Gilles Boëtsch

University of Bamako, Bammaco, Bamako, Mali

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Publications (101)78.72 Total impact

  • P Duboz, L Gueye, G Boetsch, E Macia
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    ABSTRACT: (1) To describe access to health care in the population of Dakar; (2) to analyze the influence of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on access to health care; (3) and to describe the fraction of consultations accounted for by chronic non-communicable diseases. These data come from a 2009 survey of 600 individuals aged 20 years and over. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and information about access to health care were collected. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions were used for the statistical analyses. Men, people with no schooling, and poor people were underrepresented among users of health care services. Moreover, the majority of Dakar residents who sought health care during the year preceding the survey went to see a doctor (as opposed to a traditional healer, pharmacist, nurse, midwife, or dentist). Finally, chronic diseases accounted for the smallest fraction of reasons for medical consultations; they were mentioned most often by those aged 50 years or older who consult more than 5 times a year. Dakar residents have an access to health care similar to that of people in other African countries, but this conclusion hides major inequalities. Moreover, at the same time that Senegal is undergoing an epidemiological transition, chronic non-communicable diseases are not a major reason for consultations. The epidemiological projections made for Africa for the next 15 years indicate that the development of strategies to avert the development of these diseases in Senegal must be a priority objective.
    06/2015; DOI:10.1684/mst.2015.0450
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were: to compare the prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity in rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) Senegalese populations aged 50 and over. The survey was conducted on individuals aged 50 and older living in the rural area (N=478) and in the urban area (N=220). We have collected data about age, gender, marital status, education level, and knowledge, treatment of hypertension, height, weight and blood pressure. We have observed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent in the urban area (Dakar) than in the rural one (Ferlo). The risk of overweight or obesity decreased when age increased, and women had weight problems more often than men. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was lower in rural area (55.86%) than in Dakar (66.36%), but increased at an older age. However, the logistic regression showed that these increased proportion of hypertension in Dakar is linked to the more important proportion of overweight and obese people in this area. Moreover, rates of knowledge, treatment and control of hypertension are particularly low in the rural area of Senegal. In conclusion, age-associated diseases should be better managed in Senegal, particularly in rural areas.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 09/2014; 108(1). DOI:10.1007/s13149-014-0397-y
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    ABSTRACT: The Senegalese lifestyle mutation by an urbanization process associated with the combined effects of demographic, nutritional and epidemiologic transitions (Popkin, 1997), has consequences on body conceptions: evolution of body size standards, new perceptions of sickness-death, food and sexuality (Thomas, 1990) and emergence of a more demanding bodily appearance (Cohen, 2012), which need to be clarified. To do this, we employed a cross analysis of qualitative and quantitative data (40 semi-structured interviews and two Factorial Correspondance Analysis – FCA 1 and 2 – on 593 subjects) by a comparative study implemented in a representative sample of Senegalese adults from Dakar and a village from the Kaolack region. The qualitative study shows that sickness-death is less associated with persecutory from supernatural entities, widely questioned by more pregnant Islamic and modern values (Fassin, 1992). The food gradually loses its status as scarce resource, subject to the will of supernatural entities (De Garine, 1990). Finally, the reproductive sexuality is gradually replaced by islamic and modern guilty quests of pleasure (Biaya, 2001). Then, the FCA 1 shows an association between the representation that human cannot control the sickness (1), the food has a sacred status (2), the sexuality is restricted to the reproduction in marriage (3), the desire to use one’s body for the group (4) and the rural area (5) (p<0.001, n=387). The FCA 2 shows an association between the desire to control one’s health (1), eat alone for pleasure (2), wear modern clothes (tight) (3), the desire to have a thin body (4) and the urban area (5) (p<0.001, n=111). This has implications in the relationship to health, diet and aesthetics which fully reconfigure the relationship to the body (size) : the big person is no longer associated with well-being (sickness-death/health), wealth (food/diet) and fertility (sexuality/aesthetics), but with dysfunction, idleness and sexual undesirability (Fischler, 2001).
    XVIII ISA World Congress of Sociology; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The prediction of risk profile trends associated with non-communicable diseases in developing countries is among the greatest global health challenges. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Dakar (Senegal). This study was carried out between January and June 2009 on a population sample of 600 individuals living in the department of Dakar. This sample was constructed using the quota method in order to strive for representativeness. Sociodemographic characteristics, hypertension, hypertension awareness, treatment and control, and body mass index of individuals were collected during face-to-face interviews. Statistical analyses used were χ(2)-tests and binary logistic regressions. Prevalence of hypertension was 27.50%. Prevalence of awareness, treatment and control among hypertensives were 27.88%, 16.97% and 5.45%, respectively. Logistic regression showed that the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension increased with increasing age. Overweight and obese subjects were more often hypertensive but did not differ from others in awareness and treatment. This could be linked to the social valorization of stoutness in West Africa, which explains that excess weight is not perceived as a risk factor for hypertension. In conclusion, given the very low rates of awareness, treatment and control in our sample, developing strategies for averting a hypertension epidemic must be a priority objective.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 16 January 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.142.
