult the community and what to do with the findings.
In connection with an ongoing study of l-arginine for brain injury at a public hospital's trauma center, we consulted three sets of community representatives using different methods. To sample the entire population of the county, we conducted a random-digit dialing survey (456 residents). To sample individuals served by the hospital, we interviewed a convenience sample of 566 patients and individuals in the waiting area. To sample particularly interested individuals, we conducted a series of public meetings (114 participants). In each case, the same instrument was used to ascertain their attitudes toward the study in general and toward its major features (randomization, waiver of consent, location, risks/benefits). To control for framing effects, items were randomly presented in a positive or negative fashion.
All methods proved feasible, but telephone surveys were most efficient and guaranteed the desired demography. Even for a very low-risk study, only 79.75% of respondents would be willing to participate. The rate of approval for the major features was lower, with only 67.78% approving of the risk/benefit ratio, 53.7% approving of randomization, 57.66% approving of the consent waiver, and 44.45% approving of the location. The most significant factors affecting the rate of approval were the method of consultation and the framing of items (both p < .001), age, ethnicity, and previous research participation (all p < .01).
Community consultation is feasible, but its results depend heavily on method of consultation, framing of questions, and choice of community. It may well demonstrate unexpectedly substantial opposition. There needs to be a better definition of the process and a better understanding of how to respond to its results.
Critical Care Medicine 09/2006; 34(8):2049-52. DOI:10.1097/01.CCM.0000227649.72651.F1 · 6.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to get an impression of the relationships between intracranial compliance (IC) and Lactate/Pyruvate (L/P) ratio and temperature and L/P ratio, and to determine if patients with low IC had an increased vulnerability for the secondary insult hyperthermia (as reflected in the L/P ratio). The effects of coma treatment on the results were also studied.
Ten TBI patients were monitored for IC, in vivo microdialysis (MD) and bladder temperature. Mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 7 (range 4-10). Three patients underwent induced coma treatment. Three statistical models were used to look at the relationships between IC, temperature and L/P ratio in patients with and without coma.
We found that with high temperature L/P ratios increased as IC decreased (P < 0.0001). The patients with coma treatment had significantly higher average L/P ratios (P < 0.02). The effect of IC on the L/P ratio differed by coma treatment (P < 0.02). The temperature effect was not dependent on coma treatment (P < 0.49).
These findings suggest the importance of avoiding hyperthermia in TBI patients, especially in patients with low or decreased IC (monitored or anticipated). The present technical solution seems promising for analysis of complex clinical data.
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 03/2006; 20(1):25-31. DOI:10.1007/s10877-006-2864-x · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral compliance expresses the capability to buffer an intracranial volume increase while avoiding a rise in intracranial pressure (ICP). The autoregulatory response to Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) variation influences cerebral blood volume which is an important determinant of compliance. The direction of compliance change in relation to CPP variation is still under debate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between CPP and compliance in traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients by a new method for continuous monitoring of intracranial compliance as used in neuro-intensive care (NICU).
Three European NICU's standardised collection of CPP, compliance and ICP data to a joint database. Data were analyzed using an unpaired student t-test and a multi-level statistical model.
For each variable 108,263 minutes of data were recorded from 21 TBI patients (19 patients GCS</=8; 90% male; age 10-77 y). The average value for the following parameters were: ICP 15.1+/-8.9 mmHg, CPP 74.3+/-14 mmHg and compliance 0.68+/-0.3 ml/mmHg. ICP was >/=20 mmHg in 20% and CPP<60 mmHg for 10.7% of the time. Compliance was lower (0.51+/-0.34 ml/mmHg) at ICP>/=20 than at ICP<20 mmHg (0.73+/-0.37 ml/mmHg) (p<0.0001). Compliance was significantly lower at CPP<60 than at CPP>/=60 mmHg: 0.56+/-0.36 and 0.70+/-0.37 ml/mmHg respectively (p<0.0001). The CPP - compliance relationship was different when ICP was above 20 mmHg compared with below 20 mmHg. At ICP<20 mmHg compliance rose as CPP rose. At ICP>/=20 mmHg, the relation curve was convexly shaped. At low CPP, the compliance was between 0.20 and 0.30 ml/mmHg. As the CPP reach 80 mmHg average compliance was 0.55 ml/mmHg., but compliance fell to 0.40 ml/mmHg when CPP was 100 mmHg.
