Joe H Patton

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States

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Publications (22)34.92 Total impact

  • The American surgeon 09/2012; 78(9):1009-10. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: America's aging population has led to an increase in the number of elderly patients necessitating emergency general surgery. Previous studies have demonstrated that increased frailty is a predictor of outcomes in medicine and surgical patients. We hypothesized that use of a modification of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index would be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients older than 60 years undergoing emergency general surgery. Data were obtained from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files database in compliance with the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Data Use Agreement. We selected all emergency cases in patients older than 60 years performed by general surgeons from 2005 to 2009. The effect of increasing frailty on multiple outcomes including wound infection, wound occurrence, any infection, any occurrence, and mortality was then evaluated. Total sample size was 35,334 patients. As the modified frailty index increased, associated increases occurred in wound infection, wound occurrence, any infection, any occurrence, and mortality. Logistic regression of multiple variables demonstrated that the frailty index was associated with increased mortality with an odds ratio of 11.70 (p < 0.001). Frailty index is an important predictive variable in emergency general surgery patients older than 60 years. The modified frailty index can be used to evaluate risk of both morbidity and mortality in these patients. Frailty index will be a valuable preoperative risk assessment tool for the acute care surgeon. Level of Evidence: Prognostic study, level II.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 06/2012; 72(6):1526-30; discussion 1530-1.
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to pilot and initiate validation of a surgical drainage model. We designed a laboratory model to compare Jackson-Pratt surgical drains using 3 soups to emulate body fluids of serous, purulent, and necrotic debris. Each drain was trialed with each of the 3 fluids. Time and completeness of drainage were recorded. A survey of surgical residents and faculty was performed for convenience sampling. Under serous conditions, the round Jackson-Pratt drained the cavity quicker, but left a larger residual volume of fluid. Under purulent conditions, the round Jackson-Pratt was slower and drained less fluid. With debris fluid, the round Jackson-Pratt was quicker with less residual fluid whereas the flat type clogged each time. Survey results showed adequate concordance with surgeons in agreement on soup choice. The Jackson-Pratt drains perform differently depending on the drainage situation. The surgical community requires improved drain data to drive practice patterns.
    American journal of surgery 03/2012; 203(3):388-91; discussion 391. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program collects information related to procedures in the form of the work relative value unit (RVU) and current procedural terminology (CPT) code. We propose and evaluate a fully automated nonparametric learning approach that maps individual CPT codes to perioperative risk. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant use file data for 2005-2006 were used to develop 2 separate support vector machines (SVMs) to learn the relationship between CPT codes and 30-day mortality or morbidity. SVM parameters were determined using cross-validation. SVMs were evaluated on participant use file data for 2007 and 2008. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCs) were each compared with the respective AUROCs for work RVU and for standard CPT categories. We then compared the AUROCs for multivariable models, including preoperative variables, RVU, and CPT categories, with and without the SVM operation scores. SVM operation scores had AUROCs between 0.798 and 0.822 for mortality and between 0.745 and 0.758 for morbidity on the participant use file used for both training (2005-2006) and testing (2007 and 2008). This was consistently higher than the AUROCs for both RVU and standard CPT categories (p < 0.001). AUROCs of multivariable models were higher for 30-day mortality and morbidity when SVM operation scores were included. This difference was not significant for mortality but statistically significant, although small, for morbidity. Nonparametric methods from artificial intelligence can translate CPT codes to aid in the assessment of perioperative risk. This approach is fully automated and can complement the use of work RVU or traditional CPT categories in multivariable risk adjustment models like the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 06/2011; 212(6):1086-1093.e1. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preoperative steroid use has been associated with increased postoperative complications. We sought to establish these risks using data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). NSQIP public use files from 2005 to 2008 were analyzed for preoperative steroid use and postoperative adverse events. Of 635,265 patients identified, 20,434 (3.2%) used steroids preoperatively. Superficial surgical site infections (SSI) increased from 2.9% to 5% using steroids (odds ratio, 1.724). Deep SSIs increased from .8% to 1.8% (odds ratio, 2.353). Organ/space SSIs and dehiscence increased 2 to 3-fold with steroid use (odds ratios, 2.469 and 3.338, respectively). Mortality increased almost 4-fold (1.6% to 6.0%; odds ratio, 3.920). All results were significant (P < .001). Previous concerns related to surgical risks in patients on chronic steroid regimens appear valid. These results may assist in counselling patients regarding the increased risk of surgery. They may also help the surgeon plan and modify the procedure if possible.
