G. Boëtsch

Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Dakar, Dakar, Senegal

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Publications (75)71.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were: to compare the prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity in rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) Senegalese populations aged 50 and over. The survey was conducted on individuals aged 50 and older living in the rural area (N=478) and in the urban area (N=220). We have collected data about age, gender, marital status, education level, and knowledge, treatment of hypertension, height, weight and blood pressure. We have observed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent in the urban area (Dakar) than in the rural one (Ferlo). The risk of overweight or obesity decreased when age increased, and women had weight problems more often than men. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was lower in rural area (55.86%) than in Dakar (66.36%), but increased at an older age. However, the logistic regression showed that these increased proportion of hypertension in Dakar is linked to the more important proportion of overweight and obese people in this area. Moreover, rates of knowledge, treatment and control of hypertension are particularly low in the rural area of Senegal. In conclusion, age-associated diseases should be better managed in Senegal, particularly in rural areas.
    Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990). 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Senegalese lifestyle mutation by an urbanization process associated with the combined effects of demographic, nutritional and epidemiologic transitions (Popkin, 1997), has consequences on body conceptions: evolution of body size standards, new perceptions of sickness-death, food and sexuality (Thomas, 1990) and emergence of a more demanding bodily appearance (Cohen, 2012), which need to be clarified. To do this, we employed a cross analysis of qualitative and quantitative data (40 semi-structured interviews and two Factorial Correspondance Analysis – FCA 1 and 2 – on 593 subjects) by a comparative study implemented in a representative sample of Senegalese adults from Dakar and a village from the Kaolack region. The qualitative study shows that sickness-death is less associated with persecutory from supernatural entities, widely questioned by more pregnant Islamic and modern values (Fassin, 1992). The food gradually loses its status as scarce resource, subject to the will of supernatural entities (De Garine, 1990). Finally, the reproductive sexuality is gradually replaced by islamic and modern guilty quests of pleasure (Biaya, 2001). Then, the FCA 1 shows an association between the representation that human cannot control the sickness (1), the food has a sacred status (2), the sexuality is restricted to the reproduction in marriage (3), the desire to use one’s body for the group (4) and the rural area (5) (p<0.001, n=387). The FCA 2 shows an association between the desire to control one’s health (1), eat alone for pleasure (2), wear modern clothes (tight) (3), the desire to have a thin body (4) and the urban area (5) (p<0.001, n=111). This has implications in the relationship to health, diet and aesthetics which fully reconfigure the relationship to the body (size) : the big person is no longer associated with well-being (sickness-death/health), wealth (food/diet) and fertility (sexuality/aesthetics), but with dysfunction, idleness and sexual undesirability (Fischler, 2001).
    XVIII ISA World Congress of Sociology; 07/2014
  • P Duboz, G Boëtsch, L Gueye, E Macia
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    ABSTRACT: The prediction of risk profile trends associated with non-communicable diseases in developing countries is among the greatest global health challenges. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Dakar (Senegal). This study was carried out between January and June 2009 on a population sample of 600 individuals living in the department of Dakar. This sample was constructed using the quota method in order to strive for representativeness. Sociodemographic characteristics, hypertension, hypertension awareness, treatment and control, and body mass index of individuals were collected during face-to-face interviews. Statistical analyses used were χ(2)-tests and binary logistic regressions. Prevalence of hypertension was 27.50%. Prevalence of awareness, treatment and control among hypertensives were 27.88%, 16.97% and 5.45%, respectively. Logistic regression showed that the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension increased with increasing age. Overweight and obese subjects were more often hypertensive but did not differ from others in awareness and treatment. This could be linked to the social valorization of stoutness in West Africa, which explains that excess weight is not perceived as a risk factor for hypertension. In conclusion, given the very low rates of awareness, treatment and control in our sample, developing strategies for averting a hypertension epidemic must be a priority objective.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 16 January 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.142.