Low CPP levels are confirmed to be detrimental for intracranial compliance. Moreover, when ICP was pathological, indicating unstable intracranial equilibrium, a high CPP level was also associated with a low volume-buffering capacity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BrainIT is a multi centre, European project, to collect high quality continuous data from severely head injured patients using a previously defined  core data set. This includes minute-by-minute physiological data and simultaneous treatment and management information. It is crucial that the data is correctly collected and validated.
Minute-by-minute physiological monitoring data is collected from the bedside monitors. Demographic and clinical information, intensive care management and secondary insult management data, are collected using a handheld computer. Data is transferred from the handheld device to a local computer where it is reviewed and anonymised before being sent electronically, with the physiological data, to the central database in Glasgow. Automated computer tools highlight missing or ambiguous data. A request is then sent to the contributing centre where the data is amended and returned to Glasgow. Of the required data elements 20% are randomly selected for validation against original documentation along with the actual number of specific episodic events during a known period. This will determine accuracy and the percentage of missing data for each record.
Advances in patient care require an improved evidence base. For accurate, consistent and repeatable data collection, robust mechanisms are required which should enhance the reliability of clinical trials, assessment of management protocols and equipment evaluations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Spiegelberg Compliance Device (Spiegelberg KG, Hamburg, Germany) has been available for the automated measurement and calculation of minute by minute intracranial compliance. Widespread practical use has been somewhat limited by the instability of values: especially at low intracranial pressures. We looked at two aspects of a methodology in an attempt to increase the value of the Spiegelberg device in the clinical setting. Firstly, we discussed the difference in representing measured values as elastance (dp/dv) instead of compliance (dv/dp); and secondly we proposed the use of an averaging algorithm called the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (ewma), which could be applied as a flexible method to follow trends and rapid changes in the elastance (or compliance). Clinical data from sixteen patients were gathered and statistical analysis was focused on three particular aspects, the coefficient of variation which indicates the variability of data values, the correlation between the elastance (or compliance) time series and the underlying ICP signal and the percentage of outliers greater than 2.5 standard deviations from the mean. Our results showed that expressing elastance (dp/dv) instead of compliance (dv/dp) yielded fewer outliers and had a better correlation to ICP, and the ewma method had a better correlation to ICP than the Spiegelberg method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to obtain basic knowledge about the current local conditions and neurointensive care of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the new multi-centre collaborative BrainIT group.
The survey comprised a background part on local policies (Part A), and a case study section (Part B). The information was gathered by questionnaire followed by telephone interviews. Twenty-three BrainIT centres participated in the survey and answers from two respondents were available from 18 of the sites.
The average proportion of agreement between duplicate respondents was 0.778 (range 0.415-1.00). All BrainIT centres monitored ICP. The treatment protocols seem to have a pattern concerning escalation of treatment of intracranial hypertension: 1/ evacuation of mass lesions and head elevation; 2/ increased sedation and mannitol; 3/ hyperventilation; 4/ ventricular drainage; 5/ craniectomy and barbituates.
There seemed to be an agreement on neurointensive care policies within the BrainIT group. The suggested order of treatment was generally in accordance with published guidelines although the suggested order and combinations of different treatments varied. Variation of treatment within the range of prescribed standards provides optimal conditions for an interesting future analysis of treatment and monitoring data in reality using the BrainIT database.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the prevalence and specificity of diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome (PCS) in 178 adults with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 104 with extracranial trauma. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria for PCS were evaluated 3 months after injury. The results showed that prevalence of PCS was higher using ICD-10 (64%) than DSM-IV criteria (11%). Specificity to TBI was limited because PCS criteria were often fulfilled by patients with extracranial trauma. The authors conclude that further refinement of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for PCS is needed before these criteria are routinely employed.
Journal of Neuropsychiatry 02/2005; 17(3):350-6. DOI:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17.3.350 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An open collaborative international network has been established which aims to improve inter-centre standards for collection of high-resolution, neurointensive care data on patients with traumatic brain injury. The group is also working towards the creation of an open access, detailed and validated database that will be useful for hypothesis generation. In Part A, we describe the underlying concept of the group and it's aims and in Part B we describe the current status of the groups development.
Four group meetings funded by the EEC have enabled definition of a "Core Dataset" to be collected from all centres regardless of specific project aim. A form based feasibility study was conducted and a prospective data collection exercise of core data using PC and hand held computer based methods is in progress.
A core-dataset was defined and can be downloaded from the BrainIT web-site (go to "Core dataset" link at: www.brainit.org). A form based feasibility study was conducted showing the overall feasibility for collection of the core data elements was high. Software tools for collection of the core dataset have been developed. Currently, 130 patient's data from 16 European centres have been recruited to the joint database as part of an EEC funded proof of concept study.
