R W McMurray

Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States

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Publications (69)210.9 Total impact

  • Eman Boulis, Vikas Majithia, Robert McMurray
    Rheumatology International 10/2010; · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Jing Li, Robert W McMurray
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens have multiple influences on immune functions. We aimed to compare the effects of cyclic versus sustained estrogen treatments under the same accumulated dose on peripheral immune functions in ovariectomized mice. Ovariectomized adult Balb/c mice were treated with estradiol (E2) by s.c. injection once every 4 days (total 44.8 microg) or by pellet implantation (total 44.2 microg). After 6 weeks of treatment, all animals were immunized with DNP-KLH. Peripheral immune functions were assessed 10 days later. Both cyclic and sustained E2 treatments significantly reduced the percentage of splenic B220(+)sIgM(+) cells, enhanced IFN-gamma production and suppressed IL-6 secretion from Con A-stimulated splenocytes, and increased serum anti-DNP antibody levels. No differences were found in the above responses or in uterine weight gain between the two regimens of E2 administration. There are no differential effects on peripheral immune functions between cyclic and sustained estrogen administration under the same total dose.
    American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 04/2010; 63(4):274-81. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a blood cancer that affects people of all ages and strikes about 1,500 patients in the United States each year. The standard treatment of APL has been based on the combined administration of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy including anthracyclins and cytarabine. However, 10-20% of patients relapse, with their disease becoming resistant to conventional treatment. Recently the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of arsenic trioxide (ATO) or Trisenox for the treatment of APL, based on clinical studies showing a complete remission, especially in relapsed patients. In a recently published study we demonstrated that ATO pharmacology as an anti-cancer drug is associated with its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human leukemia cells. In the present study, we further investigated the apoptotic mechanisms of ATO toxicity using the HL-60 cell line as a test model. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analysis of phosphatidylserine externalization (Annexin V assay) and caspase 3 activity, and by DNA laddering assay. Flow cytometry data showed a strong dose-response relationship between ATO exposure and Annexin-V positive HL-60 cells. Similarly, a statistically significant and dose-dependent increase (p <0.05) was recorded with regard to caspase 3 activity in HL60 cells undergoing late apoptosis. These results were confirmed by data of DNA laddering assay showing a clear evidence of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in ATO-treated cells. Taken together, our research demonstrated that ATO represents an apoptosis-inducing agent and its apoptotic mechanisms involve phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation.
    Journal of Hematology & Oncology 01/2010; 3:28. · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Eman Ramses Boulis, Robert McMurray, John Jenkins
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2010; 13(1):118. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Jing Li, Robert W McMurray
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    ABSTRACT: The specific roles of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes alpha and beta in mediating estrogen's influences on lupus autoimmunity are unknown. Herein we found that ovariectomized NZB/NZW F1 mice treated with propyl pyrazole triol (ERalpha-selective agonist) had significantly shorter survival, earlier development of albuminuria, higher serum concentrations of total IgG and prolactin, increased serum levels of anti-DNA IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b and decreased anti-DNA IgG1 level compared to vehicle controls. In contrast, diarylpropionitrile (ERbeta-selective agonist) administration significantly decreased serum anti-DNA IgG2b level but did not significantly affect serum levels of other anti-DNA IgG subclasses, serum total IgG or prolactin concentration, mortality or the occurrence of albuminuria. These findings suggest that ERalpha activation plays the predominant and immunostimulatory role in estrogen-mediated modulation of lupus while ERbeta activation appears to have a slightly immunosuppressive effect on this disease. ERalpha activation coincidentally increased serum prolactin concentrations and may accelerate lupus disease activity also through this mechanism.
