[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: γ-Synuclein is a member of the synucleins family of small proteins, which consists of three members:α, β- and γ-synuclein. γ-Synuclein is abnormally expressed in a high percentage of advanced and metastatic tumors, but not in normal or benign tissues. Furthermore, γ-synuclein expression is strongly correlated with disease progression, and can stimulate proliferation, induce invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. γ-Synuclein transcription is regulated basically through the binding of AP-1 to specific sequences in intron 1. Here we show that γ-synuclein expression may be also regulated by micro RNAs (miRs) on post-transcriptional level. According to prediction by several methods, the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of γ-synuclein gene contains targets for miRs. Insertion of γ-synuclein 3'-UTR downstream of the reporter luciferase (LUC) gene causes a 51% reduction of LUC activity after transfection into SKBR3 and Y79 cells, confirming the presence of efficient targets for miRs in this fragment. Expression of miR-4437 and miR-4674 for which putative targets in 3'-UTR were predicted caused a 61.2% and 60.1% reduction of endogenous γ-synuclein expression confirming their role in gene expression regulation. On the other hand, in cells overexpressing γ-synuclein no significant effect of miRs on γ-synuclein expression was found suggesting that miRs exert their regulatory effect only at low or moderate, but not at high level of γ-synuclein expression. Elevated level of γ-synuclein differentially changes the level of several miRs expression, upregulating the level of some miRs and downregulating the level of others. Three miRs upregulated as a result of γ-synuclein overexpression, i.e., miR-885-3p, miR-138 and miR-497 have putative targets in 3'-UTR of the γ-synuclein gene. Some of miRs differentially regulated by γ-synuclein may modulate signaling pathways and cancer related gene expression. This study demonstrates that miRs might provide cell-specific regulation of γ-synuclein expression and set the stage to further evaluate their role in pathophysiological processes.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73786. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein misfolding and aggregation is a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with a wide range of diseases. The synuclein family comprises three small naturally unfolded proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. α-Synuclein is a soluble protein that forms toxic inclusions associated with Parkinson's disease and several other synucleinopathies. However, the triggers inducing its conversion into noxious species are elusive. Here we show that another member of the family, γ-synuclein, can be easily oxidized and form annular oligomers that accumulate in cells in the form of deposits. Importantly, oxidized γ-synuclein can initiate α-synuclein aggregation. Two amino acid residues in γ-synuclein, methionine and tyrosine located in neighboring positions (Met(38) and Tyr(39)), are most easily oxidized. Their oxidation plays a key role in the ability of γ-synuclein to aggregate and seed the aggregation of α-synuclein. γ-Synuclein secreted from neuronal cells into conditioned medium in the form of exosomes can be transmitted to glial cells and cause the aggregation of intracellular proteins. Our data suggest that post-translationally modified γ-synuclein possesses prion-like properties and may induce a cascade of events leading to synucleinopathies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which is the most common form of glaucoma, has been associated with a heterogeneous genetic component. A genome-wide association study has identified a common sequence variant at 7q31 (rs4236601 [A]) near the caveolin genes in patients with POAG. Caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins which participate in many cellular processes, including vesicular transport, cholesterol homeostasis, signal transduction, cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of caveolin 1 (CAV-1) and caveolin 2 (CAV-2) in normal and glaucoma trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.
CAV-1 and CAV-2 protein expression was quantified by immunoblot analysis using lysates isolated from primary and immortalized TM cells or TM tissue dissected from normal and POAG eyes. The localization of caveolins in TM cells was assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy. CAV-1 and CAV-2 protein expression was also investigated in TM cells at various time points after subjecting the cells to known glaucomatous insults like dexamethasone (DEX) and tumor growth factor beta2 (TGF-β2) treatment. Phosphorylation of CAV-1 at tyrosine 14 in normal and glaucoma TM cell lines was evaluated using a specific monoclonal antibody (Ab). The 5' upstream region of the CAV-1 gene was amplified and the sequence variant rs4236601 (A/G polymorphic site) and several putative transcription factor-binding sites were modified by in vitro mutagenesis. The effect of nucleotide sequence modifications in the CAV-1 upstream region on gene expression was assayed in a luciferase-based system in TM and non-TM cells.
