[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly orchestrated progression of the cell cycle depends on the degradation of many regulatory proteins at different cell cycle stages. One of the key cell cycle ubiquitin ligases is the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) complex. Acting in concert with the substrate-binding F-box protein Grr1, SCF(Grr1) promotes the degradation of cell cycle regulators as well as various metabolic enzymes. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay with a Grr1 derivative as the bait, we identified She3, which is an adaptor protein in the asymmetric mRNA transport system, as a novel Grr1 substrate. We generated stabilized She3 mutants, which no longer bound to Grr1, and found that the degradation of She3 is not required for regulating asymmetric mRNA transport. However, She3 stabilization leads to slower growth compared to wild-type cells in a co-culture assay, demonstrating that the degradation of She3 by Grr1 is required for optimal cell growth.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e48020. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is an essential ubiquitin ligase that targets numerous proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation in mitosis and G1. To gain further insight into cellular pathways controlled by APC/C(Cdh1), we developed two complementary approaches to identify additional APC/C(Cdh1) substrates in budding yeast. First, we analyzed the stabilities of proteins that were expressed at the same time in the cell cycle as known APC/C substrates. Second, we screened for proteins capable of interacting with the Cdh1 substrate-binding protein in a yeast two-hybrid system. Here we characterize five potential APC/C substrates identified using these approaches: the transcription factors Tos4 and Pdr3; the mRNA processing factor Fir1; the spindle checkpoint protein kinase Mps1; and a protein of unknown function, Ybr138C. Analysis of the degradation motifs within these proteins revealed that the carboxyl-terminal KEN box and D-boxes of Tos4 are important for its interaction with Cdh1, whereas the N-terminal domain of Ybr138C is required for its instability. Functionally, we found that a stabilized form of Mps1 delayed cell division upon mild spindle disruption, and that elevated levels of Ybr138C reduced cell fitness. Interestingly, both Tos4 and Pdr3 have been implicated in the DNA damage response, whereas Mps1 regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint. Thus, the APC/C(Cdh1)-mediated degradation of these proteins may help to coordinate re-entry into the cell cycle following environmental stresses.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45895. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an essential ubiquitin ligase that targets cell cycle proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation in mitosis and G1. The APC regulates a number of cell cycle processes, including spindle assembly, mitotic exit, and cytokinesis, but the full range of its functions is still unknown. To better understand cellular pathways controlled by the APC, we performed a proteomic screen to identify additional APC substrates. We analyzed cell cycle-regulated proteins whose expression peaked during the period when other APC substrates were expressed. Subsequent analysis identified several proteins, including the transcriptional repressors Nrm1 and Yhp1, as authentic APC substrates. We found that APC(Cdh1) targeted Nrm1 and Yhp1 for degradation in early G1 through Destruction-box motifs and that the degradation of these repressors coincided with transcriptional activation of MBF and Mcm1 target genes, respectively. In addition, Nrm1 was stabilized by phosphorylation, most likely by the budding yeast cyclin-dependent protein kinase, Cdc28. We found that expression of stabilized forms of Nrm1 and Yhp1 resulted in reduced cell fitness, due at least in part to incomplete activation of G1-specific genes. Therefore, in addition to its known functions, APC-mediated targeting of Nrm1 and Yhp1 coordinates transcription of multiple genes in G1 with other cell cycle events.
Molecular biology of the cell 05/2011; 22(13):2175-84. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anaphase promoting complex (APC) is a ubiquitin ligase that promotes the degradation of cell-cycle regulators by the 26S proteasome. Cdc20 and Cdh1 are WD40-containing APC co-activators that bind destruction boxes (DB) and KEN boxes within substrates to recruit them to the APC for ubiquitination. Acm1 is an APC(Cdh1) inhibitor that utilizes a DB and a KEN box to bind Cdh1 and prevent substrate binding, although Acm1 itself is not a substrate. We investigated what differentiates an APC substrate from an inhibitor. We identified the Acm1 A-motif that interacts with Cdh1 and together with the DB and KEN box is required for APC(Cdh1) inhibition. A genetic screen identified Cdh1 WD40 domain residues important for Acm1 A-motif interaction and inhibition that appears to reside near Cdh1 residues important for DB recognition. Specific lysine insertion mutations within Acm1 promoted its ubiquitination by APC(Cdh1) whereas lysine removal from the APC substrate Hsl1 converted it into a potent APC(Cdh1) inhibitor. These findings suggest that tight Cdh1 binding combined with the inaccessibility of ubiquitinatable lysines contributes to pseudosubstrate inhibition of APC(Cdh1).