    Journal of human hypertension 01/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body size perceptions were assessed among members of the Bamiléké, an ethnic group in an urban setting in Cameroon with high rates of obesity, but also a positive perception of stoutness in its social representations. We first implemented a qualitative study (April 2007) to identify local representations of body weight among Bamiléké using semi-structured interviews. We then quantitatively assessed body size perceptions among a representative sample of Bamiléké (May to June 2007), employing a body image assessment scale and a questionnaire that included declarative body weight self-satisfaction, health status, and attempts to reduce weight. Results indicate Desired Body Size (DBS) for women, and particularly for men, was situated in the overweight category. Qualitative analyses show that overweight is considered as a normal and healthy body size in the Bamiléké. On the other hand, the quantitative study reveals that high rates of obesity, especially in women (40.8% obese), are associated with high blood pressure. Moreover, subjects who had a negative perception of their health status wanted to lose weight (p < 0.01). Unlike males, females have a DBS lower than their Current Body Size (p < 0.001). In addition, subjects (particularly males) who felt they were too lean, were older than those who felt too fat. We therefore conclude that the social valorisation of stoutness exposes Bamiléké, particularly males, to obesity. Although the women stated a desire to lose weight and present aesthetic criteria more oriented towards slimness, the attitude of the Bamiléké remained oriented toward stoutness appreciation. This preference can help protect against body image disturbances identified in Western societies, but may also increase of the incidence of obesity and its associated pathologies in this part of the world.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 11/2013; 96:24-32. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems.
    Comptes rendus biologies 05/2013; 336(5-6):273-7. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000 km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems.
    Comptes Rendus Biologies. 01/2013; 336(s 5–6):273–277.
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    ABSTRACT: L’objectif de cet article est de déterminer si la notion d’ethnie est, à Dakar, un critère pertinent d’analyse en anthropologie démographique, en testant sa validité lors de l’analyse de l’évolution de la structure des populations au cours des générations. L’échantillon de population, comprenant des individus habitant le département de Dakar, comprend 600 individus. Les caractéristiques socioéconomiques, démographiques, l’ethnie déclarée sur trois générations et la force de l’identification à l’ethnie ont été recueillies. Les analyses statistiques utilisées sont des tests du Chi2, des Anova et des tests exacts de Fisher. Cette étude a permis de montrer que la transmission de l’ethnie déclarée se révèle majoritairement homogène sur trois générations. Le pourcentage de mariages « interethniques » est beaucoup plus faible que celui consigné dans les données de la littérature: 17,9 % à la génération des parents, et entre 3 % (côté paternel) et 5,1 % (côté maternel) à la génération des grandsparents. Cette étude a également permis de montrer que les Dakarois s’identifient très fortement à leur ethnie. L’ethnie déclarée ne peut pas être considérée comme une variable permettant de retracer l’évolution de la structure des populations au cours des générations en contexte dakarois, du fait de l’homogénéisation consécutive à la reconstruction subjective de l’histoire familiale de l’ethnie.
    Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d anthropologie de Paris 12/2012; 24(3-4).