CAV-1 and CAV-2 are expressed in TM cells, with localization to the cytoplasm and perinuclear region. DEX increased CAV-1 expression in immortalized glaucoma TM cells by 2.8±0.1 (n=3) fold at 24 h and 2.5±0.1 (n=3) fold at 48 h, compared to 1.3±0.06 (n=3) fold at 24 and 48 h in immortalized normal TM cells. Phosphorylation of CAV-1 at Tyr14 was reduced by 3.2±0.15 (n=3) fold in glaucomatous TM cells when compared to normal TM cells. In POAG and normal TM tissue, CAV-1 expression was found to be uniform. CAV-2, on the other hand, was variable in independent normal and glaucoma TM tissue. Substitution of a G for an A at base pair -2,388 upstream of the start codon of CAV-1, corresponding to the minor allele rs4236601 [A], increased transcriptional activity in TM and non-TM cells when compared to the native sequence. Deletion analysis of putative transcription factor binding sites in the CAV-1 promoter region caused cell-specific effects on gene expression.
CAV-1 and CAV-2 are expressed in normal and glaucoma tissue and TM cell lines. Phosphorylation of Tyr14 in CAV-1 and transcriptional regulation of CAV-1 expression may have a role in glaucomatous alterations in TM cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal ganglion cells apoptosis is linked to matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) controlled changes of extracellular matrix. Abnormal expression of MMP-9 is associated with glaucomatous alterations. Thus, the knowledge of MMP-9 regulation is important for the understanding the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Here, we investigated the role of 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) and microRNAs in MMP-9 regulation. We used in vitro mutagenesis and Luc reporter system to identify regulatory elements in the 3'-UTR of MMP-9. microRNAs were analyzed by qRT-PCR, and their role was investigated with inhibitors and mimics. We identified targets for miRNAs in 3'-UTR of MMP-9 involved in the regulation of MMP-9 expression. We then isolated miRNAs from the optic nerve A7 astrocytes and 293 T cells and confirmed the role of mi340 in the regulation using specific inhibitors and mimics. The results obtained show a new miRNA-mediated mechanism of MMP-9 expression regulation.
Journal of Ocular Biology Diseases and Informatics 06/2010; 3(2):41-52.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gamma-Synuclein (Syn G) is highly expressed in retinal ganglion cells and the loss of these cells in glaucoma is associated with significant reduction of the intracellular Syn G level. However, a causative relationship between these two events has not been established. Here we show that the knockdown of Syn G results in a decreased viability of the immortalized retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). The Syn G silencing reduces phosphorylation of serine 112 (Ser112) in Bad protein, a member of the Bcl-2 family that plays a critical role in apoptotic cell death signaling. Our gene expression analysis data suggests that changes in Bad phosphorylation status may be caused by a coordinated shift in activities of kinases controlling Bad phosphorylation and phosphatases catalyzing its dephosphorylation. Moreover, increased phosphorylation of Bad-sequestering protein 14-3-3 detected in these cells is also pro-apoptotic. These results suggest that the homeostatic level of Syn G in RGC-5 cells is required for transcriptional regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling phosphorylation of Bad and 14-3-3. Lowering Syn G causes Bad dephosphorylation, dissociation from phosphorylated 14-3-3, and translocation to mitochondria where it initiates apoptotic death cascade.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2008; 283(52):36377-85. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma-synuclein, also referred to as breast-cancer-specific gene 1, is the third member of the neuronal protein family synuclein. Synucleins attracted the attention of many investigators because of their role in human diseases. Gamma-synuclein participates in the pathogenesis of several types of cancer and some neurodegenerative diseases. Its role in tumorigenesis is due to the upregulation of transcription and the effect on downstream targets, including signaling pathways and transcription factors. Gamma-synuclein is also expressed in neurons and glial cells, but the regulation of its expression, as well as the mechanism of transition from normal functions to pathology in these cell types, is not studied. Here, we examined how gamma-synuclein promoter is regulated in neuronal and glial cells. We also show that gamma-synuclein is able to bind directly to several transcription factors. These results are discussed in connection with the implication of gamma-synuclein in diseases.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 06/2008; 35(3):267-71. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have described gamma-synuclein as a protein highly expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and a loss of RGCs correlates with a downregulation of gamma-synuclein gene expression in glaucoma. Here we asked whether gamma-synuclein expression in the retina can be considered a specific marker of RGCs.