The BrainIT network provides a more standardised and higher resolution data collection mechanism for research groups, organisations and the device industry to conduct multicentre trials of new health care technology in patients with traumatic brain injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe aim of this study was to obtain basic knowledge about the current local conditions and neurointensive care of traumatic
brain injury (TBI) in the new multi-centre collaborative BrainIT group.
Materials and methodsThe survey comprised a background part on local policies (Part A), and a case study section (Part B). The information was
gathered by questionnaire followed by telephone interviews. Twenty-three BrainIT centres participated in the survey and answers from two respondents were available from 18 of the sites.
ResultsThe average proportion of agreement between duplicate respondents was 0.778 (range 0.415–1.00). All BrainIT centres monitored ICP. The treatment protocols seem to have a pattern concerning escalation of treatment of intracranial
hypertension: 1/ evacuation of mass lesions and head elevation; 2/ increased sedation and mannitol; 3/ hyperventilation; 4/
ventricular drainage; 5/ craniectomy and barbituates.
ConclusionsThere seemed to be an agreement on neurointensive care policies within the BrainIT group. The suggested order of treatment was generally in accordance with published guidelines although the suggested order
and combinations of different treatments varied. Variation of treatment within the range of prescribed standards provides
optimal conditions for an interesting future analysis of treatment and monitoring data in reality using the BrainIT database.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clinical practice, fiberberoptic and piezo-electric ICP probes are often used for measuring intracranial pressure (ICP). A number of similar technologies, although performing well in bench test studies, have been shown to exhibit unacceptable zero drift, fragility or both during trials conducted under clinical conditions. Recently, a new technology has become available, the Neurovent-P (Raumedic AG + CO, Raumedic, Germany). As a pre-requisite for a clinical trial, we have conducted and report on bench test studies to confirm the manufacturer's long term zero-drift performance for this technology.
In a test rig static tests (recording of 20 mmHg pressure) and dynamic tests, ranging from 5 to 50 mmHg have been performed.
10 ICP probes have been tested for a total of 60 days. All the catheters, after the connection with the ICU monitor displayed a static pressure of 0 +/- 1 mmHg and did not required pre-insertion alteration. At five days, mean zero drift was 0.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg. Overall, zero drift ranged from 0 to 2 mmHg. At a fixed static pressure of 20 mmHg, the mean recorded value was 20.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg, ranging from 19 to 23 mmHg. A regression analysis of the relationship between the applied pressure and the recorded pressure during the dynamic tests of the 10 catheters yielded a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.997. Applying the Altman and Bland method to assess the bias and confidence limits for the Raumedic catheter responses during the dynamic tests against the applied gold-standard hydrostatic column pressures, the average bias of -0.66 +/- 0.85 mmHg, with 95% CLs of -2 mmHg and 1 mmHg.
Mean zero drift, after five days, was very small and long-term continuous recording of a stable pressure was very precise. The response at dynamic tests, i.e. the changes of pressure in a wide range, was excellent. The average bias of the Raumedic catheter compared with the hydrostatic column is very small. After this bench test, the next and most critical step will be to conduct a trial of this promising technology under more demanding clinical environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of change in microdialysate concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate in the brain during periods of hypoxia/ischemia identified by monitoring brain tissue pO2 (PbtO2). Of particular interest was a better understanding of what additional information could be obtained by the microdialysis parameters that was not available from the PbtO2. Fifty-seven patients admitted with severe traumatic brain injury who had placement of both a brain tissue pO2 (PbtO2) and microdialysis probe were studied. The microdialysis probe was perfused with Ringer's solution at 0.3 microL/min and dialysate was collected at 1-h intervals. The concentration of glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and glutamate were measured in each dialysate sample. Changes in the microdialysis parameters were examined during episodes where the PbtO2 decreased to below 10 mm Hg. Ten episodes of tissue hypoxia/ischemia identified by a decrease in PbtO2 below 10 mm Hg were observed during the period of monitoring. The concentration of the dialysate glucose closely followed the PbtO2. The dialysate pyruvate concentration was more variable and in some patients transiently increased as the PbtO2 dropped below 10 mm Hg. The dialysate concentration of lactate was significantly increased as the PbtO2 decreased to less than 10 mm Hg. Dialysate glutamate was significantly elevated only when PbtO2 decreased to very low levels. Although changes in the PbtO2 provided the earliest sign of hypoxia/ischemia, the microdialysis assays provided additional information about the consequences that the reduced tissue pO2 has on brain metabolism, which may be helpful in managing these critically ill patients.
