Hirotaka Inoue

Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (7)19.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We evaluated the effects of avanafil, a highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, on electroretinogram and hemodynamics in dogs, and the effects were compared with those of sildenafil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in anesthetized dogs: (1) influence on electroretinogram induced by a light-adapted 30-Hz flicker stimulation, (2) direct hemodynamic changes, and (3) potentiation of nitroglycerin-induced hypotension. Avanafil was administered at doses which were pharmacologically equipotent to or higher than those of sildenafil for penile tumescence. RESULTS: (1) Intraduodenal doses of avanafil did not influence the electroretinogram waveform. In contrast, sildenafil changed the shape of waveform, and significantly delayed the time to peak of electroretinogram positive waveform (p<0.05, vs vehicle). (2) Intravenous infusion of avanafil or sildenafil (1 to 300 µg/kg/min) significantly decreased the systemic blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, and pulmonary arterial pressure (p<0.05 vs vehicle). The administration of sildenafil, but not avanafil, significantly decreased the resistances of common carotid and vertebral arteries (p<0.05, vs vehicle). (3) Intraduodenal doses of avanafil or sildenafil (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) potentiated the area under the curve of nitroglycerin-induced hypotension. However, the potentiating effect of avanafil at 1 mg/kg was significantly weaker than that of sildenafil (p<0.05, avanafil vs sildenafil). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that avanafil has a favorable safety profile for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The profile would be attributed to the high inhibitory selectivity for phosphodiesterase type 5 against type 6 (retina) and type 1 (vessels, etc), respectively, and its short-acting pharmacodynamic property.
    The Journal of urology 01/2013; · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of avanafil, a novel, potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5, on 11 phosphodiesterases. We also studied its potentiation of penile tumescence in dogs. Phosphodiesterase assay was done with the 4 phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors avanafil, sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil using 11 phosphodiesterase isozymes. In anesthetized dogs the pelvic nerve was repeatedly stimulated to evoke tumescence. Intracavernous pressure was measured after avanafil or sildenafil administration. Avanafil specifically inhibited phosphodiesterase-5 activity at a 50% inhibitory concentration of 5.2 nM. Avanafil showed higher selectivity (121-fold) against phosphodiesterase-6 than sildenafil and vardenafil (16 to 21-fold) and showed excellent selectivity (greater than 10,000-fold) against phosphodiesterase-1 compared with sildenafil (375-fold). Avanafil also had higher selectivity against phosphodiesterase-11 than tadalafil (greater than 19,000 vs 25-fold). Avanafil also showed excellent selectivity against all other phosphodiesterases. After intravenous administration in anesthetized dogs the 200% effective dose of avanafil and sildenafil on the penile tumescence was 37.5 and 34.6 μg/kg, respectively. After intraduodenal administration the 200% effective dose of avanafil and sildenafil on tumescence was 151.7 and 79.0 μg/kg at the peak time, respectively. Time to peak response with avanafil and sildenafil was 10 and 30 minutes, respectively, indicating a more rapid onset of avanafil. Avanafil has a favorable phosphodiesterase-5 selectivity profile compared to that of marketed phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Avanafil shows excellent in vitro and in vivo potency, and fast onset of action for penile erection. Cumulative data suggest that avanafil has a promising pharmacological profile for erectile dysfunction.