gamma-Synuclein expression was examined with immunohistochemistry in retinal sections from normal and glaucomatous human eyes. Primary cultures of RGCs from Sprague-Dawley rats purified by sequential immunopanning using a monoclonal antibody to Thy1-1, cultures of A7 immortalized optic nerve astrocytes from newborn rats, and the immortalized RGC-5 cell line were studied using immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR.
gamma-Synuclein was highly expressed in RGCs in the human retina and was localized in cytoplasm adjacent to the RGC nuclear marker, Brn-3a. Axons of RGCs were immunopositive for gamma-synuclein in the nerve fiber layer (NFL), the lamina cribrosa and the retrobulbar optic nerve. In the optic nerve of glaucoma patients, axon swellings were likewise immunopositive, whereas in the retina of patients with retinoblastoma, NFL staining appeared reduced. In primary rat RGCs and in immortalized RGC-5 cultures, gamma-synuclein was localized predominantly in the perinuclear area and in cell processes. Among rat retinal cells in culture, all Brn-3a positive cells were stained with a gamma-synuclein antibody; rare gamma-synuclein-positive cells were not stained by the Brn-3a antibody.
gamma-Synuclein is selectively and abundantly expressed in human RGCs in vivo, primary rat RGCs in vitro, and immortalized RGC-5 cells. In pathology, gamma-synuclein abundance may vary between RGC somas and axons. Coincident Brn-3a and gamma-synuclein expression suggests that strong gamma-synuclein expression can be considered a marker of RGCs. Future translational approaches might include using a gamma-synuclein promoter for the specific delivery of siRNA or therapeutic proteins to RGCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gamma-Synuclein is a member of the synuclein family consisting of three proteins. Within the last several years increasing attention has focused on these proteins because of their role in human diseases. alpha-Synuclein relevance to Parkinson's disease is based on mutations found in familial cases of the disease and its presence in filaments and inclusion bodies in sporadic cases. gamma-Synuclein is implicated in some forms of cancer and ocular diseases, while beta-synuclein may antagonize their pathological functions. In this paper we present data on the localization and properties of gamma-synuclein in several neuronal and nonneuronal cell cultures. We show that contrary to the current opinion, gamma-synuclein is not an exclusively cytoplasmic protein, but has a dynamic localization and can associate with subcellular structures. It is present in the perinuclear area and may be associated to centrosomes. On late steps of mitosis gamma-synuclein is not found in the centrosomes, and redistributes to the midbody in telophase. Under stress conditions a translocation of gamma-synuclein from the perinuclear area to the nucleus occurs exhibiting nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. gamma-Synuclein overexpression reduces neurite outgrowth in a greater extent then alpha-synuclein overexpression. These data support the view that gamma-synuclein may change its intracellular localization and associate with subcellular structures in response to intracellular signaling or stress.
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 09/2006; 63(8):447-58. · 4.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding human myocilin are associated with some cases of juvenile and early-onset glaucoma. Glaucomatous mutations prevent myocilin from being secreted. The analysis of the defects associated with mutations point to the existence of factor(s) in addition to mutations that might be implicated in the development of glaucoma. In the present paper, we found that interaction of myocilin with one of the members of the synuclein family alters its properties, including its ability to be secreted. Results of immunoprecipitation show that myocilin is a gamma-synuclein-interacting protein. Further analysis demonstrated that both myocilin and gamma-synuclein are expressed in human TM cells, immortalized rat ganglion (RGC-5) cells, and HT22 hippocampal neurons. According to Western blotting, in addition to monomeric form with molecular weight 17 kDa gamma-synuclein is present as higher molecular weight forms ( approximately 35 and 68 KDa), presumably dimer and tetramer. Myocilin and gamma-synuclein have partially overlapping perinuclear localization. Dexamethasone upregulates myocilin expression in RGC-5 cells and HT22 hippocampal neurons. We found alterations of myocilin properties as a result of its interaction with gamma-synuclein. In cultured cells, gamma-synuclein upregulates myocilin expression, inhibits its secretion and prevents the formation of high molecular weight forms of myocilin. Although both alpha-synuclein and gamma-synuclein are expressed in HTM cells, only gamma-synuclein interacts with myocilin and alters its properties. We conclude that myocilin and gamma-synuclein interact and as a result, myocilin's properties are changed. Since myocilin and gamma-synuclein have partially overlapping intracellular localization in cell types that are implicated in glaucoma development, their interaction may play an important role in glaucoma.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 10/2005; 25(6):1009-33. