[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported the initial discovery of a novel class of stabilized benzylidene ketal M(2) receptor antagonists. This paper discusses new analogues consisting of benzamide modifications which not only improved M(2) receptor affinity and selectivity, but also enhanced the pharmacokinetic properties of the series. These changes led to the discovery of a highly potent and selective M(2) antagonist, which demonstrated in vivo efficacy and had good bioavailability in multiple species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In search of a backup M(2) muscarinic receptor antagonist to the previously reported compound 1, we discovered compound (+)-14, which showed superior oral efficacy in animal models. The improvement of oral efficacy was achieved by modulating both the molecular weight and lipophilicity of the lead compounds.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2003; 45(25):5415-8. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of 2-(R)-methyl-substituted piperazines (e.g., 2) is described. They are potent M(2) selective ligands that have >100-fold selectivity versus the M(1) receptor. In the rat microdialysis assay, compound 14 showed significantly enchanced levels of acetylcholine after oral administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present studies were designed to assess whether the novel muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist 4-cyclohexyl-alpha-[4[[4-methoxyphenyl]sulphinyl]-phenyl]-1-piperazineacetonitrile (SCH 57790) could increase acetylcholine release in the central nervous system (CNS) and enhance cognitive performance in rodents and nonhuman primates. In vivo microdialysis studies show that SCH 57790 (0.1-10 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-related increases in acetylcholine release from rat hippocampus, cortex, and striatum. SCH 57790 (0.003-1.0 mg/kg) increased retention times in young rat passive avoidance responding when given either before or after training. Also, SCH 57790 reversed scopolamine-induced deficits in mice in a passive avoidance task. In a working memory operant task in squirrel monkeys, administration of SCH 57790 (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) improved performance under a schedule of fixed-ratio discrimination with titrating delay. The effects observed with SCH 57790 in behavioral studies were qualitatively similar to the effects produced by the clinically used cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, suggesting that blockade of muscarinic M(2) receptors is a viable approach to enhancing cognitive performance.
European Journal of Pharmacology 12/2001; 431(2):189-200. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential toxicological liabilities of the M(2) muscarinic antagonist 1 were addressed by replacing the methylenedioxyphenyl moiety with a p-methoxyphenyl group, resulting in M(2) selective compounds such as 3. Several halogenated naphthamide derivatives of 3 were studied in order to improve the pharmacokinetic profile via blockage of oxidative metabolism. Compound 4 demonstrated excellent M(2) affinity and selectivity, human microsomal stability, and oral bioavailability in rodents and primates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) requires acetylcholinesterase inhibition to increase acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations in the synaptic cleft. Another mechanism by which ACh levels can be increased is blockade of presynaptic M2 muscarinic autoreceptors that regulate ACh release. An antagonist designed for this purpose must be highly selective for M2 receptors to avoid blocking postsynaptic M1 receptors, which mediate the cognitive effects of ACh. Structure-activity studies of substituted methylpiperadines led to the synthesis of 4-[4-[1(S)-[4-[(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-3(R)-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-4-methyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidine. This compound, SCH 72788, binds to cloned human M2 receptors expressed in CHO cells with an affinity of 0.5 nM, and its affinity at M1 receptors is 84-fold lower. SCH 72788 is a functional M2 antagonist that competitively inhibits the ability of the agonist oxotremorine-M to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. In an in vivo microdialysis paradigm, SCH 72788 increases ACh release from the striatum of conscious rats. The compound is also active in a rodent model of cognition, the young rat passive avoidance response paradigm. The effects of SCH 72788 suggest that M2 receptor antagonists may be useful for treating the cognitive decline observed in AD and other dementias.
Life Sciences 05/2001; 68(22-23):2585-92. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment and personality changes. The development of drugs for the treatment of the cognitive deficits of AD has focused on agents which counteract loss in cholinergic activity. Although symptoms of AD have been successfully treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, donepezil. rivastigmine, galanthamine), limited success has been achieved with direct M1 agonists, probably due to their lack of selectivity versus other muscarinic receptor subtypes. Muscarinic M2 antagonists have been reported to increase synaptic levels of acetylcholine after oral administration to rats (e.g. BIBN-99, SCH-57790), but their selectivity versus other muscarinic receptor subtypes is modest. Exploration of a series of piperidinylpiperidines has yielded the potent and selective M2 antagonist SCH-217443. This antagonist has excellent bioavailability in rats and dogs and shows activity in a rat model of cognition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzylidene ketal derivatives were investigated as selective M2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Compound 10 was discovered to have subnanomolar M2 receptor affinity and 100-fold selectivity against other muscarinic receptors. Also, 10 demonstrated in vivo efficacy in rodent models of muscarinic activity and cognition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of a number of highly potent M2 receptor antagonists with >100-fold selectivity against the M1 and M3 receptor subtypes is described. In the rat microdialysis assay, this series of compounds showed pronounced enhancement of brain acetylcholine release after oral administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structure activity studies on [4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl]methylpiperazine led to the discovery of 4-cyclohexyl-alpha-[4-[[4-methoxyphenyl(S)-sufinyl]phenyl]-1-pi perazineacetonitrile, 1, an M2 selective muscarinic antagonist. Affinity at the cloned human M2 receptor was 2.7 nM; the M1/M2 selectivity is 40-fold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piperidine analogues of our previously described piperazine muscarinic antagonists are described. Piperidine analogues show a distinct structure-activity relationship (SAR) that differs from comparable piperazines. Compounds with high selectivity and improved potency for the M2 receptor have been identified. The lead compound, 12b, increases acetylcholine release in vivo. Compounds of this class may be useful for the treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic autoreceptors located on cholinergic nerve terminals are involved in the inhibitory feedback regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release. Establishing the subtype identity of such sites provides a more complete understanding of both normal receptor function and the functional significance of receptor changes associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, a novel approach was used to identify the muscarinic autoreceptor in rat striatum. It involved the correlation of data from two different sources--in vivo microdialysis and in vitro receptor binding. Four standard muscarinic antagonists with varying binding profiles (scopolamine, pirenzepine, AF-DX116 and himbacine) were infused directly through a microdialysis probe into the striatum of conscious, freely moving rats. The objectives were to find the minimal concentration of each antagonist capable of manifesting a functional autoreceptor response (i.e., increased ACh release) and to compare the relative ability of the antagonists to bring about this effect with their relative abilities to bind to each of the cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes. The conclusion is that the muscarinic receptor mediating ACh release in rat striatum exhibits a pharmacological profile clearly consistent with it being of the m2 subtype.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/1995; 273(1):273-9. · 3.89 Impact Factor