    American journal of surgery 03/2011; 201(3):305-8; discussion 308-9. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As the aging population continues to increase, the surgical needs of the elderly will increase. The acute care surgery model has been developed in which the trauma team also manages all general surgical emergencies to improve patient outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed our elderly acute care surgery population during the past 5 years to determine the variables affecting major abdominal surgery outcomes. Patients aged 80 years and older who received an emergent major abdominal operation by our Acute Care Surgery team between July 2000 and November 2006 were included. We assessed after-hours operations, length of stay, duration of operation, gender, comorbidities, and mortality. Administrative, operating room, and corporate databases were used for demographics, comorbidities, admission logistics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and mortality. We performed SPSS, chi2, and logistic regression analyses. A total of 183 operations were performed with a mortality of 15%. Significant predictors were ASA score and female gender, with increasing ASA scores leading to worse outcomes and women faring worse than men as an independent variable. Neither operative duration nor off-hours surgery was associated with increased mortality. This is the first study to report mortality data and expected survival curves for major abdominal surgery in the octogenarian population. Our data prove that it is safer than previously thought to operate on the elderly. Our mortality data and survival curves provide real data for the surgeon to be able to risk stratify and discuss predicted outcomes with consultants, patients, and families.
    The Journal of trauma 11/2009; 67(5):983-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), as administered by the American College of Surgeons, became available to private sector hospitals across the United States in 2004. The program works to improve surgical outcomes by providing high-quality, risk-adjusted data to surgeons at a given hospital to stimulate discussion and define target areas for improvement. Although the NSQIP began in the early 1990s with Veterans Administration hospitals and expanded to private sector hospitals nearly 5 years ago, the "how to" process for NSQIP implementation has been left to individual institutions to manage on their own. The NSQIP was instituted at a large tertiary hospital in 2005, identifying through experience 12 critical steps to help surgeons and hospitals implement the NSQIP.
    American Journal of Medical Quality 08/2009; 24(6):474-9. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2008; 207(3):S48. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few good surgical options exist for the repair of complex anterior abdominal wall defects, particularly those in which bacterial contamination is present. The use of prosthetic mesh increases complication rates when the mesh is placed directly over viscera or when the surgical site is contaminated from a pre-existing infection or enteric spillage. The use of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM), which becomes vascularized and remodeled into autologous tissue after implantation, may represent a low-morbidity alternative to prosthetic mesh products in these complex settings. This study examined our experience with ADM in the reconstruction of contaminated abdominal wall defects. Patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstructions in the face of contamination with ADM between May 2002 and December 2005 underwent retrospective chart review. Demographics, indications for ADM placement, plane of implantation, complications, and follow-up data were evaluated. Sixty-seven patients were identified. The indications for ADM placement included incarcerated hernias, infected mesh, fistulae, early/delayed abdominal wall reconstruction after intra-abdominal catastrophe or trauma, dehiscence/evisceration, and spillage of enteric contents. The ADM was positioned either above the fascia or beneath the fascia or was sutured directly to the fascial edges. Sixteen patients developed a wound infection; the majority of these were superficial and required only local wound care, 5 required some further surgical intervention, and 2 required removal of the ADM. Twelve patients developed recurrent hernias. The mean follow-up time for the study population was 10.6 months. ADM can be used safely and effectively as an alternative to traditional mesh products for abdominal wall reconstructions, even in the setting of contaminated fields.
    American journal of surgery 04/2007; 193(3):360-3; discussion 363. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Critical Care Medicine - CRIT CARE MED. 01/2006; 34.
  • Critical Care Medicine - CRIT CARE MED. 01/2005; 33.
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook this retrospective review to examine the appropriateness of a protocol for the selective emergency department (ED) workup of asymptomatic penetrating truncal injuries. Records of consecutive patients presenting to our urban Level I trauma center with penetrating truncal injuries between January 1, 1997 and September 2000 were reviewed. Data obtained included: patient demographics, ED workup, ED disposition, complications, and follow-up. Selective ED workup included hospital triple-contrast CT, admission for observation, and local wound exploration for selected anterior abdominal stab wounds. Four hundred fifty-five patients presented with penetrating truncal wounds during the study period. One hundred ninety-four patients were taken directly to the operating room, 136 were discharged based solely on physical examination and plain radiographs, 18 were admitted for observation without ED workup, and 107 had selective ED workup. Sixty-two patients (58% of those selectively worked up) were discharged home after negative ED workup, 18 were managed operatively, and 27 were managed nonoperatively. There were two missed injuries that were later identified and managed with no complications. Follow-up was available on 66 per cent of ED workup patients (range 1-42 months). We conclude that selective management of certain penetrating truncal injuries appears appropriate. Patients having a negative selective ED workup can be safely discharged thereby avoiding the cost and resource utilization associated with hospital admission.
