ABSTRACT: Spirobenzopyrans bearing monoazathiacrown ethers and noncyclic analogues were synthesized, and their ion-responsive photochromism depending on the dual metal ion interaction with the crown ether and the phenolate anion moieties was examined using alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions, Ag(+), Tl(+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Zn(2+). The prepared spirobenzopyrans showed a selective binding ability to Mg(2+) and Ag(+) with negative and positive photochromism, respectively. Among the metal ions, only Ag(+) facilitated photoisomerization to the corresponding merocyanine form. Depending on the ring size of the monoazathiacrown ether moieties, soft metal ions such as Hg(2+) and Ag(+) showed significant shifts in the UV-vis absorption spectra, while hard metal ions such as Mg(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+) did not afford any meaningful shift. This result reflects that the monoazathiacrown ether and phenolate anion moieties prefer soft and hard metal ions, respectively. Therefore, the Mg(2+) and Ag(+) selectivities are mainly derived from the phenolate anion and monoazathiacrown ether moieties, respectively. On the other hand, a spirobenzothiapyran bearing 3,9-dithia-6-monoazaundecane showed a remarkable selectivity to Ag(+).
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 05/2002; 67(7):2223-7. · 4.45 Impact Factor