[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy shows significant differences in the bilayer organization and fraction of water within the bilayer aggregates of clinical lung surfactants, which increases from Survanta to Curosurf to Infasurf. Albumin and serum inactivate all three clinical surfactants in vitro; addition of the nonionic polymers polyethylene glycol, dextran, or hyaluronic acid also reduces inactivation in all three. Freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy shows that polyethylene glycol, hyaluronic acid, and albumin do not adsorb to the surfactant aggregates, nor do these macromolecules penetrate the interior water compartments of the surfactant aggregates. This results in an osmotic pressure difference that dehydrates the bilayer aggregates, causing a decrease in the bilayer spacing as shown by small angle x-ray scattering and an increase in the ordering of the bilayers as shown by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Small angle x-ray diffraction shows that the relationship between the bilayer spacing and the imposed osmotic pressure for Curosurf is a screened electrostatic interaction with a Debye length consistent with the ionic strength of the solution. The variation in surface tension due to surfactant adsorption measured by the pulsating bubble method shows that the extent of surfactant aggregate reorganization does not correlate with the maximum or minimum surface tension achieved with or without serum in the subphase. Albumin, polymers, and their mixtures alter the surfactant aggregate microstructure in the same manner; hence, neither inhibition reversal due to added polymer nor inactivation due to albumin is caused by alterations in surfactant microstructure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caillé analysis of the small-angle X-ray line shape of the lamellar phase of 7:3 wt/wt cetyltrimethylammonium tosylate (CTAT)/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) bilayers shows that the bending elastic constant is kappa = (0.62 +/- 0.09)k(B)T. From this and previous results, the Gaussian curvature constant is kappa = (-0.9 +/- 0.2)k(B)T. For 13:7 wt/wt CTAT/SDBS bilayers, the measured bending elasticity decreases with increasing water dilution, in good agreement with predictions based on renormalization theory, giving kappa(o) = 0.28k(B)T. These results show that surfactant mixing is sufficient to make kappa approximately k(B)T, which promotes strong, Helfrich-type repulsion between bilayers that can dominate the van der Waals attraction. These are necessary conditions for spontaneous vesicles to be equilibrium structures. The measurements of the bending elasticity are confirmed by the transition of the lamellar phase of CTAT/SDBS from a turbid, viscoelastic gel to a translucent fluid as the water fraction is decreased below 40 wt %. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy shows that the gel is characterized by spherulite defects made possible by spontaneous bilayer curvature and low bending elasticity. This lamellar gel phase is common to a number of catanionic surfactant mixtures, suggesting that low bending elasticity and spontaneous curvature are typical of these mixtures that form spontaneous vesicles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equimolar mixtures of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and sodium octyl sulfonate (SOSo) show a vesicle phase at >99 wt % water and a single, fluid lamellar phase for water fractions below 80 wt %. This combination is consistent with the bilayer bending elasticity kappa approximately k(B)T and zero bilayer spontaneous curvature. Caillé line shape analysis of the small-angle X-ray scattering from the lamellar phase shows that the effective kappa depends on the lamellar d spacing consistent with a logarithmic renormalization of kappa, with kappa(o) = (0.8 +/- 0.1)k(B)T. The vesicle size distribution determined by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is well fit by models with zero spontaneous curvature to give (kappa + (kappa/2)) = (1.7 +/- 0.1)k(B)T, resulting in kappa = (1.8 +/- 0.2)k(B)T. The positive value of kappa and the lack of spontaneous curvature act to eliminate the spherulite defects found in the lamellar gel phases found in other catanionic mixtures. Current theories of spontaneous bilayer curvature require an excess of one or more components on opposite sides of the bilayer; the absence of such an excess at equimolar surfactant ratios explains the zero spontaneous curvature.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium tosylate (CTAT) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) in water form a fluid lamellar phase at < or = 40 wt % water but surprisingly turn into viscous gels at higher water fractions. The gels are characterized by spherulite and other bilayer defects consistent with a low bending elasticity, kappa approximately k(B)T, and a nonzero spontaneous curvature. Caillé analysis of the small-angle x-ray line shape confirms that for 7:3 wt:wt CTAT:SDBS bilayers at 50% water, kappa = 0.62 +/- 0.09 k(B)T and kappa = -0.9 +/- 0.2 k(B)T. For 13:7 wt:wt CTAT:SDBS bilayers, the measured bending elasticity decreases with increasing water dilution in good agreement with predictions based on renormalization theory, giving kappa(o) = 0.28 k(B)T. These results show that surfactant mixing is sufficient to make kappa approximately k(B)T, which promotes strong, Helfrich-type repulsion between bilayers that can dominate the van der Waals attraction. These are necessary conditions for spontaneous vesicles formed at even higher water fractions to be equilibrium structures.