Journal of Neurotrauma 08/2004; 21(7):894-906. DOI:10.1089/0897715041526195 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To obtain knowledge about the conditions and management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a collaborative network of Brain Information Technology centres.
The Brain IT (Brain monitoring with Information Technology) survey comprised two parts: local conditions and policies (part A), and a case study part (part B). The information was gathered by written questionnaires followed by telephone interviews.
Twenty-four Brain IT centres participated (two respondents from 18 sites).
The average proportion of agreement between duplicate respondents was 0.79 (range 0.44-1.00). All Brain IT centres monitored ICP. The reported order of treatment for intracranial hypertension was: evacuation of mass-lesions and head elevation (1), increase of sedation and Mannitol scheme (2), hyperventilation (3), ventricular drainage (4), craniectomy and pentothal coma (5), and decompressive lobectomy (6). The respondents were less prone to evacuate expansive contusions in relation to extra cerebral hematomas. The most common suggested interventions (alone or in combination) for treatment of intracranial hypertension without mass lesions was the Mannitol scheme (included in 71% of the suggestions), CSF drainage (included in 56%), hyperventilation (included in 32%), and pentothal coma (included in 22%).
The suggested management of TBI was mainly in accordance with published guidelines, although a minor proportion of the answers deviated to some extent. The suggested order and combinations of different treatment interventions varied. Variation of treatment within the range of prescribed standards provides optimal conditions for an interesting future analysis of treatment and monitoring data as collected prospectively in a Brain IT database.
Intensive Care Medicine 07/2004; 30(6):1058-65. DOI:10.1007/s00134-004-2206-8 · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While there has been strong evidence for the ability of neuropsychological performance at resolution of posttraumatic amnesia to predict later productivity, there has been less conclusive evidence for the relationship of neuropsychological test scores to concurrent productivity status. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relationship of neuropsychological test performance at 1 year post-injury to productivity assessed at the same time point. Participants were 518 persons with medically documented TBI who were enrolled in the TBI Model Systems Research and Demonstration Project. Stepwise logistic regression was utilized to determine the contributions of neuropsychological test scores to productivity after accounting for demographic characteristics, injury severity, and pre-injury productivity. Missing neuropsychological test scores were accounted for in the model. Variables that remained in the model and accounted for a significant proportion of the variance included age, duration of impaired consciousness, pre-injury productivity, and scores on measures of GOAT, Logical Memory II, and Trail Making Test, part B. The results indicate that neuropsychological test performance provides important information regarding the ability of persons with injury to return to productive activities. The results also indicate that inability to complete neuropsychological tests at 1 year post-injury is associated with non-productive activity.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist 06/2004; 18(2):249-65. DOI:10.1080/13854040490501475 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not an unusual disease in an elderly population. The clinical outcome has improved over time. It has been suggested that elderly SAH patients would benefit from endovascular aneurysm treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate technical results and clinical outcome in a series of elderly SAH-patients treated with endovascular coil embolization. Sixty-two patients (> or = 65 years) presenting with aneurysmal SAH underwent early endovascular coil embolization at Uppsala University Hospital between September 1996 and December 2000. In all 62 cases included in the study, endovascular coil embolization was considered the first line of treatment. Admission variables, specific information on technical success, degree of occlusion and procedural complications, and outcome figures were recorded. Clinical grade on admission was Hunt and Hess (H&H) I-II in 39%, H&H III in 27% and H&H IV-V in 34% of the patients. The proportion of posterior circulation aneurysms was 24%. Coil embolization was successfully completed in 94%. The degree of occlusion of the treated aneurysm was complete occlusion in 56%, neck remnant in 21%, residual filling in 11%, other remnant in 5% and not treated in 6%. The rate of procedural complications was 11%. Outcome after 6 months was favorable in 41%, severe disability in 36% and poor in 22%. Favorable outcome was achieved in 57% of the H&H I-II patients, 47% of the H&H III patients and 17% of the H&H IV-V patients. Endovascular aneurysm treatment can be performed in elderly patients with SAH with a high level of technical success, acceptable aneurysm occlusion results, an acceptable rate of procedural complications and fair outcome results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to establish an experimental trauma model where it was possible to alter intracranial pressure (ICP) dynamics without raising intracranial pressure to abnormal levels and monitor metabolic disturbances with microdialysis. Thirty rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated before and after trauma. ICP was measured in the left ventricle. A weight-drop technique (21 g from 35 cm) with a brain compression of 1.5 mm was used to produce the injury. Intracranial compensatory volume was decreased 20 or 60 microL by placement of rubber film between the dura mater and bone. A bolus injection technique was used for the pressure volume response. ICP remained within normal limits for 2 h after trauma irrespective of the reduction in compensatory intracranial volume. Pressure-volume index decreased from 0.0825 +/- 0.009 to 0.0779 +/- 0.011 mL in the sham trauma and from 0.0871 +/- 0.018 to 0.0748 +/- 0.017 mL in the trauma groups (p < 0.015) when the intracranial volume was reduced by 60 microL. Intracranial compliance was not affected significantly. The present study shows that it is possible to vary ICP dynamics in a traumatic brain injury model without causing pathological increases in baseline ICP. This model may be used to study the effects of secondary insults (i.e., hypotension, hypoxia, hypercarbia, and hyperthermia) on the injured brain when ICP is normal but intracranial compensatory volume is impaired.