The EMBO Journal 04/2011; 30(9):1818-29. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control cell cycle transitions and progression. In addition to their activation via binding to cyclins, CDKs can be activated via binding to an unrelated class of cell cycle regulators termed Speedy/Ringo (S/R) proteins. Although mammals contain at least five distinct Speedy/Ringo homologues, the specific functions of members of this growing family of CDK activators remain largely unknown. We investigated the cell cycle roles of human Speedy/Ringo C in HEK293 cells. Down-regulation of Speedy/Ringo C by RNA interference delayed S and G(2) progression whereas ectopic expression had the opposite effect, reducing S and G(2)/M populations. Double thymidine arrest and release experiments showed that overexpression of Speedy/Ringo C promoted late S phase progression. Using a novel three-color FACS protocol to determine the length of G(2) phase, we found that the suppression of Speedy/Ringo C by RNAi prolonged G(2) phase by approximately 30 min whereas ectopic expression of Speedy/Ringo C shortened G(2) phase by approximately 25 min. In addition, overexpression of Speedy/Ringo C disrupted the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint, increased cell death and caused a cell cycle delay at the G(1)-to-S transition. These observations indicate that CDK-Speedy/Ringo C complexes positively regulate cell cycle progression during the late S and G(2) phases of the cell cycle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome needs to be tightly regulated for proper cell cycle progression. Substrates are recruited to the APC by the Cdc20 and Cdh1 accessory proteins. The Cdh1-APC interaction is inhibited through phosphorylation of Cdh1 by Cdc28, the major cyclin-dependent protein kinase in budding yeast. More recently, Acm1 was reported to be a Cdh1-binding and -inhibitory protein in budding yeast. We found that although Acm1 is an unstable protein and contains the KEN-box and D-box motifs typically found in APC substrates, Acm1 itself is not an APC substrate. Rather, it uses these motifs to compete with substrates for Cdh1 binding, thereby inhibiting their recruitment to the APC. Mutation of these motifs prevented Acm1-Cdh1 binding in vivo and rendered Acm1 inactive both in vitro and in vivo. Acm1 stability was critically dependent on phosphorylation by Cdc28, as Acm1 was destabilized following inhibition of Cdc28, mutation of consensus Cdc28 phosphorylation sites in Acm1, or deletion of the Bmh1 and Bmh2 phosphoprotein-binding proteins. Thus, Cdc28 serves dual roles in inhibiting Cdh1-dependent APC activity during the cell cycle: stabilization of the Cdh1 inhibitor Acm1 and direct phosphorylation of Cdh1 to prevent its association with the APC.