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(8):2524-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survanta, a clinically used bovine lung surfactant extract, in contact with surfactant in the subphase, shows a coexistence of discrete monolayer islands of solid phase coexisting with continuous multilayer "reservoirs" of fluid phase adjacent to the air-water interface. Exchange between the monolayer, the multilayer reservoir, and the subphase determines surfactant mechanical properties such as the monolayer collapse pressure and surface viscosity by regulating solid-fluid coexistence. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction shows that the solid phase domains consist of two-dimensional crystals similar to those formed by mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid. The condensed domains grow as the surface pressure is increased until they coalesce, trapping protrusions of liquid matrix. At approximately 40 mN/m, a plateau exists in the isotherm at which the solid phase fraction increases from approximately 60 to 90%, at which the surface viscosity diverges. The viscosity is driven by the percolation of the solid phase domains, which depends on the solid phase area fraction of the monolayer. The high viscosity may lead to high monolayer collapse pressures, help prevent atelectasis, and minimize the flow of lung surfactant out of the alveoli due to surface tension gradients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reincorporation of lipids into monolayers at the air-water interface after collapse is important to the maintenance of low surface tensions on subsequent expansion and compression cycles. For single component, anionic dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol monolayers, the fraction of recovered lipid is proportional to the subphase ionic strength. The collapse mechanism and structure of the collapsed materials appear unchanged with ionic strength. A simple electrostatic barrier model shows that the fractional recovery depends exponentially on the Debye length; this is verified by experiment. This simple model suggests possible catalytic roles for the cationic lung surfactant specific proteins SP-B and SP-C that induce structural changes in the monolayer that may act as charge-neutralizing docking sites for surfactant in the subphase, leading to faster and more efficient recovery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing synthetic lung surfactants to replace animal extracts requires a fundamental understanding of the roles of the various lipids and proteins in native lung surfactant. We used Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Langmuir isotherms to study the influence of palmitoyl-oleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG) in monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid mixtures with or without dSP-B1-25, a peptide dimer based on the first 25 amino acids of surfactant protein B (SP-B). At surface pressures between 30 and 40 mN/m, only monolayers containing POPG and dSP-B1-25 showed plateaus in the isotherm similar to those in Survanta, a bovine extract replacement lung surfactant that contains native SP-B and SP-C proteins. BAM images show distinct morphological changes in the fluid phase during these plateaus, while AFM images of deposited monolayers show that multilayer structures, which we named "nanosilos", form in the fluid phase at the plateau. These nanosilos are from 50 to 300 nm in diameter and from 5 to 8 nm in height and are similar to those observed in deposited Survanta monolayers. We propose that POPG and SP-B interact to stabilize the monolayer composition by trapping POPG in three-dimensional surface-associated aggregates at high surface pressures, preventing the irreversible loss of POPG and SP-B to the subphase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over a range of conditions, lipid and surfactant monolayers exhibit coexistence of discrete solid domains in a continuous liquid. The surface shear viscosity, mu(s), of such monolayers collapses onto a single curve: mu(s)/mu(so) = [1-(A/A(c))](-1), in which mu(so) is the viscosity of the liquid phase, A is the area fraction of the solid phase measured by fluorescence microscopy, and A(c) is a critical solid phase fraction. This scaling relationship is directly analogous to that of three-dimensional dispersion of spheres in a solvent with long-range repulsive interactions, with area fraction replacing volume fraction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenous lung surfactant, and lung surfactant replacements used to treat respiratory distress syndrome, can be inactivated during lung edema, most likely by serum proteins. Serum albumin shows a concentration-dependent surface pressure that can exceed the respreading pressure of collapsed monolayers in vitro. Under these conditions, the collapsed surfactant monolayer can not respread to cover the interface, leading to higher minimum surface tensions and alterations in isotherms and morphology. This is an unusual example of a blocked phase transition (collapsed to monolayer form) inhibiting bioactivity. The concentration-dependent surface activity of other common surfactant inhibitors including fibrinogen and lysolipids correlates well with their effectiveness as inhibitors. These results show that respreading pressure may be as important as the minimum surface tension in the design of replacement surfactants for respiratory distress syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have built a magnetic needle viscometer capable of measuring the surface shear viscosity of Langmuir monolayers at constant surface pressure or molecular area. A Langmuir trough with dual symmetrical compression/expansion barriers is positioned between two electromagnetic coils that create a homogeneous magnetic field gradient. The gradient drives a Teflon-encapsulated magnetic needle floating on the monolayer along the surface to a terminal