Journal of Neurotrauma 04/2004; 21(3):317-27. DOI:10.1089/089771504322972103 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to compare diagnoses of postconcussional syndrome between the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV). The patient sample was comprised of 178 adults with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study design was inception cohort, and the main outcome measure was a structured interview 3 months after injury. The results were that, despite concordance of DSM-IV and ICD-10 symptom criteria (kappa=0.73), agreement between overall DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnoses was slight (kappa=0.13) because fewer patients met the DSM-IV cognitive deficit and clinical significance criteria. Agreement between DSM-IV postconcussional disorder and ICD-10 postconcussional syndrome appears limited by different prevalences and thresholds.
Journal of Neuropsychiatry 02/2004; 16(4):493-9. DOI:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16.4.493 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much has been reported of the influence of age, affective symptoms, and satisfaction on self-ratings of health functioning, but little is known about the extent that race-based perceptions may have on influencing behavior or adjustment after a mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (MTBI). We investigated differences in perception of health functioning by race for mental and physical functioning using a global measure of health functioning. MTBI (n = 135) and general trauma (GT, n = 83) patients recruited from an area Level-1 trauma center at 3 months after injury were administered the Medical Outcomes Study: Short Form (SF-36), Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), Community Integration Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression, and the Visual Analogue Scale of Depression. A significant interaction for Race Group (p < .01) was found on the Physical Component Scale (PCS) of the SF-36. In the MTBI group, African Americans reported worse functioning (p < .04) on the PCS scale; they perceived functioning on subscales General Health Perception (p < .02) and Physical Functioning (p < .04) to be more limited. On the SSQ, Hispanic MTBI patients reported having fewer social supports available to them (p < .05), although the race groups were comparable for satisfaction with their support. Rate of depression across groups was comparable, although subjective reporting by minority MTBI patients indicated greater depressed feelings. Differences in perception of health functioning may be related to the unique interaction created between sustaining an MTBI and variations in cultural expression of disability. Manifestations of physical difficulties may be better accepted for some cultures than having mental illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is controversial whether a low cerebral blood flow (CBF) simply reflects the severity of injury or whether ischemia contributes to the brain's injury. It is also not clear whether posttraumatic cerebral hypoperfusion results from intracranial hypertension or from pathologic changes of the cerebral vasculature. The answers to these questions have important implications for whether and how to treat a low CBF.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 77 patients with severe traumatic brain injury who had measurement of CBF within 12 hours of injury. CBF was measured using xenon-enhanced computed tomography (XeCT). Global CBF, physiological parameters at the time of XeCT, and outcome measures were analyzed.
Average global CBF for the 77 patients was 36+/-16 mL/100 g/minutes. Nine patients had an average global CBF<18 (average 12+/-5). The remaining 68 patients had a global CBF of 39+/-15. The initial ICP was >20 mmHg in 90% and >30 mmHg in 80% of patients in the group with CBF<18, compared to 33% and 16%, respectively, in the patients with CBF>or=18. Mortality was 90% at 6 months postinjury in patients with CBF<18. Mortality in the patients with CBF>18 was 19% at 6 months after injury.
In patients with CBF<18 mL/100 g/minutes, intracranial hypertension plays a major causative role in the reduction in CBF. Treatment would most likely be directed at controlling intracranial pressure, but the early, severe intracranial hypertension also probably indicates a severe brain injury. For levels of CBF between 18 and 40 mL/100 g/minutes, the presence of regional hypoperfusion was a more important factor in reducing the average CBF.
Neurocritical Care 01/2004; 1(1):69-83. DOI:10.1385/NCC:1:1:69 · 2.60 Impact Factor