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines social and environmental influences on the development of hypertension in a sample of 568 adults (290 men; 278 women) aged 20 years and older from Dakar, Senegal. We test the hypothesis that more recent immigrants to the city of Dakar will have lower blood pressure and lower rates of hypertension than those who have lived there longer. Cross-sectional sociodemographic, anthropometric and blood pressure data were collected during 2009. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 27.1% (95% CI: 25.2-29.0). Hypertension rates were not significantly associated with place of birth; however, length of residence in Dakar was a significant predictor, with those living in the city for less than 10 years having reduced risks of developing hypertension (OR = 0.25; P = 0.003). Other important correlates of blood pressure and hypertension risk in this sample were age and body mass index. These findings suggest that length of exposure to the urban environment-and associated changes in lifestyle-are linked to hypertension. Public health officials should thus pay particular attention to this phenomenon, and future anthropological research should include measures of both environmental and biological characteristics to study hypertension in Senegal. Am J Phys Anthropol 149:250-258, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 10/2012; 149(2):250-8. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes in the urban population living in Dakar, Senegal, and to investigate the factors associated with diabetes. Data from a 2009 survey of 600 individuals, aged 20 years or above and considered representative of the population of the city of Dakar, were evaluated. Socioeconomic characteristics, hypertension, capillary whole blood glucose, and weight and height measurements of these subjects were collected during face-to-face interviews. The statistical analyses used chi-square (chi(2)) tests and binary logistic regressions. The percentage of participants with fasting blood glucose levels greater than or equal to 1.10g/L and/or currently being treated for diabetes was 17.9% (n=107, 95% CI: 14.7-20.8). Observed rates of diabetes were significantly higher among women (chi(2)=6.3; P<0.05), in subjects aged>40 years (chi(2)=33.6; P<0.001), in those with low educational levels (chi(2)=11.9; P<0.05) and in those with hypertension (chi(2)=13.9; P<0.001), and in those who were overweight (BMI≥25kg/m(2) and<30kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI≥30kg/m(2); chi(2)=40.3; P<0.001). After adjusting for gender, age, educational level, BMI and blood pressure, the results showed that gender, age and BMI were associated with diabetes: women, older people and those with a higher BMI had significantly greater chances of being diabetic than the rest of the population, whatever their blood pressure and educational level. Diabetes is becoming a pressing public-health problem in Senegal, and the major risk factors for the increasing diabetes prevalence in the city of Dakar are gender, age and body mass index.
    Diabetes & Metabolism 04/2012; 38(4):332-6. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood donor retention represents a fundamental objective in public health. Comparison between the sociodemographic characteristics and motivational factors between lapsed and regular donors is then required. The objectives of this analysis were: (1) to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of lapsed donors and current donors; (2) to compare the motivations to donate blood expressed by lapsed and current donors. Data from a 2008 survey, representative of the population by crossed quotas method, of 1400 individuals questioned by phone were used to reach these objectives. Chi(2) tests and binary logistic regressions were used. Results show that socio-occupational categories and motivational factors are different between lapsed and regular donors. Workers, senior management and higher intellectual professions are more often lapsed than regular donors. Concerning motivations, results show that lapsed donors more frequently mention the first experience with blood donation (with colleagues, friends, and parents) than regular donors, for whom altruistic and community motivations are more frequently cited. Workers, senior management and higher intellectual professions should be targeted uppermost, in order to convert them in regular donors. Finally, concerning motivations, the social pressure applied to lapsed donors for their first blood donation appears crucial, whereas regular donors have internalized their motives, more often altruistic and community motivations.
    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 02/2012; 19(1):17-24. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    Géraud Gourjon, Gilles Boëtsch, Anna Degioanni