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Retinal dystrophies (RD) comprise a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorders, which typically result in the degeneration of photoreceptors followed by the impairment or loss of vision. Although age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are among the most common forms of RD, currently, there is no effective treatment for either disorder. 2. Recently, abnormal protein accumulation and aggregation due to protein misfolding and proteasome inhibition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RD. In this paper we describe effects of several factors on protein aggregation and survival of photoreceptor cells. 3. Expression of rhodopsin carrying P23H mutation causes its accumulation in intracellular inclusion bodies in a perinuclear area of photoreceptor cells. beta- and gamma-synucleins and heat shock protein Hsp-70, but not alpha-synuclein, protect cultured ocular cells from mutant opsin accumulation. This effect might be explained by their chaperonic activity. 4. Knock-out of alpha- and gamma-synucleins does not affect gross retinal morphology, but induces tyrosine hydroxylase in the inner prexiform layer of the retina. Selegiline-a monoamine oxidase inhibitor used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, reduces apoptosis and increases viability in cultured retinal pigment epithelium cells (APRE-19). 5. These results suggest that chaperones and selegiline may be considered promising candidates for the protection of ocular cells from the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 10/2005; 25(6):1051-66. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Recent studies indicate that aggregated alpha-synuclein binds to S6', a component of the 19 S subunit in the 26 S proteasome and inhibits 26 S proteasomal degradation, both ubiquitin-independent and ubiquitin-dependent. The IC(50) of aggregated alpha-synuclein for inhibition of the 26 S ubiquitin-independent proteasomal activity is approximately 1 nm. alpha-Synuclein has two close homologues, termed beta-synuclein and gamma-synuclein. In the present study we compared the effects of the three synuclein homologues on proteasomal activity. The proteasome exists as a 26 S and a 20 S species, with the 26 S proteasome containing the 20 S core and 19 S cap. Monomeric alpha- and beta-synucleins inhibited the 20 S and 26 S proteasomal activities only weakly, but monomeric gamma-synuclein strongly inhibited ubiquitin-independent proteolysis. The IC(50) of monomeric gamma-synuclein for the 20 S proteolysis was 400 nm. In monomeric form, none of the three synuclein proteins inhibited 26 S ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal activity. Although beta-synuclein had no direct effect on proteasomal activity, co-incubating monomeric beta-synuclein with aggregated alpha-synuclein antagonized the inhibition of the 26 S ubiquitin-independent proteasome by aggregated alpha-synuclein when added before the aggregated alpha-synuclein. Co-incubating beta-synuclein with gamma-synuclein had no effect on the inhibition of the 20 S proteasome by monomeric gamma-synuclein. Immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments suggested that antagonism by beta-synuclein resulted from binding to alpha-synuclein rather than binding to S6'. Pull-down experiments demonstrated that recombinant monomeric beta-synuclein does not interact with the proteasomal subunit S6', unlike alpha-synuclein, but beta-synuclein does bind alpha-synuclein and competes with S6' for binding to alpha-synuclein. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the alpha- and gamma-synucleins regulate proteasomal function and that beta-synuclein acts as a negative regulator of alpha-synuclein.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2005; 280(9):7562-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Recent studies
indicate that aggregated α-synuclein binds to S6′, a component of the 19 S subunit in the 26 S proteasome and inhibits 26
S proteasomal degradation, both ubiquitin-independent and ubiquitin-dependent. The IC50 of aggregated α-synuclein for inhibition of the 26 S ubiquitin-independent proteasomal activity is ∼1nm. α-Synuclein has two close homologues, termed β-synuclein and γ-synuclein. In the present study we compared the effects of
the three synuclein homologues on proteasomal activity. The proteasome exists as a 26 S and a 20 S species, with the 26 S
proteasome containing the 20 S core and 19 S cap. Monomeric α- and β-synucleins inhibited the 20 S and 26 S proteasomal activities
only weakly, but monomeric γ-synuclein strongly inhibited ubiquitin-independent proteolysis. The IC50 of monomeric γ-synuclein for the 20 S proteolysis was 400 nm. In monomeric form, none of the three synuclein proteins inhibited 26 S ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal activity. Although
β-synuclein had no direct effect on proteasomal activity, co-incubating monomeric β-synuclein with aggregated α-synuclein
antagonized the inhibition of the 26 S ubiquitin-independent proteasome by aggregated α-synuclein when added before the aggregated
α-synuclein. Co-incubating β-synuclein with γ-synuclein had no effect on the inhibition of the 20 S proteasome by monomeric
γ-synuclein. Immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments suggested that antagonism by β-synuclein resulted from binding