velocity. A channel created by two glass plates centers the needle and minimizes drift. The ratio of monolayer surface shear viscosity at a given composition, temperature, surface pressure, and so forth to a reference surface shear viscosity is determined by taking the appropriate ratio of the limiting velocities of the magnetic needle for a given applied force. The monolayer viscometer was calibrated using thin films of silicone oil of known viscosity. We demonstrate the utility of the viscometer by showing that the shear viscosity of saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is strongly dependent on temperature and surface pressure and correlates with the liquid expanded to liquid condensed phase transition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Langmuir monolayers have provided experimentally accessible models for studies of lung surfactants at the air-alveolus interface since the medical necessity of lung surfactant was demonstrated by the pioneering work of Avery and Clements in the early 1960s. The fundamental goal of these in vitro studies is a molecular level understanding of the relationships between lung surfactant composition, monolayer morphology, and monolayer physical parameters such as minimum surface tension, spreading, viscosity, etc.
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science. 01/2001;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-end-anchored poly-ethylene-glycol-surfactants (DEA-PEG-surfactants) induce the gelation of lyotropic lamellar Lalpha phases stabilized by undulation forces. The physical hydrogel (Lalpha,g) derives its viscoelasticity from the proliferation of defects at a mesoscopic level. The DEA-PEG-surfactants assume both looping and bridging conformations. The existence of novel bridging conformations is indicated by the coexistence of two lamellar phases and the limited swelling of the Lalpha and Lalpha,g phases. Modeling of the polymer decorated membranes demonstrates the existence of bridging and yields a rapidly decreasing density of bridging conformations with increasing interlayer spacing.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 01/2001; 115:6252-6257. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first evidence of the potential of new amphiphilic ABA-triblock copolymers as gelling agents for lamellar liquid crystalline Lα phases. Recently, we described a new type of lamellar hydrogels which are not based on a polymer network swollen in water but are obtained by the addition of small amounts of a nonionic polymer surfactant to the fluid lamellar Lα phase of the dimyristoyl−phosphatidyl−choline(DMPC)/pentanol/water system. In contrast with these previously reported gelling agents which were all AB-diblock copolymers, the novel ABA-triblock copolymers consist of double chain hydrophobic moieties (A) attached to each end of a poly(ethylene glycol) chain (B). The synthesis of these new macromolecules and their gelation properties are described. The comparison of these novel lamellar hydrogels with those based on the AB-diblock copolymers provides direct evidence for the existence of cross-bridging conformations of the ABA-triblock copolymers between adjacent membranes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report x-ray scattering, rheological, and freeze-fracture and polarizing microscopy studies of a liquid crystalline hydrogel called Lalpha,g. The hydrogel, found in DMPC, pentanol, water, and PEG-DMPE mixtures, differs from traditional hydrogels, which require high MW polymer, are disordered, and gel only at polymer concentrations exceeding an "overlap" concentration. In contrast, the Lalpha,g uses very low-molecular-weight polymer-lipids (1212, 2689, and 5817 g/mole), shows lamellar order, and requires a lower PEG-DMPE concentration to gel as water concentration increases. Significantly, the Lalpha,g contains fluid membranes, unlike Lbeta' gels, which gel via chain ordering. A recent model of gelation in Lalpha phases predicts that polymer-lipids both promote and stabilize defects; these defects, resisting shear in all directions, then produce elasticity. We compare our observations to this model, with particular attention to the dependence of gelation on the PEG MW used. We also use x-ray lineshape analysis of scattering from samples spanning the fluid-gel transition to obtain the elasticity coefficients kappa and B; this analysis demonstrates that although B in particular depends strongly on PEG-DMPE concentration, gelation is uncorrelated to changes in membrane elasticity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first direct imaging of a new hydrogel of lipid membranes containing polymer lipids. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy shows unambiguously that the hydrogel's surprisingly large viscoelasticity is explained by a novel defect topology of interconnections between defects. The defects are spherulites with high membrane curvatures which are either isotropic or cylinderlike. A lower concentration of dislocation-type defects was also observed. The interconnections between the defects distinguish the hydrogel from simple “onion” phases of multilamellar vesicles with a smaller viscoelasticity.