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    ABSTRACT: The peopling of Comoro Archipelago is defined by successive waves of migration from three main areas: the East African Coast (Bantu-speaking populations), the Persia and Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia (especially Indonesia). It follows an apparent classic trihybrid admixture model. To better understand the Comorian population admixture dynamics, we analyzed the contributions of these three historical parental components to its genetic pool. To enhance accuracy and reliability, we used both classical and molecular markers. Samples consist of published data: blood group frequencies, 14 KIR genes, 19 mitochondrial DNA SNPs (to highlight female migrations), 14 Y chromosome SNPs (male migrations). We revealed distinct admixture patterns for autosomal and uniparental markers. KIR gene frequencies had never been used to estimate admixture rates, this being a first assessment of their informative power in admixture studies. To avoid major methodological and statistical bias, we determined admixture coefficients through nine well-tried estimators and their associated software programs (ADMIX95, ADMIX, admix 2.0, LEA, LEADMIX, and Mistura). Results from mtDNA and Y chromosome markers point to an important sex-bias in the admixture event. The original Bantu gene pool received a predominant male-mediated contribution from the Arabian Peninsula and Persia, and a female-mediated contribution from Southeast Asia. Admixture rates estimated from autosomal KIR gene markers point also to an unexpected elevated Austronesian contribution.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 02/2011; 144(4):653-60. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2011; 19(1):89-94. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) with skeletal maturation in children from Marrakech (Morocco). SES, BMI z-score and bone age (BA) were measured in a cohort of 623 children (280 boys and 343 girls, chronological age (CA) ranged from 6.6 to 18.8 years, mean 14.1 years). BA estimation was performed with the Greulich and Pyle atlas. Two social groups (privileged and unfavorable SES) were defined. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between BA-CA and age-and sex-specific BMI z-score. Global maturation delay was seen in the sample (BA-CA -0.56; SD 1.29). There was a significant relationship between skeletal maturation (BA-CA) and child BMI z-score among both genders. Bone age was more advanced in children with a greater BMI z-score. Privileged SES was positively associated with children's BA-CA for girls but there was no association for boys. In the boys' sample, there was no evidence that BA-CA variations with BMI z-score depended on socioeconomic status (p=0.664). Whatever the gender of the child, a greater BMI z-score increases the maturation. The multiple linear regression analysis is an interesting approach to understand the links between skeletal maturation, BMI and SES. In Moroccan children, excess weight is associated with privileged SES.
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics 01/2010; 74(2):129-35. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haplogroup J1 is a prevalent Y-chromosome lineage within the Near East. We report the frequency and YSTR diversity data for its major sub-clade (J1e). The overall expansion time estimated from 453 chromosomes is 10,000 years. Moreover, the previously described J1 (DYS388=13) chromosomes, frequently found in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolian populations, were ancestral to J1e and displayed an expansion time of 9000 years. For J1e, the Zagros/Taurus mountain region displays the highest haplotype diversity, although the J1e frequency increases toward the peripheral Arabian Peninsula. The southerly pattern of decreasing expansion time estimates is consistent with the serial drift and founder effect processes. The first such migration is predicted to have occurred at the onset of the Neolithic, and accordingly J1e parallels the establishment of rain-fed agriculture and semi-nomadic herders throughout the Fertile Crescent. Subsequently, J1e lineages might have been involved in episodes of the expansion of pastoralists into arid habitats coinciding with the spread of Arabic and other Semitic-speaking populations.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 10/2009; 18(3):348-53. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Morocco, few studies have specifically addressed the association between food variety and household socio-economic status and area of residence. Aim: The study's objective was to obtain a qualitative description of food consumption in samples of Moroccan households and to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and area of residence on their food variety. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered by adolescent school pupils in their own households between March 2005 and March 2006 in 526 households in the regions of Marrakesh north of the High Atlas range and Ouarzazate to the south. We calculated the Food Variety Index (FVI) based on 183 food items and compared scores for advantaged/disadvantaged and urban/rural households. Mean FVI scores for all individuals and total food groups differ significantly between the area of residence, urban and peri-urban Marrakesh and urban Ouarzazate having the highest scores. The mean total FVI scores, presented according to the household's socio-economic status from highest to lowest, are 123.8 +/- 17.1 for urban Marrakesh, 107.6 +/- 21.6 for urban Ouarzazate, 92.0 +/- 22.4 for rural Skoura, 110.5 +/- 21.5 for peri-urban Marrakesh and 89.9 +/- 10.8 for rural Iguerferouane (F-test = 26.7, p < 0.001). Advantaged households have significantly greater variety than disadvantaged households for all variables only in the two urban samples. In peri-urban Marrakesh and rural Skoura, there are no significant differences between advantaged and disadvantaged households. In our Moroccan sample, food variety is distributed according to two patterns: One based on area of residence, urban areas having greater variety than rural areas, and the other on socio-economic factors, with advantaged households having higher FVI values but only in urban areas. The limited availability of certain foods and food preferences by the populations mean that not all households are able to diversify their diets.
