[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported the initial discovery of a novel class of stabilized benzylidene ketal M(2) receptor antagonists. This paper discusses new analogues consisting of benzamide modifications which not only improved M(2) receptor affinity and selectivity, but also enhanced the pharmacokinetic properties of the series. These changes led to the discovery of a highly potent and selective M(2) antagonist, which demonstrated in vivo efficacy and had good bioavailability in multiple species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In search of a backup M(2) muscarinic receptor antagonist to the previously reported compound 1, we discovered compound (+)-14, which showed superior oral efficacy in animal models. The improvement of oral efficacy was achieved by modulating both the molecular weight and lipophilicity of the lead compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of 2-(R)-methyl-substituted piperazines (e.g., 2) is described. They are potent M(2) selective ligands that have >100-fold selectivity versus the M(1) receptor. In the rat microdialysis assay, compound 14 showed significantly enchanced levels of acetylcholine after oral administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present studies were designed to assess whether the novel muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist 4-cyclohexyl-alpha-[4[[4-methoxyphenyl]sulphinyl]-phenyl]-1-piperazineacetonitrile (SCH 57790) could increase acetylcholine release in the central nervous system (CNS) and enhance cognitive performance in rodents and nonhuman primates. In vivo microdialysis studies show that SCH 57790 (0.1-10 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-related increases in acetylcholine release from rat hippocampus, cortex, and striatum. SCH 57790 (0.003-1.0 mg/kg) increased retention times in young rat passive avoidance responding when given either before or after training. Also, SCH 57790 reversed scopolamine-induced deficits in mice in a passive avoidance task. In a working memory operant task in squirrel monkeys, administration of SCH 57790 (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) improved performance under a schedule of fixed-ratio discrimination with titrating delay. The effects observed with SCH 57790 in behavioral studies were qualitatively similar to the effects produced by the clinically used cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, suggesting that blockade of muscarinic M(2) receptors is a viable approach to enhancing cognitive performance.
European Journal of Pharmacology 12/2001; 431(2):189-200. DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01440-6 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential toxicological liabilities of the M(2) muscarinic antagonist 1 were addressed by replacing the methylenedioxyphenyl moiety with a p-methoxyphenyl group, resulting in M(2) selective compounds such as 3. Several halogenated naphthamide derivatives of 3 were studied in order to improve the pharmacokinetic profile via blockage of oxidative metabolism. Compound 4 demonstrated excellent M(2) affinity and selectivity, human microsomal stability, and oral bioavailability in rodents and primates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) requires acetylcholinesterase inhibition to increase acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations in the synaptic cleft. Another mechanism by which ACh levels can be increased is blockade of presynaptic M2 muscarinic autoreceptors that regulate ACh release. An antagonist designed for this purpose must be highly selective for M2 receptors to avoid blocking postsynaptic M1 receptors, which mediate the cognitive effects of ACh. Structure-activity studies of substituted methylpiperadines led to the synthesis of 4-[4-[1(S)-[4-[(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-3(R)-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-4-methyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidine. This compound, SCH 72788, binds to cloned human M2 receptors expressed in CHO cells with an affinity of 0.5 nM, and its affinity at M1 receptors is 84-fold lower. SCH 72788 is a functional M2 antagonist that competitively inhibits the ability of the agonist oxotremorine-M to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. In an in vivo microdialysis paradigm, SCH 72788 increases ACh release from the striatum of conscious rats. The compound is also active in a rodent model of cognition, the young rat passive avoidance response paradigm. The effects of SCH 72788 suggest that M2 receptor antagonists may be useful for treating the cognitive decline observed in AD and other dementias.
Life Sciences 05/2001; 68(22-23):2585-92. DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01056-6 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment and personality changes. The development of drugs for the treatment of the cognitive deficits of AD has focused on agents which counteract loss in cholinergic activity. Although symptoms of AD have been successfully treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, donepezil. rivastigmine, galanthamine), limited success has been achieved with direct M1 agonists, probably due to their lack of selectivity versus other muscarinic receptor subtypes. Muscarinic M2 antagonists have been reported to increase synaptic levels of acetylcholine after oral administration to rats (e.g. BIBN-99, SCH-57790), but their selectivity versus other muscarinic receptor subtypes is modest. Exploration of a series of piperidinylpiperidines has yielded the potent and selective M2 antagonist SCH-217443. This antagonist has excellent bioavailability in rats and dogs and shows activity in a rat model of cognition.