to α-synuclein rather than binding to S6′. Pull-down experiments demonstrated that recombinant monomeric β-synuclein does
not interact with the proteasomal subunit S6′, unlike α-synuclein, but β-synuclein does bind α-synuclein and competes with
S6′ for binding to α-synuclein. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the α- and γ-synucleins regulate proteasomal function
and that β-synuclein acts as a negative regulator of α-synuclein.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(9):7562-7569. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gamma-Synuclein is a small cytoplasmic protein implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, the mechanism of its involvement in diseases is not clear. We studied the role of gamma-synuclein in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in retinoblastoma cell culture. Matrix metalloproteinases play important roles in the remodeling of extracellular matrix implicated in tumor progression and in the neurodegenerative diseases. Western blot and zymography data demonstrated a moderate elevation of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and significant upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases-9 in stable cell lines overexpressing gamma-synuclein. No effect of gamma-synuclein overexpression on matrix metalloproteinases-1 level or activity was found. Chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase assay demonstrated that overexpression of gamma-synuclein increases the efficiency of the matrix metalloproteinases-9 promoter. This increment of promoter activity may be mediated by the AP-1 binding site(s), since point mutations in one of these sites (Pr18 or Pr19) and elimination of the distal AP-1 site (Pr14) reduced the increment of promoter activity.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/2003; 410(1):167-76. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synucleins are small proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. They are studied predominantly in the brain; information about their presence and functions in ocular tissues is scarce. Here we describe the localization of three members of the synuclein family in the optic nerve of donors with different types of glaucoma compared with control samples from donors without ocular diseases. We did not find significant differences in the localization of alpha- and beta-synucleins in the optic nerve or retina of glaucoma patients compared with controls, whereas considerable redistribution of gamma-synuclein occurred in the glaucomatous optic nerve compared with control eye without glaucoma. In the optic nerve from control and glaucomatous individuals, nerve bundles are immunopositive for gamma-synuclein; however, a strong gamma-synuclein-immunopositive staining in a subset of glial cells was observed in the lamina and postlamina cribrosa regions of the optic nerve only in glaucoma patients. In the optic nerve of rats with episcleral vein cauterization used as an animal model of glaucoma, the quantity of both gamma-synuclein mRNA and protein was decreased compared with the optic nerves of control animals. Incubation of rat astrocyte culture at elevated hydrostatic pressure reduced the amount of gamma-synuclein but did not affect the quantities of actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These data suggest that significant changes in the pattern of expression and/or localization occur in the glaucomatous optic nerve for gamma-synuclein but not for alpha- and beta-members of the synuclein family.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 05/2002; 68(1):97-106. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synucleins are small, highly conserved proteins in vertebrates, especially abundant in neurons and typically enriched in presynaptic terminals. alpha-Synuclein protein and a fragment of it, called NAC, have been found in association with pathological lesions of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, mutations in a alpha-synuclein gene have been reported in families susceptible to an inherited form of Parkinson's diseases. In addition, alpha-synuclein has been implicated in the pathophysiology of other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and multiple system atrophy. Far less is known about other members of the synuclein family, beta- and gamma-synucleins. gamma-synuclein is up-regulated in several types of cancer and may affect the integrity of the neurofilament network, while its bovine ortholog, synoretin, activates the Elk-1 signal transduction pathway. In this paper, we present data about the localization and properties of human and bovine gamma-synuclein in several neuronal and non-neuronal cell cultures derived from ocular tissues. We show that gamma-synuclein is present in the perinuclear area and is localized to centrosomes in several types of human interphase cells and in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. In mitotic cells, gamma-synuclein staining is localized to the poles of the spindle. Further, overexpression of synoretin in retinoblastoma cells up-regulates MAPK and Elk-1. These results support the view that gamma-synuclein is a centrosome protein that may be involved in signal transduction pathways.
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 09/2001; 49(4):218-28. · 4.19 Impact Factor