Physical Review Letters - PHYS REV LETT. 01/1997; 78(25):4781-4784.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of four polymer–surfactant macromolecules, each consisting of a double-chain hydrophobic moiety attached onto a monofunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer chain, were synthesized in order to study their effect upon the fluid lamellar liquid crystalline (Lα) phase of the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/pentanol/water system. The main finding of this study is that the addition of these compounds induces a new lamellar gel, called Lα,g. We have determined the phase diagrams as a function of PEG–surfactant concentration, cPEG, and weight fraction water, &Fgr;W. All phase diagrams are qualitatively similar and show the existence of the gel. Unlike more common polymer physical gels, this gel can be induced either by increasing cPEG or by adding water at constant cPEG. In particular, less polymer is required for gelation as water concentration increases. Moreover, the gel phase is attained at concentrations of PEG–surfactant far below that required for classical polymer gels and is stable at temperatures comparable to the lower critical solution temperature of free PEG–water mixtures. Small angle x-ray experiments demonstrate the lamellar structure of the gel phase, while wide angle x-ray scattering experiments prove that the structure is Lα, not Lβ′ (a common chain-ordered phase which is also a gel). The rheological behavior of the Lα,g phase demonstrates the existence of three dimensional elastic properties. Polarized light microscopy of Lα,g samples reveals that the Lα,g is induced by a proliferation of defect structures, including whispy lines, spherulitic defects, and a nematiclike Schlieren texture. We propose a model of topological defects created by the aggregation of PEG–surfactant into highly curved regions within the membranes. This model accounts for both the inverse relationship between &Fgr;W and cPEG observed along the gel transition line and the scaling dependence of the interlayer spacing at the gel transition with the PEG molecular weight. These Lα hydrogels could serve as the matrix for membrane-anchored peptides, proteins or other drug molecules, creating a “bioactive gel” with mechanical stability deriving from the polymer–lipid minority component.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 01/1997; 107(9):3707-3722. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A class of lamellar biological hydrogels comprised of fluid membranes of lipids and surfactants with small amounts of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol)-derived polymer lipids (PEG-lipids) were studied by x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and rheometry. In contrast to isotropic hydrogels of polymer networks, these membrane-based birefringent liquid crystalline biogels, labeled L-alpha,g, form the gel phase when water is added to the liquid-like lamellar L-alpha phase, which reenters a liquid-like mixed phase upon further dilution. Furthermore, gels with larger water content require less PEG-lipid to remain stable. Although concentrated (approximately 50 weight percent) mixtures of free PEG (molecular weight, 5000) and water do not gel, gelation does occur in mixtures containing as little as 0.5 weight percent PEG-lipid. A defining signature of the L-alpha,g regime as it sets in from the fluid lamellar L-alpha phase is the proliferation of layer-dislocation-type defects, which are stabilized by the segregation of PEG-lipids to the defect regions of high membrane curvature that connect the membranes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An equilibrium phase belonging to the family of bilayer liposomes in ternary mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), water, and geraniol (a biological alcohol derived from oil-soluble vitamins that acts as a cosurfactant) has been identified. Electron and optical microscopy reveal the phase, labeled Ltv, to be composed of highly entangled tubular vesicles. In situ x-ray diffraction confirms that the tubule walls are multilamellar with the lipids in the chain-melted state. Macroscopic observations show that the Ltv phase coexists with the well-known L4 phase of spherical vesicles and a bulk L alpha phase. However, the defining characteristic of the Ltv phase is the Weissenberg rod climbing effect under shear, which results from its polymer-like entangled microstructure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An x-ray surface forces apparatus for simultaneously measuring forces and structures of confined complex fluids under static and flow conditions is described. This apparatus, combined with an intense synchrotron x-ray source, allows investigation of molecular orientations within a thin liquid crystal film confined between two shearing mica surfaces 3900 angstroms apart. The layer-forming smectic liquid crystal 8CB (4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl) adopted a series of distinct planar layer orientations, including the bulk flow-forbidden b orientation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using two complimentary techniques, we have measured repulsive interactions in the L_alpha phase of very flexible membranes composed of the surfactant C12E5 and small amounts of polymer-lipids derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG-DMPE 5000, PEG-DMPE 2000 and PEG-DMPE 550). In the first method, the lamellar repeat distance of samples in equilibrium with a dextran solution of known osmotic pressure is determined, yielding a direct measurement of pressure versus distance. These data immediately differentiate the repulsive interaction between flexible polymer-decorated membranes from polymer-brush forces found in rigid lamellar systems. In the second method, fits to high-resolution x-ray data yield the eta parameter, proportional to (kappaB)-1\over2, where B is the layer compressional modulus and kappa is the bending rigidity of a single membrane. Combining the two types of data to eliminate B, one can quantitatively determine the kappa of a decorated membrane as a function of polymer-lipid concentration. For the bare C12E5 membrane, where kappa is known , a direct comparison of the compressibility modulus values derived via the two methods is also possible. This work supported by NSF-DMR-9624091; PRF-31352-AC7 CULAR-STB/UC:96-118.