    Clinical Immunology 06/2007; 123(2):219-26. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Jing Li, Robert W McMurray
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens have multiple influences on immune functions. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have two distinct subtypes - alpha and beta. To explore the specific roles of each ER subtype in estrogen-mediated immunomodulation, we investigated the effects of ER subtype-selective agonists on immune functions in ovariectomized Balb/c mice. Treatment with ERalpha-selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) caused thymic atrophy and significant changes in thymic CD4/CD8 phenotypic profile. In contrast, ERbeta-selective agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) alone had no effect on thymic weight, cellularity or CD4/CD8 phenotype expression. When coadministered with PPT, DPN partially antagonized PPT-evoked decrease in thymic cellularity and also partially attenuated PPT-induced shifts in thymic T-cell phenotype. These results indicate that ERalpha plays a predominant role in estrogen-induced thymic atrophy and ERbeta activation may partially down-regulate ERalpha-mediated effects on thymic cellularity and T-cell phenotype expression. In addition, PPT administration induced a reduction in the percentage of mature B cells in the spleen, and enhanced IFN-gamma production but suppressed IL-6 production from in vitro Con A-stimulated splenocytes as estradiol (E(2)) did, whereas DPN treatment had no effects either alone or with PPT, suggesting ERalpha mediates these estrogen actions. Treatment with PPT or DPN did not augment anti-DNP antibody production after DNP-KLH immunization as E(2) did, implying that not merely one ER signaling pathway is involved in mediating estrogen's effects on specific humoral immune responses. Our study further indicates ER subtype-selective agonists provide a novel approach to explore each ER subtype-mediated immunomodulation.
    International Immunopharmacology 10/2006; 6(9):1413-23. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    Jing Li, Warren May, Robert W McMurray
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 01/2006; 52(12):3701-12. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy is a unique fibrosing disorder recently identified to occur exclusively among patients with renal disease. The cutaneous findings are similar to those of systemic sclerosis, but it is important to differentiate between these two disorders because of significant prognostic and therapeutic implications. Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy is usually a diagnosis of exclusion, but the condition does have distinct clinical and histopathologic findings. It appears to be multifactorial in pathogenesis, and no specific cause has been identified. No specific treatment modality has been consistently effective, but there have been reports of improvement that occurred either spontaneously with renal recovery or after renal transplantation. We present an interesting case of a 33-year-old woman diagnosed with nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, along with a review of the literature.
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 11/2005; 330(4):192-4. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Eastern cultures, such as India, it is traditionally recommended that women but not men cover their heads while working in the scorching sun. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there was any scientific basis for this cultural tradition. We examined the differential cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet A light (UVA) on an established T cell line treated with female and male sex hormones. CD4+ Jurkat T cells were plated in 96 well plates at 2 x 106 cells/ml and treated with 17beta-estradiol (EST) or testosterone (TE). These cells were irradiated by UVA light with an irradiance of 170 J/cm2 for 15min at a distance of 6 cm from the surface of the 96-well plate. Controls included cells not treated with hormones or UVA. The effects of EST and TE were investigated between 1 and 20 ng/mL. Cytotoxicity by fluorescein-diacetate staining and COMET assay generating single strand DNA cleavage, tail length and tail moment measurements were examined. The effect of estrogen (5ng/mL) on apoptosis and its mediators was further studied using DNA laddering and western blotting for bcl-2 and p53. We found that EST alone, without UVA, enhanced Jurkat T cell survival. However, EST exhibited a dose-related cytotoxicity in the presence of UVA; up to 28% at 20 ng/ml. TE did not alter UVA-induced cytotoxicity. Since TE did not alter cell viability in the presence of UVA further damaging studies were not performed. COMET assay demonstrated the harmful effects of EST in the presence of UVA while EST without UVA. had no significant effect on the nuclear damage. Apoptosis was not present as indicated by the absence of DNA laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis at 5ng/ml EST or TE +/- UVA. Western blot showed that estrogen down regulated bcl-2 independently of UVA radiation while p53 was down regulated in the presence of UVA treatment. EST and TE have differential effects on UVA-induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat T-lymphocyte which suggested that women may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of solar irradiation than men.
    International journal of environmental research and public health 05/2005; 2(1):156-63. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    Kenneth Ndebele, Paul B Tchounwou, Robert W McMurray
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous estrogens are known to modulate several components of immune response, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. IL-2 is a cytokine that plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. These responses may be modulated by xenoestrogens such as coumestrol, bisphenol A (BPA), DDT, and TCDD. In this research, we examined the effects and potential mechanisms of action of these estrogenic compounds on IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells. IL-2 production was analyzed by ELISA and Western Blot. At the transcriptional level, protein expression was examined by RT-PCR. Coumestrol, DDT and TCDD (but not BPA) significantly suppressed IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells, at the transcriptional and translational levels. The transcriptional suppression of IL-2 was associated with decreased protein levels of NF-kappabeta, an important IL-2 positive transcription factor, without affecting the expression of Ikappa-Balpha protein expression, an important inhibitor of NF-kappabeta nuclear translocation. Although the direct mechanisms of xenoestrogens modulation of the immune system remain to be elucidated, coumestrol-, DDT- and TCDD-induced suppression of IL-2 may have ramifications for our understanding of the impact of xenoestrogens on health and disease.