Il Farmaco 05/2001; 56(4):247-50. DOI:10.1016/S0014-827X(01)01102-8
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzylidene ketal derivatives were investigated as selective M2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Compound 10 was discovered to have subnanomolar M2 receptor affinity and 100-fold selectivity against other muscarinic receptors. Also, 10 demonstrated in vivo efficacy in rodent models of muscarinic activity and cognition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of a number of highly potent M2 receptor antagonists with >100-fold selectivity against the M1 and M3 receptor subtypes is described. In the rat microdialysis assay, this series of compounds showed pronounced enhancement of brain acetylcholine release after oral administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piperidine analogues of our previously described piperazine muscarinic antagonists are described. Piperidine analogues show a distinct structure-activity relationship (SAR) that differs from comparable piperazines. Compounds with high selectivity and improved potency for the M2 receptor have been identified. The lead compound, 12b, increases acetylcholine release in vivo. Compounds of this class may be useful for the treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structure activity studies on [4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl]methylpiperazine led to the discovery of 4-cyclohexyl-alpha-[4-[[4-methoxyphenyl(S)-sufinyl]phenyl]-1-pi perazineacetonitrile, 1, an M2 selective muscarinic antagonist. Affinity at the cloned human M2 receptor was 2.7 nM; the M1/M2 selectivity is 40-fold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SCH 34826 [(S)-N-[N-[1-[[(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4yl) methoxy]carbonyl]-2-phenylethyl]-L-phenylalanine]-beta-alanine] was synthesized as a p.o. active prodrug enkephalinase inhibitor. In vivo, it is de-esterified to SCH 32615 (N-[L-(-1-carboxy-2-phenyl)ethyl]-L-phenylalanyl-beta-alanine), the active constituent. In vitro, the Ki for SCH 32615 to block the degradation of Met5-enkephalin by isolated enkephalinase is 19.5 +/- 0.9 nM. In contrast, SCH 32615 did not inhibit aminopeptidase or diaminopeptidase III degradation of Met5-enkephalin up to 10 microM and did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme up to 10 microM. In vivo, p.o. administered SCH 34826 potentiated the analgesic effects of D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide in mice (ED50 = 5.3 mg/kg p.o.) and rats [minimal effective dose (MED) = 1 mg/kg p.o.]; SCH 32615 had no effect up to 30 mg/kg p.o., but was active parenterally (ED50 in mice = 1.4 ng/kg sc). Direct, naloxone-reversible analgesic effects of SCH 34826 were demonstrated in the mouse low temperature hot-plate test (MED = 30 mg/kg p.o.), the mouse acetic acid-induced writhing test (MED = 30 mg/kg p.o.), the rat stress-induced analgesia test (MED = 10 mg/kg p.o.) and the modified rat yeast-paw test (MED = 100 mg/kg p.o.). Using the rat D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide potentiation test the duration of action of SCH 34826 was at least 4 hs. No respiratory or gastrointestinal side effects of any consequence were noted at doses up to 100 times those active in the D-Ala2-Met-5-enkephalinamide potentiation test.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/1988; 245(3):829-38. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam are novel benzodiazepines containing a trifluoroethyl substituent on the ring nitrogen at position #1. Detailed competition binding experiments (25 to 30 concs.) at 4 degrees C were undertaken with these compounds versus 3H-flunitrazepam using synaptic membranes from rat cortex or cerebellum. Unlike other benzodiazepines, both quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam distinguished two populations of 3H-flunitrazepam binding sites in rat cortex which were present in roughly equal proportions and for which the compounds displayed a greater than 20-fold difference in affinity. In cerebellum, no such discrimination of sites was noted for 2-oxo-quazepam, but quazepam did distinguish a small, low affinity (15% of total) population of sites. 3H-2-oxo-quazepam was prepared and used in competition studies to substantiate the conclusion that these compounds discriminate two populations of benzodiazepine sites in rat cortex. This new radioligand was shown to specifically label BZ binding sites with high affinity in a saturable manner. The competition experiments were then conducted using 3H-2-oxo-quazepam at a radioligand concentration sufficiently low (0.5 nM) to ensure that only the higher affinity binding sites which 2-oxo-quazepam discriminates would be occupied. Competition experiments in both cortex and cerebellum under these conditions indicated single site binding for unlabelled quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam in every instance. This suggests that 3H-2-oxo-quazepam should be a useful new tool for selectively labeling and studying the BZ1 population of benzodiazepine binding sites.