Molecular and cellular biology 08/2008; 28(15):4653-64. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of key M-phase regulators, including cyclins and the anaphase inhibitor securin. Intriguingly, securin can also inhibit the degradation of cyclin B. This competition between substrates permits the accumulation of enough cyclin to drive entry into M phase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a ring of myosin II forms in a septin-dependent manner at the budding site in late G1. This ring remains at the bud neck until the onset of cytokinesis, when actin is recruited to it. The actomyosin ring then contracts, septum formation occurs concurrently, and cytokinesis is soon completed. Deletion of MYO1 (the only myosin II gene) is lethal on rich medium in the W303 strain background and causes slow-growth and delayed-cell-separation phenotypes in the S288C strain background. These phenotypes can be suppressed by deletions of genes encoding nonessential components of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). This suppression does not seem to result simply from a delay in mitotic exit, because overexpression of a nondegradable mitotic cyclin does not suppress the same phenotypes. Overexpression of either IQG1 or CYK3 also suppresses the myo1Delta phenotypes, and Iqg1p (an IQGAP protein) is increased in abundance and abnormally persistent after cytokinesis in APC/C mutants. In vitro assays showed that Iqg1p is ubiquitinated directly by APC/C(Cdh1) via a novel recognition sequence. A nondegradable Iqg1p (lacking this recognition sequence) can suppress the myo1Delta phenotypes even when expressed at relatively low levels. Together, the data suggest that compromise of APC/C function allows the accumulation of Iqg1p, which then promotes actomyosin-ring-independent cytokinesis at least in part by activation of Cyk3p.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2008; 18(12):5139-53. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inappropriate attachment/tension between chromosomal kinetochores and the kinetochore microtubules activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, which delays anaphase by blocking the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of securin/Pds1p by APCCdc20. The checkpoint proteins Mad2 and Mad3/BubR1 bind to Cdc20, although how they inhibit APCCdc20 is unclear. We investigated the roles of two evolutionarily conserved KEN boxes and a D box within Mad3/BubR1. Although such motifs usually mediate APC-substrate recognition and ubiquitination, they have no apparent role in Mad3p turnover in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Instead, these motifs are important for Mad3p function in the checkpoint and for binding to Cdc20p. We show that the Mad3p D box and KEN boxes function together to mediate Cdc20p-Mad3p interaction and that Mad3p and an anaphase-promoting complex (APC) substrate, Hsl1p, compete for Cdc20p binding in a D-box- and KEN-box-dependent manner. In vivo, we observed an increased binding of Cdc20p to Mad3p and decreased binding to Hsl1p upon checkpoint activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Mad2p stimulates the association between Mad3p and Cdc20p and that this stimulated binding requires KEN box 1 within Mad3p. These findings implicate Mad3p as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor of APCCdc20, competing with APC substrates for Cdc20p binding. We present a model aimed at unifying previous analyses of checkpoint function by focusing on the Mad3-Cdc20 interaction.
Genes & Development 04/2007; 21(6):655-67. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a ubiquitin ligase that promotes the degradation of cell-cycle regulators. Cdh1p is an APC coactivator that directly binds APC substrates. A genetic screen in budding yeast identified residues within Cdh1p critical for its function. Cdh1p proteins containing mutations within the "C box" or the "IR" motif could bind substrate, but not the APC, whereas mutants that only bound the APC were not identified, suggesting an ordered assembly of the ternary APC-Cdh1p-substrate complex. Supporting this hypothesis, we found that substrate binding to wild-type Cdh1p enhanced its association with the APC in yeast cells. We used peptide competition assays to demonstrate that Cdh1p interacts directly with the D box and the KEN box, two motifs within APC substrates known to be required for APC-mediated degradation. Moreover, an intact D box domain within a substrate was required to stimulate the association between the Cdh1p-substrate complex and the APC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ctk1 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) that assembles with Ctk2 and Ctk3 to form an active protein kinase complex, CTDK-I. CTDK-I phosphorylates Ser2 within the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, an activity that is required for efficient transcriptional elongation and 3' RNA processing. Ctk1 contains a conserved T loop, which undergoes activating phosphorylation in other CDKs. We show that Ctk1 is phosphorylated on Thr-338 within the T loop. Mutation of this residue abolished Ctk1 kinase activity in vitro and resulted in a cold-sensitive phenotype. As with other yeast CDKs undergoing T-loop phosphorylation, Ctk1 phosphorylation on Thr-338 was dependent on the Cak1 protein kinase. Ctk1 isolated from cak1Delta cells was unphosphorylated and exhibited low protein kinase activity. Moreover, Cak1 directly phosphorylated Ctk1 in vitro. Unlike wild-type cells, cells expressing Ctk1(T338A) delayed growth at early stationary phase, did not show the increase in Ser2 phosphorylation that normally accompanies the transition from rapid growth to stationary phase, and had compromised transcriptional activation of two stationary-phase genes, CTT1 and SPI1. Therefore, Ctk1 phosphorylation on Thr-338 is carried out by Cak1 and is required for normal gene transcription during the transition into stationary phase.