    Journal of human hypertension 01/2014; DOI:10.1038/jhh.2013.142 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • 01/2014; 87(1). DOI:10.4081/jbr.2014.2129
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    ABSTRACT: Body size perceptions were assessed among members of the Bamiléké, an ethnic group in an urban setting in Cameroon with high rates of obesity, but also a positive perception of stoutness in its social representations. We first implemented a qualitative study (April 2007) to identify local representations of body weight among Bamiléké using semi-structured interviews. We then quantitatively assessed body size perceptions among a representative sample of Bamiléké (May to June 2007), employing a body image assessment scale and a questionnaire that included declarative body weight self-satisfaction, health status, and attempts to reduce weight. Results indicate Desired Body Size (DBS) for women, and particularly for men, was situated in the overweight category. Qualitative analyses show that overweight is considered as a normal and healthy body size in the Bamiléké. On the other hand, the quantitative study reveals that high rates of obesity, especially in women (40.8% obese), are associated with high blood pressure. Moreover, subjects who had a negative perception of their health status wanted to lose weight (p < 0.01). Unlike males, females have a DBS lower than their Current Body Size (p < 0.001). In addition, subjects (particularly males) who felt they were too lean, were older than those who felt too fat. We therefore conclude that the social valorisation of stoutness exposes Bamiléké, particularly males, to obesity. Although the women stated a desire to lose weight and present aesthetic criteria more oriented towards slimness, the attitude of the Bamiléké remained oriented toward stoutness appreciation. This preference can help protect against body image disturbances identified in Western societies, but may also increase of the incidence of obesity and its associated pathologies in this part of the world.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 11/2013; 96:24-32. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.07.004 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems.
    Comptes rendus biologies 05/2013; 336(5-6):273-7. DOI:10.1016/j.crvi.2013.04.007 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000 km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems.
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    ABSTRACT: L’objectif de cet article est de déterminer si la notion d’ethnie est, à Dakar, un critère pertinent d’analyse en anthropologie démographique, en testant sa validité lors de l’analyse de l’évolution de la structure des populations au cours des générations. L’échantillon de population, comprenant des individus habitant le département de Dakar, comprend 600 individus. Les caractéristiques socioéconomiques, démographiques, l’ethnie déclarée sur trois générations et la force de l’identification à l’ethnie ont été recueillies. Les analyses statistiques utilisées sont des tests du Chi2, des Anova et des tests exacts de Fisher. Cette étude a permis de montrer que la transmission de l’ethnie déclarée se révèle majoritairement homogène sur trois générations. Le pourcentage de mariages « interethniques » est beaucoup plus faible que celui consigné dans les données de la littérature: 17,9 % à la génération des parents, et entre 3 % (côté paternel) et 5,1 % (côté maternel) à la génération des grandsparents. Cette étude a également permis de montrer que les Dakarois s’identifient très fortement à leur ethnie. L’ethnie déclarée ne peut pas être considérée comme une variable permettant de retracer l’évolution de la structure des populations au cours des générations en contexte dakarois, du fait de l’homogénéisation consécutive à la reconstruction subjective de l’histoire familiale de l’ethnie.
    Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d anthropologie de Paris 12/2012; 24(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s13219-012-0058-2
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines social and environmental influences on the development of hypertension in a sample of 568 adults (290 men; 278 women) aged 20 years and older from Dakar, Senegal. We test the hypothesis that more recent immigrants to the city of Dakar will have lower blood pressure and lower rates of hypertension than those who have lived there longer. Cross-sectional sociodemographic, anthropometric and blood pressure data were collected during 2009. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 27.1% (95% CI: 25.2-29.0). Hypertension rates were not significantly associated with place of birth; however, length of residence in Dakar was a significant predictor, with those living in the city for less than 10 years having reduced risks of developing hypertension (OR = 0.25; P = 0.003). Other important correlates of blood pressure and hypertension risk in this sample were age and body mass index. These findings suggest that length of exposure to the urban environment-and associated changes in lifestyle-are linked to hypertension. Public health officials should thus pay particular attention to this phenomenon, and future anthropological research should include measures of both environmental and biological characteristics to study hypertension in Senegal. Am J Phys Anthropol 149:250-258, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 10/2012; 149(2):250-8. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.22122 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes in the urban population living in Dakar, Senegal, and to investigate the factors associated with diabetes. Data from a 2009 survey of 600 individuals, aged 20 years or above and considered representative of the population of the city of Dakar, were evaluated. Socioeconomic characteristics, hypertension, capillary whole blood glucose, and weight and height measurements of these subjects were collected during face-to-face interviews. The statistical analyses used chi-square (chi(2)) tests and binary logistic regressions. The percentage of participants with fasting blood glucose levels greater than or equal to 1.10g/L and/or currently being treated for diabetes was 17.9% (n=107, 95% CI: 14.7-20.8). Observed rates of diabetes were significantly higher among women (chi(2)=6.3; P<0.05), in subjects aged>40 years (chi(2)=33.6; P<0.001), in those with low educational levels (chi(2)=11.9; P<0.05) and in those with hypertension (chi(2)=13.9; P<0.001), and in those who were overweight (BMI≥25kg/m(2) and<30kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI≥30kg/m(2); chi(2)=40.3; P<0.001). After adjusting for gender, age, educational level, BMI and blood pressure, the results showed that gender, age and BMI were associated with diabetes: women, older people and those with a higher BMI had significantly greater chances of being diabetic than the rest of the population, whatever their blood pressure and educational level. Diabetes is becoming a pressing public-health problem in Senegal, and the major risk factors for the increasing diabetes prevalence in the city of Dakar are gender, age and body mass index.