Life Sciences 02/1988; 42(2):179-87. DOI:10.1016/0024-3205(88)90681-9 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitory activities of a series of analogs of SCH 23390 ((R)-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3- benzazepine) in which the 7-chloro group was substituted by bromo, fluoro, methyl and methoxy groups, respectively, were compared in three tests for D1 and DA1 dopamine (DA) receptor antagonism: inhibition of DA-induced renal vasodilation in the anesthetized dog (DA1 receptor model), inhibition of DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the striatum of adult female rats (D1 receptor model) and displacement of [3H]SCH 23390 in the striatal homogenates of male rats. In addition the D2 receptor affinity of each of the compounds chosen was assessed via displacement of [3H]spiperone binding from rat striatum. S-enantiomers of the Cl and CH3 analogs were 200- to 700-fold weaker than the respective R-enantiomers in all three tests. The activity of all the R-enantiomers was in the nanomolar range and varied no more than 8-fold in all three tests. The F analog in the ligand binding test was the only exception, which was 30-fold weaker than the C1 analog. All of the R-enantiomers studied showed much weaker affinity for the D2 receptor, as assessed by displacement of [3H]spiperone binding. Similar enantiomer selectivity and parallel affinities of the R-enantiomers in the prototype models for D1 and DA1 receptors strengthen the evidence in support of identity between the D1 and DA1 dopamine receptors. These results further indicate that displacement of SCH 23390 in the ligand binding test reflects affinity of a compound for D1 and DA1 dopamine receptors.
European Journal of Pharmacology 10/1986; 128(3):249-53. DOI:10.1016/0014-2999(86)90772-7 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel benzazepine, SCH 23390, has recently been described as a very potent and selective dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist based on its potent inhibition of dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase and its selective displacement of 3H-piflutixol from rat striatal receptor sites. In the present study, the in vitro binding of 3H-SCH 23390 to specific striatal receptor sites has been characterized. Binding was saturable and stereospecific, and the results of both saturation and competition studies are consistent with the binding of 3H-SCH 23390 to a single striatal site. A KD of 0.53 nM was obtained through Scatchard analysis. Relative potencies of a variety of neuroleptics in competing with 3H-SCH 23390 and also 3H-spiperone support an interpretation that the single site to which 3H-SCH 23390 binds is the D-1 dopamine receptor. Also, the binding capacity of 3H-SCH 23390 (69 pmoles/gm wet weight) is in agreement with published values for the binding capacities of 3H-piflutixol and 3H-flupentixol. These data, coupled with the low level of non-specific binding encountered with this radioligand (4-8% of total binding at normally employed ligand concentration of 0.3 nM), its high specific activity and its negligible binding to plastic and glass surfaces make it ideally suited for studying interactions with this receptor.
Life Sciences 11/1984; 35(18):1885-93. DOI:10.1016/0024-3205(84)90540-X · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In binding studies with rat brain membranes, 1,4-benzodiazepines containing a trifluoroethyl moeity at the 1-N position, including halazepam and quazepam, had significantly higher affinities for binding sites in cerebellum than in cortex. This selectivity for cerebellar sites is not a property of benzodiazepines without the trifluoroethyl moiety, but is similar to that seen with the triazolopyridazines. Since halazepam and quazepam, like the triazolopyridazines, have behavioral effects in animals at doses much lower than those that cause ataxia, it is tempting to attribute this separation of pharmacologic activities to differential activity at subpopulations of benzodiazepine receptors. Further work is necessary to clarify this possibility.
Life Sciences 08/1984; 35(1):105-13. DOI:10.1016/0024-3205(84)90157-7 · 2.70 Impact Factor