    International journal of environmental research and public health 04/2004; 1(1):3-11. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence points to increases in the incidence and prevalence of several autoimmune diseases in the United States. As a result, the cost to public health from clinical management of autoimmune conditions is on the rise. The initiation and progression of autoimmune disturbances involves both genetic and environmental factors. Deficiencies in important proteins that normally participate in maintaining checks and balances within the internal milieu may render an individual prone to developing autoantibodies. Structural abnormalities or decline in normal levels of the pentraxins (serum amylase-P protein, the acute phase proteins, complement, and C-reactive proteins) have been shown to induce autoimmunity. Irregular transmission of information arising from multiple signal transduction pathways typically associated with the serine/threonine cascade routes of mitogen activating phosphorylation kinases, has also been found to induce autoimmunity. The kind of ligand/receptor interactions drives physical recruitment of different signals within the lymphocyte; these links define the quality and quantity of subsequent immune responses. CD95 or the Fas/Apo-1 and its ligand CD95L participate in regulating lymphocyte populations and therefore influence various aspects of immune responses. Mutational abnormalities resulting from synthesis of proteins by the CD95 and/or its ligand CD95L may result in alterations in the apoptotic pathways. Apoptosis may be completely inhibited, activated or partially stimulated. Modulation of apoptosis may lead to accumulation of self-antigens. Subsequently the immune system may be stimulated to react against self-molecules through lymphatic hyperplasia. This process may end up in proliferative disorders and enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune syndromes. This paper deals with mechanisms of autoimmunopathogenesis at the cellular and molecular levels. Emphasis is laid on the role of T and B cell receptor/ligand interactions, functions and malfunctions due to structural and quantitative alterations in T- B- cell clusterof antigen determinants. Genetically susceptible patients who develop spontaneous autoimmune diseases are examined and the etiological factors implicated in the initiation and subsequent dissemination of autoimmune diseases is discussed.
    International journal of environmental research and public health 04/2004; 1(1):39-73. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    Robert W McMurray, Warren May
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 09/2003; 48(8):2100-10. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is characterized by dramatic immunologic changes most commonly characterized as suppression of cell-mediated immunity. Mechanisms of this immunosuppression are obscure but may be caused by increases in pregnancy-associated sex steroids such as 17-beta-estradiol or progesterone. Using five myelomonocytic cell lines in various stages of differentiation, the effects of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone on cell cycling, apoptosis, and bcl-2 expression in randomly cycling cells before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation were examined. Lipopolysaccharide alone inhibited cell cycle progression in THP-1 monocyte-like cells and U-937 histiocyte-like cells. Estrogen alone produced cell cycle arrest in all myelomonocytic cells except HL-60 pro-myelocyte-like cells. Progesterone had effects predominantly on pro-myelocytic-like HL-60 cells, inducing apoptosis. Estrogen and progesterone both decreased levels of bcl-2 in KG-1alpha, HL-60, and THP-1 cells. LPS partially antagonized both estrogen-induced THP-1 apoptosis and its suppression of bcl-2 protein. Sex steroid-induced effects on cell cycle transition and apoptosis are potential mechanisms by which pregnancy-induced cell-mediated immune suppression may occur. Further investigation should provide a better understanding of pregnancy-induced immune changes and, perhaps, sex-based differences in monocyte function and immunologic responses.