    Diabetes & Metabolism 04/2012; 38(4):332-6. DOI:10.1016/j.diabet.2012.02.011 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood donor retention represents a fundamental objective in public health. Comparison between the sociodemographic characteristics and motivational factors between lapsed and regular donors is then required. The objectives of this analysis were: (1) to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of lapsed donors and current donors; (2) to compare the motivations to donate blood expressed by lapsed and current donors. Data from a 2008 survey, representative of the population by crossed quotas method, of 1400 individuals questioned by phone were used to reach these objectives. Chi(2) tests and binary logistic regressions were used. Results show that socio-occupational categories and motivational factors are different between lapsed and regular donors. Workers, senior management and higher intellectual professions are more often lapsed than regular donors. Concerning motivations, results show that lapsed donors more frequently mention the first experience with blood donation (with colleagues, friends, and parents) than regular donors, for whom altruistic and community motivations are more frequently cited. Workers, senior management and higher intellectual professions should be targeted uppermost, in order to convert them in regular donors. Finally, concerning motivations, the social pressure applied to lapsed donors for their first blood donation appears crucial, whereas regular donors have internalized their motives, more often altruistic and community motivations.
    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 02/2012; 19(1):17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.tracli.2011.08.001 · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • 01/2012; 85(1). DOI:10.4081/4085
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    Gilles Boëtsch, Anne-Marie Guihard-Costa
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    Géraud Gourjon, Gilles Boëtsch, Anna Degioanni
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    ABSTRACT: The peopling of Comoro Archipelago is defined by successive waves of migration from three main areas: the East African Coast (Bantu-speaking populations), the Persia and Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia (especially Indonesia). It follows an apparent classic trihybrid admixture model. To better understand the Comorian population admixture dynamics, we analyzed the contributions of these three historical parental components to its genetic pool. To enhance accuracy and reliability, we used both classical and molecular markers. Samples consist of published data: blood group frequencies, 14 KIR genes, 19 mitochondrial DNA SNPs (to highlight female migrations), 14 Y chromosome SNPs (male migrations). We revealed distinct admixture patterns for autosomal and uniparental markers. KIR gene frequencies had never been used to estimate admixture rates, this being a first assessment of their informative power in admixture studies. To avoid major methodological and statistical bias, we determined admixture coefficients through nine well-tried estimators and their associated software programs (ADMIX95, ADMIX, admix 2.0, LEA, LEADMIX, and Mistura). Results from mtDNA and Y chromosome markers point to an important sex-bias in the admixture event. The original Bantu gene pool received a predominant male-mediated contribution from the Arabian Peninsula and Persia, and a female-mediated contribution from Southeast Asia. Admixture rates estimated from autosomal KIR gene markers point also to an unexpected elevated Austronesian contribution.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 04/2011; 144(4):653-60. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.21474 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • A. Brus, G. Boëtsch
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    ABSTRACT: L’obésité est universellement définie à partir de la classification recommandée par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS), basée sur l’indice de masse corporelle (IMC). Cependant, l’application d’une norme unique présente des limites, notamment au regard de la grande variabilité interpopulationnelle, tant au niveau biologique que culturel. La relation entre l’IMC et la proportion de masse grasse corporelle, et donc avec les risques sanitaires associés, présente en effet une grande diversité entre groupes humains. La perception sociale du corps corpulent est quant à elle tout autant variable d’une culture à l’autre. The definition of obesity is universally based on WHO recommendations, which use body mass index (BMI). Application of a single norm presents some limits, however, because of large inter-population variability, biologically as well socially. The relationship between BMI and percentage of body fat, with its associated health risks, thus shows significant diversity between human groups, and social perception of body fat is variable from one culture to another. Mots clésIndice de masse corporelle–Variabilité biologique–Diversité sociale KeywordsBody mass index–Biological variation–Social diversity
    Obésité 03/2011; 6(1):23-28. DOI:10.1007/s11690-011-0257-x
  • 01/2011; 11(2):113. DOI:10.7202/1014687ar
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    ABSTRACT: The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2011; 19(1):89-94. DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2010.128 · 4.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

242 Citations
78.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Bamako
      Bammaco, Bamako, Mali
  • 1996–2013
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009–2012
    • Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar
      Dakar, Dakar, Senegal
  • 2009–2010
    • Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2005
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2002–2005
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2004
    • Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1995–1996
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France