Ulrike Wille

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

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Publications (11)33.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Primary infection of IL-10 knockout (KO) mice with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii leads to a CD4(+)-T-cell dependent shock-like reaction with high systemic levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma, severe liver pathology and death of mice. In the present study, this immune-mediated pathology was prevented by treatment of IL-10 KO mice with the anti-parasitic drug sulfadiazine, allowing these mice to progress to the chronic phase of infection. To address the role of endogenous IL-10 in the regulation of secondary immune responses to T. gondii, IL-10 KO mice were infected with the avirulent Me49 strain of this parasite, treated with sulfadiazine for 2 weeks starting at day 3 p.i., and were rechallenged 6 weeks p.i. with RH, a highly virulent strain of T. gondii. In these studies, chronically infected IL-10 KO mice survived secondary infection with RH and controlled parasite load. Although serum levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were higher in IL-10 KO mice than in wild type (WT) mice 8 days after RH rechallenge, these levels were well controlled in the absence of endogenous IL-10, suggesting that IL-10 is not required to down-regulate cytokine production during the memory response. Antigen-specific ex vivo recall responses further revealed that splenocytes from chronically infected WT and IL-10 KO mice responded to parasite antigen with similar production of IL-12 and IFN-gamma, and there was also no significant difference in ex vivo production of these cytokines by splenocytes in response to parasite antigen 7 days after secondary infection with T. gondii. Furthermore, IL-10 KO mice immunized with the Ts-4 vaccine-strain of T. gondii were protected when rechallenged with the virulent RH strain. Together, these studies demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of IL-10, which is required to prevent immune-mediated pathology during primary infection, is not required to prevent immune hyperactivity during a secondary response to T. gondii, and a highly effective memory response is generated in the absence of endogenous IL-10.
    Parasite Immunology 06/2004; 26(5):229-36. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A prophylactic vaccine for HIV-1 will probably require the induction and maintenance of both humoral and cellular immunity. One current strategy to achieve such long term immune responses is a prime-boost vaccination approach using a DNA priming inoculation, followed by recombinant viral boost. In this report we use a novel prime-boost approach in which the priming injections consist of recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein mixed with cytosine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN), followed by recombinant adenoviral boost expressing HIV-1 Gag. Analysis of the immune responses indicates that HIV-1 Gag protein plus CpG ODN immunization alone induces potent humoral as well as Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses. Boosting with recombinant adenovirus strikingly enhances CD8+, but not Th1, T cell responses, resulting in CD8+ T cell responses far greater in magnitude than Th1 responses. Furthermore, the Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses following prime-boost immunization were seen in both lymphoid and peripheral mucosal organs and were sustained over several months. Together, these data suggest a new immunization approach for elicitation of long term humoral and cellular immune responses.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2003; 171(5):2538-47. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of interleukin-10 (IL-10) to suppress accessory cell functions required for optimal T-cell activation makes it an important inhibitor of cell-mediated immunity. Thus, after infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, IL-10 knockout (KO) mice develop a CD4(+)-T-cell-dependent shock-like reaction with high levels of IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in serum, leading to death of mice during the acute phase of infection. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that simultaneous blockade of CD28 and CD40 can prevent this lethal reaction by inhibiting the production of IFN-gamma. However, the blockade of costimulation did not affect systemic levels of IL-12. To better understand the relationship between IL-12 and the CD28 and CD40 pathways in mediating immune hyperactivity, antagonists of these factors were used to determine their effects on the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice. Blockade of IL-12 or the CD28/B7 interaction alone did not affect survival; however, the combined blockade of both pathways resulted in decreased production of IFN-gamma and the survival of IL-10 KO mice. To assess the role of the two ligands for CD28, B7.1 and B7.2, IL-10 KO mice were treated with alphaIL-12 plus alphaB7.1 or alphaB7.2 or the combination of all three antibodies. These studies revealed that blockade of both B7 molecules is required for decreased production of IFN-gamma and survival of infected IL-10 KO mice, suggesting that B7.1 and B7.2 can contribute to the lethal shock-like reaction in IL-10 KO mice. In contrast, neutralization of IL-12 and blockade of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction in vivo did not alter the production of IFN-gamma and only resulted in a small delay in time to death of mice. Together, these data suggest that the CD28/B7 interaction has a central role in the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice, which is distinct from the role of the CD40/CD40L and IL-12 pathways.