    Annals of Human Biology 10/2009; 36(6):727-49. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was threefold: (1) assess the general perceptions of age stereotypes among older French and Moroccan adults, (2) analyze discourse associated with these different perceptions, and (3) compare aging self-perception scores of French and Moroccan (rural/urban) older adults and investigate the sociodemographic and health indicators likely to be associated with these self-perceptions. One-to-one structured interviews were conducted with 260 older French adults living in Marseille and 239 older Moroccans (123 living in Marrakech and 116 living in a Berber village). The same questionnaire comprising multiple-choice and short-answer questions was used in both countries. This methodology allowed us to perform quantitative and qualitative analyses. Participants averaged 73 years of age in both samples. The French and Moroccan older adults perceived positive and negative age stereotypes within their societies, but the Moroccan ones more often perceived positive stereotypes toward older adults. Moreover, almost as many Moroccan people living in Marrakech as French people perceived negative stereotypes toward older adults. The qualitative analysis allowed us to demonstrate that some notions associated with the status of older adults are shared in France and Morocco-such as respect is due to older adults-whereas other notions differ between these societies-such as the association between aging and affection/love in Morocco. Finally, this study also tended to show that the Attitudes Toward Own Aging Scale focuses mainly on the mental/physical domain of old age.
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 10/2009; 24(4):391-410.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the presence of ossification of the sesamoid bone of the thumb as a function of age and compare the results to data from the atlas by Greulich and Pyle describing the ossification of this bone in girls of 11 years and boys of 13 years. Materials and methods. Prospective study of 1372 children (780 boys and 592 girls between the ages of 0.4 and 19.7 years, mean age of 9.7 years) with known chronological age requiring radiographic evaluation of the wrist-hand after minor trauma. The presence of a sesamoid was analyzed by logistic regression using the method of probits. The minimum and maximum ages in our sample population were 10-15.1 years for boys and 8.8-15.2 years for girls. The P50 value (method of probits) corresponded to the chronological age at which 50% of the population had a visible sesamoid. It was 12.1 years for boys and 10.2 years for girls. The timing of ossification of the sesamoid of the thumb is widely variable. Ossification of this sesamoid should not be used as a precise indicator when determining bone age using the atlas by Greulich and Pyle.
    Journal de Radiologie 01/2009; 89(12):1921-4. · 0.57 Impact Factor
  • Atelier CNRS : "L’anthropologie biologique du vivant : nouveaux objets, nouvelles méthodes"; 10/2008
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    ABSTRACT: As part of an interdisciplinary research program on Alpine populations, we studied the biodemographic evolution of two populations of the Dauphiné in the period 1690-1799. We analyzed several indexes derived from surname analysis to infer the genetic structure of the populations. Although situated in the same area of the Dauphiné, the two communities of Vallouise and Chiomonte had different biodemographic characteristics. Vallouise was heavily populated but genetically homogeneous, whereas Chiomonte was less populated but more heterogeneous. The two districts also differed in geographic position: Vallouise was a glacier-enclosed valley that did not attract new inhabitants; Chiomonte was situated in an open valley served by important roads and thus was able to attract many new inhabitants. The demographic differences between the two populations explain the differences in genetic structure. The index of isonymous relationship (R(i)) being different from 0 is due to the rare marriages between members of the two populations. Because R(i) is based on surnames, which are mostly polyphyletic, it can overestimate the genetic relationships between the populations, as in the case of consanguinity assessed by matrimonial isonymy.
    Human Biology 09/2008; 80(4):377-91. · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Medical Genetics 05/2008; 45(4):255-6. · 5.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

177 Citations
71.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2012
    • Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar
      Dakar, Dakar, Senegal
  • 2009–2010
    • Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2005
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 1996–2005
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • Faculté de Médecine
      Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France
  • 2004
    • Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France