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/2005; 25(10):3906-13. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to their activation via binding to cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) can be activated via binding to a novel cell cycle regulator termed Speedy/Ringo, which shows no apparent similarity to cyclins. The first Speedy/Ringo protein was found to be essential for Xenopus oocyte maturation and a human homolog (Spy1, herein called Speedy/ Ringo A1) regulates S-phase entry and cell survival after DNA damage in cultured somatic cells. We have identified a Speedy/Ringo-like gene in the most primitive branching clade of chordates (Ciona intestinalis), as well as four mammalian homologs. Of the mammalian proteins, two, Speedy/Ringo A and C, bind to Cdc2 and Cdk2, whereas Speedy/Ringo B binds preferentially to Cdc2. Despite their distinct CDK-binding preferences, both Speedy/Ringo A and B can promote the maturation of Xenopus oocytes and all three Speedy/Ringo proteins can bind to and activate CDKs in vivo. These mammalian Speedy/Ringo proteins exhibit distinct tissue expression patterns, though all three are enriched in testis, consistent with the initial observation that Xenopus Speedy/Ringo functions during meiosis. Speedy/Ringo A is widely expressed in tissues and cell lines. Speedy/Ringo B expression appears to be testis-specific. Speedy/Ringo C is expressed in diverse tissues, particularly those that undergo polyploidization. All Speedy/Ringo proteins share a highly conserved approximately 140-aa domain we term the Speedy/Ringo box that is essential for CDK binding. Point mutations in this domain abolish CDK binding. Besides the central Speedy/Ringo box, Speedy/Ringo A contains a C-terminal portion, which promotes CDK activation, and an N-terminal portion, which is dispersible for both CDK binding and activation but that influences protein expression. The existence of this growing family of CDK activators suggests that Speedy/Ringo proteins may play as complex a role in cell cycle control as the diverse family of cyclins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal cell cycle progression requires the precise activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), which consist of a CDK and a cyclin subunit. A novel cell cycle regulator called Speedy/Ringo shows no sequence similarity to cyclins, yet can directly bind to and activate CDKs. Speedy/Ringo proteins, which bind to and activate Cdc2 and Cdk2 in vitro, are required for the G2 to M transition during Xenopus oocyte maturation and for normal S-phase entry in cultured human cells.
We have characterized the substrate specificity and enzymatic activity of human Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 in order to gain insights into the possible functions of this complex. In contrast to Cdk2-cyclin A, which has a well-defined consensus target site ((S/T)PX(K/R)) that strongly favors substrates containing a lysine at the +3 position of substrates, Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 displayed a broad substrate specificity at this position. Consequently, Cdk2-Ringo/Speedy A2 phosphorylated optimal Cdk2 substrates such as histone H1 and a KSPRK peptide poorly, only approximately 0.08% as well as Cdk2-cyclin A, but non-canonical Cdk2 substrates such as a KSPRY peptide relatively well, with an efficiency of approximately 80% compared to Cdk2-cyclin A. Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 also phosphorylated authentic Cdk2 substrates, such as Cdc25 proteins, which contain non-canonical CDK phosphorylation sites, nearly as well as Cdk2-cyclin A. Phosphopeptide mapping indicated that Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 and Cdk2-cyclin A phosphorylate distinct subsets of sites on Cdc25 proteins. Thus, the low activity that Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 displays when assayed on conventional Cdk2 substrates may significantly underestimate the potential physiological importance of Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 in phosphorylating key subsets of Cdk2 substrates. Unlike Cdk2-cyclin A, whose activity depends strongly on activating phosphorylation of Cdk2 on Thr-160, neither the overall catalytic activity nor the substrate recognition by Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 was significantly affected by this phosphorylation. Furthermore, Cdk2-Speedy/Ringo A2 was not a suitable substrate for metazoan CAK (which phosphorylates Cdk2 at Thr-160), supporting the notion that Speedy/Ringo A2 activates Cdk2 in a CAK-independent manner.