    Infection and Immunity 01/2003; 70(12):6940-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted gene disruption or overexpression of 12/15-lipoxygenase in mice on the genetic background of apolipoprotein E or low density lipoprotein-receptor (LDL-R) deficiency has implicated 12/15-lipoxygenase in atherogenesis. The data support indirectly a role for 12/15-lipoxygenase in the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. In this study we set out to explore other potential mechanisms for 12/15-lipoxygenase in atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-1/LDL-R double-deficient mice, a model highly related to the human condition of familial hypercholesterolemia. 12/15-Lipoxygenase deficiency in this strain led to approximately 50% decrease in aortic lesions in male and female mice at 8 months on a chow diet in the absence of cholesterol differences. While studying 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient macrophages in culture, we discovered a remarkable selective defect (75-90% decrease) in interleukin-12 production but not in tumor necrosis factor-alpha or nitric oxide release, in response to lipopolysaccharide in the presence or absence of interferon-gamma priming. The lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma response was associated with a 33-50% decrease in nuclear interferon consensus sequence-binding protein, which is consistent with interferon consensus sequence-binding protein containing protein complex-dependent regulation of the interleukin-12 p40 gene. The decrease in interleukin-12 production was recapitulated in vivo in mouse aortas of the triple knockout group and was reflected in a marked decrease in interferon-gamma expression. The data provide support for a novel mechanism linking the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway to a known immunomodulatory Th1 cytokine in atherogenesis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(38):35350-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C3H and C57BL/6 mice are resistant to Leishmania major but develop chronic lesions with persistent parasite loads when they are infected with Leishmania amazonensis. These lesions develop in the absence of interleukin-4 (IL-4), indicating that susceptibility to this parasite is not a result of development of a Th2 response. Expression of the cytokine IL-10 during infection could account for the lack of IL-12 expression and poor cell-mediated immunity towards the parasite. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that IL-10 plays a central role in downmodulating the Th1 response after L. amazonensis infection. Infection of C57BL/6 IL-10-deficient mice indicated that in the absence of IL-10 there was early enhancement of a Th1 response, which was downregulated during the more chronic stage of infection. In addition, although there were 1- to 2-log reductions in the parasite loads within the lesions, the parasites continued to persist, and they were associated with chronic lesions whose size was similar to that of the control lesions. These experiments indicated that L. amazonensis resistance to killing in vivo is only partially dependent on expression of host IL-10. However, IL-10-deficient mice had an enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity response during the chronic phase of infection, indicating that there were Th1 type effector cells in vivo at this late stage of infection. These results indicate that although IL-10 plays a role in limiting the Th1 response during the acute infection phase, other immunomodulatory factors are responsible for limiting the Th1 response during the chronic phase.
    Infection and Immunity 05/2002; 70(4):2151-8. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of interleukin-10 (IL-10) to suppress accessory cell functions required for optimal T-cell acti- vation makes it an important inhibitor of cell-mediated immunity. Thus, after infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, IL-10 knockout (KO) mice develop a CD4-T-cell-dependent shock-like reaction with high levels of IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-) in serum, leading to death of mice during the acute phase of infection. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that simultaneous blockade of CD28 and CD40 can prevent this lethal reaction by inhibiting the production of IFN-. However, the blockade of costimulation did not affect systemic levels of IL-12. To better understand the relationship between IL-12 and the CD28 and CD40 pathways in mediating immune hyperactivity, antagonists of these factors were used to determine their effects on the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice. Blockade of IL-12 or the CD28/B7 interaction alone did not affect survival; however, the combined blockade of both pathways resulted in decreased production of IFN- and the survival of IL-10 KO mice. To assess the role of the two ligands for CD28, B7.1 and B7.2, IL-10 KO mice were treated with IL-12 plus B7.1 or B7.2 or the combination of all three antibodies. These studies revealed that blockade of both B7 molecules is required for decreased production of IFN- and survival of infected IL-10 KO mice, suggesting that B7.1 and B7.2 can contribute to the lethal shock-like reaction in IL-10 KO mice. In contrast, neutralization of IL-12 and blockade of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction in vivo did not alter the production of IFN- and only resulted in a small delay in time to death of mice. Together, these data suggest that the CD28/B7 interaction has a central role in the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice, which is distinct from the role of the CD40/CD40L and IL-12 pathways. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), produced by many hemopoietic cells, including macrophages (16), dendritic cells (DCs) (51), and CD4 T cells (29, 44), plays a key role in the inhibition of inflammatory responses and cell-mediated immunity (for a re- view, see reference 45). The anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10 are primarily attributed to its ability to inhibit accessory cell functions required for optimal T-cell responses. Thus, IL-10 can inhibit accessory cell production of cytokines such as tu- mor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), IL-1 and IL-12, which are required for the optimal production of gamma interferon (IFN-) (12, 21, 22, 32, 45, 61). In addition, IL-10 affects costimulation by decreasing the expression of B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) on monocytes, macrophages, and DCs (8, 18, 65) and inhibits CD40-mediated protein-tyrosine kinase activity (47, 57). Furthermore, IL-10 inhibits major histocompatibility complex class I and class II expression, thereby interfering with
    Infection and Immunity - INFEC IMMUNITY. 01/2002; 70(12):6940-6947.