    The Journal of urology 06/2012; 188(2):668-74. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T-0156 (2-(2-methylpyridin-4-yl)methyl-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8-(pyrimidin-2-yl)methoxy-1,2-dihydro-1-oxo-2,7-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester hydrochloride) is a newly synthesized phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, and its potency and selectivity are higher than those of sildenafil in an enzyme assay. In the present study with anesthetized dogs, we examined the effects of intravenous T-0156 or sildenafil on the pelvic nerve stimulation-induced penile tumescence and light-adapted flicker stimulation-induced electroretinogram, parameters of which are reported to be indicators for inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 and type 6, respectively. Both compounds potentiated the penile tumescence in a dose-dependent manner. T-0156 at 10 microg/kg and sildenafil at 100 microg/kg showed almost the same potentiating percentage (181.5+/-31.1% and 190.0+/-37.9%) in spite of the plasma concentration of T-0156 being about five times lower than that of sildenafil (16.7+/-1.6 and 78.8+/-5.3 ng/ml), indicating that the effect of T-0156 on tumescence is more potent than that of sildenafil. While the high dose of T-0156 (1000 microg/kg) reduced the amplitude and increased the latency of the electroretinogram positive wave, the effects of T-0156 were conversely weaker than those of sildenafil (reduction of amplitude; T-0156: 41.1+/-8.0%, sildenafil: 71.7+/-3.9%, increase of latency; T-0156: 3.9+/-0.6%, sildenafil: 14.5+/-1.4%, at 1000 microg/kg). These results clearly showed the difference in the properties of T-0156 and sildenafil in pharmacological studies with anesthetized dogs, and the difference appeared to correspond with their inhibitory potencies for phosphodiesterase type 5 and type 6. It was concluded that T-0156 would be a useful pharmacological tool as a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 03/2004; 485(1-3):283-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enzymological and pharmacological properties of 2-(2-Methylpyridin-4-yl)methyl-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8-(pyrimidin-2-yl)methoxy-1,2-dihydro-1-oxo-2,7-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester hydrochloride (T-0156), a new phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, were studied in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effects of T-0156 on six phosphodiesterase isozymes isolated from canine tissues were investigated. T-0156 specifically inhibited the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by phosphodiesterase type 5, at low concentration (IC(50)=0.23 nM), in a competitive manner. T-0156 also inhibited phosphodiesterase type 6 with IC(50) value of 56 nM, which was 240-fold higher than that for inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5. T-0156 had low potencies against phosphodiesterase types 1, 2, 3, and 4 (IC(50)>10 microM). In the isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum, T-0156 at 10 and 100 nM increased cGMP levels (100 nM T-0156-treated: 6.0+/-1.5 pmol/mg protein, vehicle-treated: 1.1+/-0.4 pmol/mg protein, P<0.05), causing relaxation of the tissue. T-0156 at 1 to 100 nM potentiated the electrical field stimulation-induced relaxation in the isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM T-0156-treated: 76.9+/-19.8%, vehicle-treated: 12.3+/-10.1%, P<0.05). Intraduodenal administration of T-0156 at 100 to 1000 microg/kg potentiated the pelvic nerve stimulation-induced tumescence in anesthetized dogs (1000 microg/kg T-0156-treated: 279.0+/-38.4%, vehicle-treated: 9.8+/-4.5%, P<0.05). These results suggested that T-0156 enhanced the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway, probably through blockade of phosphodiesterase type 5 in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The present study clearly showed that T-0156 is a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, which is a useful tool for pharmacological studies in vitro and in vivo.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 01/2003; 456(1-3):91-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the hemodynamic property of T-1032 (methyl 2-(4-aminophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-1-oxo-7-(2-pyridylmethoxy)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxylate sulfate), a novel selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, and evaluated the chronic effect of T-1032 on cardiac remodeling and its related death in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats. T-1032 (1, 10, 100 micro g/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) without a change in heart rate. The change in RVSP was more potent than that in MAP with 1 micro g/kg T-1032 treatment (RVSP: -8.2+/-1.2%, mean arterial pressure: -5.7+/-1.2%), and reductions in RVSP and MAP reached a peak at doses of 1 and 10 micro g/kg, respectively. In contrast, nitroglycerin (0.1, 1, 10 micro g/kg, i.v.) and beraprost (0.1, 1 micro g/kg, i.v.) did not cause a selective reduction in RVSP at any dose. When T-1032 (300 ppm in diet) was chronically administered, it delayed the death, and significantly suppressed right ventricular remodeling (T-1032-treated: 0.318+/-0.021 g, control: 0.401+/-0.013 g, p<0.05). Our present results suggest that T-1032 selectively reduces RVSP, and resulting in the suppression of right ventricular remodeling with a delay of the death in MCT-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 12/2002; 25(11):1422-6. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the influence of T-1032 (methyl2-(4-aminophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-1-oxo-7-(2-pyridylmethoxy)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxylate sulfate), a potent and relatively selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, on chronic heart failure, we examined the acute hemodynamic profile of T-1032 and its chronic effect on the survival of Bio 14.6 cardiomyopathic hamsters. In the acute study, T-1032 (1, 10, 100 microg/kg) was administered intravenously by means of a dose-escalating procedure in 55-week-old hamsters. T-1032 significantly reduced both the right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in a dose-dependent manner. T-1032 modestly reduced the systemic arterial pressure at the highest dose (100 microg/kg i.v.). T-1032 did not change the heart rate or left ventricular dp/dt(max). In the survival study, chronic administration of T-1032 (50 and 500 ppm in a diet) increased survival, and the survival rate was 24.2%, 45.4% and 48.5% in the control, 50 and 500 ppm-treated groups, respectively. The median survival was 55, 58 and 58 weeks in control, 50 and 500 ppm-treated groups, respectively. Analysis of the survival curves revealed that T-1032 (500 ppm) significantly increased the survival of these hamsters (P<0.05 vs. control). It was concluded that T-1032 had beneficial hemodynamic effects on heart failure in Bio 14.6 cardiomyopathic hamsters, and the favorable hemodynamic changes induced by T-1032 were partly related to the increase in the survival of these hamsters. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic heart failure.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 05/2002; 443(1-3):179-84. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vasorelaxant effects of sildenafil and T-1032 [methyl-2-(4-aminophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-1-oxo-7-(2-pyridinylmethoxy)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxylate sulfate], two phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, were examined in the isolated rat aorta. Sildenafil and T-1032, both of which have almost the same potency and selectivity regarding phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitory activity, produced a similar, moderate, relaxation at 10(-10) to 10(-7) M (sildenafil: 66.8 +/- 13.7%; T-1032: 77.9 +/- 10.8% at 10(-7) M). However, sildenafil, but not T-1032, produced further relaxation at the higher concentrations (sildenafil: 102.0 +/- 0.6%; T-1032: 81.0 +/- 7.2% at 10(-4) M, P < 0.05). Sildenafil also produced a more potent relaxation than did T-1032 at the high concentrations (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) in endothelium-denuded aortic rings and in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (3 x 10(-4) M). Moreover, the high concentrations of sildenafil, but not of T-1032, caused a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve for calcium chloride in K(+)-depolarized endothelium-denuded preparations. In the ligand binding assay for the L-type Ca(2+) channels, the affinities of sildenafil at 10(-5) M for binding sites of nitrendipine and (--)-desmethoxyverapamil [(--)- D888] (35.2 +/- 3.3% and 35.8 +/- 1.9%, respectively) were higher than those of T-1032 (11.8 +/- 4.0% and -13.1 +/- 1.3%, respectively, P < 0.05). Regarding cyclic nucleotide levels, both phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors increased cGMP levels at 10(-6) M. However, sildenafil, but not T-1032, further increased cGMP levels at the higher concentrations (sildenafil: 15.7 +/- 2.7 pmol/mg protein; T-1032: 5.6 +/- 0.6 pmol/mg protein at 10(-4) M, P < 0.05). These results suggested that high concentrations of sildenafil had additional vasorelaxant properties through mechanisms other than phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition. Sildenafil-induced relaxation appears to be due to inhibition of the external Ca(2+)-dependent cascade for contraction and/or to an increase in cGMP levels. In contrast, T-1032 only showed a vasorelaxant property due to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition. In conclusion, T-1032 appears to be a specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor compared with sildenafil and a useful compound to examine the physiological function of phosphodiesterase type 5.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 05/2002; 440(1):45-52. · 2.59 Impact Factor