There are major differences in substrate preferences between CDK-Speedy/Ringo A2 and Cdk2-cyclin complexes. These differences may accommodate the CAK-independent activation of Cdk2 by Speedy/Ringo A2 and they raise the possibility that CDK-Speedy/Ringo A2 complexes could phosphorylate and regulate a subset of non-canonical CDK substrates, such as Cdc25 protein phosphatases, to control cell cycle progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CTDK-I phosphorylates the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of yeast RNA polymerase II in a reaction that stimulates transcription elongation. Mutations in CTDK-I subunits-Ctk1p, Ctk2p, and Ctk3p-confer conditional phenotypes. In this study, we examined the role of CTDK-I in the DNA damage response. We found that mutation of individual CTDK-I subunits rendered yeast sensitive to hydroxyurea (HU) and UV irradiation. Treatment with DNA-damaging agents increased phosphorylation of Ser2 within the CTD repeats in wild-type but not in ctk1Delta mutant cells. Using microarray hybridization, we identified genes whose transcription following DNA damage is Ctk1p dependent, including several DNA repair and stress response genes. Following HU treatment, the level of Ser2-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II increased both globally and on the CTDK-I-regulated genes. The pleiotropic phenotypes of ctk mutants suggest that CTDK-I activity is essential during large-scale transcriptional repatterning under stress and unfavorable growth conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) coordinate progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle and require phosphorylation by a cdk-activating kinase (CAK) for full activity. In most eukaryotes Cdk7 is the catalytic subunit of a heterotrimeric CAK (Cdk7-cyclin H-Mat1) that is also involved in transcription as part of the transcription factor IIH complex. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAK, Cak1p, is a monomeric protein kinase with an atypical sequence and unusual biochemical properties compared with trimeric CAKs and other protein kinases. We sought to determine whether these properties were shared by a small group of monomeric CAKs that can function in place of CAK1 in S. cerevisiae. We found that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Csk1, Candida albicans Cak1, and Arabidopsis thaliana Cak1At, like Cak1p, all displayed a preference for cyclin-free cdk substrates, were insensitive to the protein kinase inhibitor 5'-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA), and were insensitive to mutation of a highly conserved lysine residue found in the nucleotide binding pocket of all protein kinases. The S. pombe and C. albicans kinases also resembled Cak1p in their kinetics of nucleotide and protein substrate utilization. Conservation of these unusual properties in fungi and plants points to shared evolutionary requirements not met by Cdk7 and raises the possibility of developing antifungal agents targeting CAKs.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(36):33482-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In normal cells, activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) requires binding to a cyclin and phosphorylation by the cdk-activating kinase (CAK). The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a protein with similarity to D-type cyclins. This KSHV-cyclin activates CDK6, alters its substrate specificity, and renders CDK6 insensitive to inhibition by the cdk inhibitor p16(INK4a). Here we investigate the regulation of the CDK6/KSHV-cyclin kinase with the use of purified proteins and a cell-based assay. We find that KSHV-cyclin can activate CDK6 independent of phosphorylation by CAK in vitro. In addition, CAK phosphorylation decreased the p16(INK4a) sensitivity of CDK6/KSHV-cyclin complexes. In cells, expression of CDK6 or to a lesser degree of a nonphosphorylatable CDK6(T177A) together with KSHV-cyclin induced apoptosis, indicating that CDK6 activation by KSHV-cyclin can proceed in the absence of phosphorylation by CAK in vivo. Coexpression of p16 partially protected cells from cell death. p16 and KSHV-cyclin can form a ternary complex with CDK6 that can be detected by binding assays as well as by conformational changes in CDK6. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus has adopted a clever strategy to render cell cycle progression independent of mitogenic signals, cdk inhibition, or phosphorylation by CAK.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2002; 12(12):3987-99. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Full activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) requires binding to a cyclin and phosphorylation on an activating site equivalent to Thr160 in Cdk2 by the Cdk-activating kinase. Much is known about the effects of cyclin binding, but the role of the activating phosphorylation is less well understood. We have characterized the effects of Thr160 phosphorylation of Cdk2 on its interactions with substrates, particularly with the P + 3 position. We find that an ionic interaction participates in the recognition of the P + 3 position of the substrate and confirms an observation from structural studies indicating that a key element of this recognition is an interaction between the lysine at the P + 3 position and the Thr160 phosphate of Cdk2. The major effect of disrupting the lysine–phosphate interaction was on kcat values rather than Km values, suggesting that the energy from this interaction is used to align the substrate for efficient catalysis. A lack of effect of Thr160 phosphorylation on the ATPase activity of Cdk2 supported this interpretation.
European Journal of Biochemistry. 08/2001; 268(17):4647 - 4653.