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    ABSTRACT: Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) results in a severe and potentially fatal systemic disease, accompanied by cellular immune depression. The production of IL-10 correlates with ongoing disease and it has been suggested that the cellular immune depression that accompanies active disease may be due to a predominance of IL-10 production rather than a lack of IFN-gamma production, which is essential for optimal macrophage activation and parasite elimination. To examine the role of IL-10 in resistance during L. donovani infection (a causative agent of VL), the course of infection was examined in mice lacking the gene for IL-10. BALB/c IL-10-/-, as well as C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice, were highly resistant to L. donovani infection, as evidenced by liver parasite burdens which were tenfold lower than those in control mice after 14 days of infection. Enhanced resistance was accompanied by increased production of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide in BALB/c IL-10-/- mice. Susceptibility to infection in BALB/c IL-10-/- mice was enhanced following in vivo treatment with a neutralizing antibody to IFN-gamma or IL-12. Together these studies demonstrate for the first time that IL-10 is a critical component of the immune response that inhibits resistance to L. donovani.
    European Journal of Immunology 11/2001; 31(10):2848-56. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-10 is an inhibitor of cell mediated immunity and an antagonist of the development of protective immune responses associated with resistance to T. gondii. These observations led to the hypothesis that the production of IL-10 could contribute to the ability of T. gondii to replicate and survive in an immune competent host. To determine whether the production of IL-10 affects the ability of the RH strain of T. gondii to cause a lethal infection in mice, we compared the immune response to RH in IL-10+/+ and IL-10-/- BALB/c mice. Both groups of mice produced comparable amounts of IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma and had similar mortality curves and parasite burdens. The use of green fluorescent protein-labelled parasites allowed us to infect IL-10+/+ and IL-10-/- mice and use a fluorescence-activated cell sorter to distinguish infected and uninfected populations of macrophages and compare their expression of CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Although infected cells expressed higher overall levels of these molecules than uninfected cells, there were no differences between cells isolated from IL-10+/+ and IL-10-/- mice. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-10 is not required for the virulence of the RH strain of T. gondii, nor is it involved in the regulation of the CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules during RH-infection.
    Parasite Immunology 07/2001; 23(6):291-6. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-10 is an inhibitor of cell mediated immunity and an antagonist of the development of protective immune responses associated with resistance to T. gondii. These observations led to the hypothesis that the production of IL-10 could contribute to the ability of T. gondii to replicate and survive in an immune competent host. To determine whether the production of IL-10 affects the ability of the RH strain of T. gondii to cause a lethal infection in mice, we compared the immune response to RH in IL-10+/+ and IL-10−/– BALB/c mice. Both groups of mice produced comparable amounts of IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ and had similar mortality curves and parasite burdens. The use of green fluorescent protein-labelled parasites allowed us to infect IL-10+/+ and IL-10−/− mice and use a fluorescence-activated cell sorter to distinguish infected and uninfected populations of macrophages and compare their expression of CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Although infected cells expressed higher overall levels of these molecules than uninfected cells, there were no differences between cells isolated from IL-10+/+ and IL-10−/– mice. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-10 is not required for the virulence of the RH strain of T. gondii, nor is it involved in the regulation of the CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules during RH-infection.
    Parasite Immunology 01/2001; 23(6):291-296. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Ulrike Wille
    European Journal of Immunology - EUR J IMMUNOL. 01/2001; 31(10):2848-2856.
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with inhibition of cell-mediated immunity and downregulation of the expression of costimulatory molecules required for T-cell activation. When IL-10-deficient (IL-10KO) mice are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, they succumb to a T-cell-mediated shock-like reaction characterized by the overproduction of IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) associated with widespread necrosis of the liver. Since costimulation is critical for T-cell activation, we investigated the role of the CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interactions in this infection-induced immunopathology. Our studies show that infection of mice with T. gondii resulted in increased expression of B7 and CD40 that was similar in wild-type and IL-10KO mice. In vivo blockade of the CD28-B7 or CD40-CD40L interactions following infection of IL-10KO mice with T. gondii did not affect serum levels of IFN-gamma or IL-12, nor did it prevent death in these mice. However, when both pathways were blocked, the IL-10KO mice survived the acute phase of infection and had reduced serum levels of IFN-gamma and alanine transaminase as well as decreased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the liver and spleen. Analysis of parasite-specific recall responses from infected IL-10KO mice revealed that blockade of the CD40-CD40L interaction had minimal effects on cytokine production, whereas blockade of the CD28-B7 interaction resulted in decreased production of IFN-gamma but not IL-12. Further reduction of IFN-gamma production was observed when both costimulatory pathways were blocked. Together, these results demonstrate that the CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40L interactions are involved in the development of infection-induced immunopathology in the absence of IL-10.
    Infection and Immunity 06/2000; 68(5):2837-44. · 4.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

402 Citations
33.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2004
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • InPharmatics
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States