    American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989) 04/2003; 49(3):129-38. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    Ndebele Kenneth, Paul B Tchounwou, Robert W McMurray
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Endogenous estrogens have significant immunomodulatory effects characterized as suppression of cell mediated immunity and stimulation of humoral immunity. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as estrogen agonists and antagonists but whose immune effects are not well characterized. Using CD4+ Jurkat T cells as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens on T proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. Coumestrol (CM), a phytoestrogen, and tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD) in concentrations of 10-4 to 10-6M significantly inhibited Jurkat T cell lymphoproliferation, whereas bisphenol A (BPA) and DDT had minimal effect, but did antagonize 17-β-estrtadiol induced effects. Xenoestrogens, especially CM, produced accumulation of Jurkat T cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis, particularly CM (% apoptotic cells = 30 ± 12 vs. control = 5 ± 2). These changes were associated with DNA fragmentation. BPA and DDT also induced DNA fragmentation but not significant DNA hypoploidy. Xenoestrogen – CM, BPA, DDT, and TCDD - exposure suppressed bcl-2 protein and mRNA transcript levels but augmented p53 protein and mRNA transcripts. Human purified peripheral blood lymphocytes responded with similar significant cell cycle changes (G0/G1 exodus and G2/M accumulation) for CM, BPA, and DDT exposure. These preliminary data, taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific T lymphocyte effects that enhance our understanding of environmental modulation of immune and autoimmune responses.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 01/2003;
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    Robert W McMurray
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2002; 47(2):116-7. · 7.48 Impact Factor
  • John K Jenkins, Kenneth J Hardy, Robert W McMurray
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    ABSTRACT: The cause of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown; however, extensive research has yielded great insight into its pathogenesis. Lymphocytes play a significant role, but a lesser role in the perpetuation of late disease. The rheumatoid synovium is composed primarily of fibroblasts and monocytes that produce inflammatory cytokines, of which interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor are of key importance. Potential regulatory mechanisms balancing the effects of these cytokines are inadequate to prevent joint damage and subsequent disability. These cytokines seem responsible for stimulating destructive processes in the joint via induction of prostaglandins, angiogenesis, chemokines, adhesion molecules, osteoclastogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinases. This review discusses recent research findings in the immunopathogenesis of RA with respect to potential targets for therapy.
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 05/2002; 323(4):171-80. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Robert W McMurray, Valee Harisdangkul
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    ABSTRACT: Mycphenolate mofetil is a suppressor of T cell proliferation and adhesion. Its primary mode of action is inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, a purine salvage pathway required by T lymphocytes. Although the role of T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been controversial, a preliminary report of mycophenolate mofetil's successful use in RA patients clearly suggests that its efficacious properties need further investigation. Its favorable risk/benefit ratio, a broad clinical experience in kidney transplantation, and its recent extension to other rheumatic diseases suggests that this new antirheumatic agent has significant therapeutic potential for suppression of synovial inflammation.
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 05/2002; 323(4):194-6. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Robert W McMurray
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 05/2002; 323(4):169-70. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Robert W McMurray, Kenneth J Hardy
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    ABSTRACT: The elucidation of inducible cyclooxygenase (Cox-2) dependent inflammatory pathways led to the development of specific Cox-2 inhibitors, the coxibs. These agents include the currently available celecoxib and rofecoxib and such second-generation agents as parecoxib, valdecoxib, and etoricoxib. The therapeutic advantage of coxibs is founded primarily in their lack of significant gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of coxibs to be completely comparable with traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and pharmacoeconomics suggest favorable cost/benefit ratios with these agents compared with traditional NSAIDs, related to their reduced GI complication profiles and lower indirect costs associated with disability. Although several clinical questions remain (eg, use with low-dose aspirin, risk of thrombosis, myocardial infarction, edema, and hypertension), the emergence and clinical utility of coxibs is likely to continue on the basis of their efficacy and relative GI safety advantage. Although newer, more specific Cox-2 inhibitors may alter the choice, it is likely that this class of anti-inflammatories will become (if they have not already) the drugs of first choice in the treatment of acute pain, chronic pain, and most rheumatic conditions in the 21st century. In addition to the treatment of rheumatic conditions, it is possible that coxibs will also be of clinical utility in protection against malignant transformation and Alzheimer disease.
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 05/2002; 323(4):181-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Torpong Thongngarm, John K Jenkins, Robert W McMurray
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - J ALLERG CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2002; 109(1).

Publication Stats

1k Citations
210.90 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2010
    • Jackson State University
      • • College of Science Engineering and Technology
      • • School of Science & Technology
      Jackson, MS, United States
  • 1996–2010
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Division of Rheumatology and Molecular Immunology
      Jackson, MS, United States
  • 2002
    • VHA National Center for Organization Development (NCOD)
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • Overton Brooks VA Medical Center
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
    • University of Mississippi
      • Department of Medicine
      Oxford, MS, United States
    • Khon Kaen University
      • Department of Medicine
      Khon Kaen, Changwat Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • 2000
    • Mahidol University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 1992–1998
    • University of Missouri
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Columbia, MO, United States
  • 1994
    • Columbia Memorial Hospital
      Hudson, New York, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States