    The American surgeon 04/2003; 69(3):266-72; discussion 273. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Joe H Patton, Ann M Woodward
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    ABSTRACT: With decreasing violent crime and an increase in the use of nonoperative management techniques the viability of urban trauma centers has come into question. In addition the workload and productivity for surgeons at such centers may be threatened. The current study examines the changing characteristics of patients admitted to an urban Level I trauma center over a 5-year period and examines factors that may affect trauma surgeon utilization. We reviewed all trauma registry admissions from January 1995 through December 1999. Data were collected regarding patient demographics, mechanism of injury, diagnostic workup, injury character and severity, operative procedures, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and patient disposition. Admissions declined 23 per cent over the 5-year period. Fewer patients were admitted to general practice units whereas more patients required ICU admission. Over the study period both mean patient age and mean Injury Severity Score increased significantly. Gunshot wound admissions declined by 45 per cent, but the percentage of those admitted who required operation rose 17 per cent. Number of operations for trauma performed by general surgeons was unchanged over time. Hospital LOS declined over time, and ICU LOS was unchanged. Although trauma center admissions--particularly those due to violent crime--are on the decline the operative productivity of trauma surgeons has remained unchanged. Patients admitted to the hospital are older and more severely injured; they undeniably require a higher level of care and service coordination. Urban trauma centers remain viable and are in fact more efficient in caring for sicker patients.
    The American surgeon 05/2002; 68(4):319-22; discussion 322-3. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The debate over the use of diagnostic angiography (DA) to exclude arterial injury in penetrating extremity trauma (PET) continues. This review evaluates our current protocol for PET and identifies indications for DA. Patients presenting to our urban Level I trauma center between January 1997 and September 2000 with PET were included. Demographic data, emergency department (ED) course, and patient follow-up were reviewed. ED evaluation directed by physical examination (PE) included Doppler pressure indices (DPI) and DA if indicated. A total of 538 patients had PET injuries. Twenty (4%) patients with hard signs of vascular injury were taken to the operating room. Ninety-one (17%) patients without vascular compromise underwent operative procedures or were admitted for other injuries. One hundred twenty-three (23%) patients with nonproximity wounds were discharged. Four DAs were performed for abnormal DPI with no change in management. Three hundred patients with a negative PE and normal DPI were discharged from the ED. Follow-up was available on 51 per cent of these patients (range 1-49 months) with no missed injuries identified. We conclude that PE with DPI is an appropriate way to identify significant vascular injuries from PET. Patients with normal PE and DPI can be safely discharged. DA is only indicated for asymptomatic patients with abnormal DPI.
    The American surgeon 04/2002; 68(3):269-74. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency lung resection following penetrating chest trauma has been associated with mortality rates as high as 55-100%. Pulmonary tractotomy is advocated as a rapid alternative method of dealing with deep lobar injuries. We reviewed our experience with resection and tractotomy to determine whether method of management affects mortality or if patient presentation is more critical in determining outcome. A retrospective review of all patients with chest injury seen at an urban Level I trauma center from 2/89-1/99 was performed. All patients undergoing parenchymal surgery were included. Records were abstracted for grade of injury, type of resection, presenting systolic blood pressure (SBP), temperature, Injury Severity Score (ISS), operative time, and estimated blood loss (EBL). Mortality and thoracic complications were compared between groups. Two hundred forty-six of 2736 patients with penetrating chest trauma underwent thoracotomy, with 70 (28%) requiring some form of lung resection. There were 11 (15.7%) deaths. Patients who died had lower SBP (53 +/- 32 mm Hg vs 77 +/- 28 mm Hg), lower temperature (32.5 degrees +/- 1.3 degrees C vs 34.3 degrees +/- 1.2 degrees C), higher ISS (33 +/- 13 vs 23 +/- 9), and greater EBL (9.8 +/- 4.3 liters vs 2.8 +/- 2.1 liters) compared with survivors (p < 0.05 for all). Mortality was also increased in the presence of cardiac injury (33% with vs 12% without) and the need for laparotomy (26% with vs 9% without) (p < 0.05 for all). Tractotomy was associated with an increased incidence of chest complications (67% vs 24%, p = 0.05) compared with lobectomy with no difference in presenting physiology, operative time, or mortality. Lung resection for penetrating injuries can be done safely with morbidity and mortality rates lower than previously reported. Patient outcome is related to severity of injury rather than type of resection. Tractotomy is associated with a higher incidence of infectious complications and is not associated with shortened operative times or survival.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2001; 51(6):1092-5; discussion 1096-7. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary venorrhaphy for traumatic inferior vena cava (IVC) injury has been criticized because of the potential for stenosis, thrombosis, and embolism. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the morbidity and outcome of this method. Thirty-eight patients at our institution had traumatic injuries to the IVC between 1994 and 1999. Thirty (79%) were from firearms, five (13%) from stab wounds, and three (8%) from blunt trauma. Six patients died in the emergency department. The remaining 32 patients underwent exploratory celiotomy with 23 survivors and nine intraoperative deaths for a mortality rate of 28 per cent (nine of 32). Vascular control was achieved by manual compression in 44 per cent and by local clamping directly above and below the injury in 38 per cent. All repairs were by primary venorrhaphy, and no patient was treated with patch angioplasty or venous reconstruction. Three patients had caval ligation. Follow-up IVC imaging in 11 patients revealed that the IVC was patent in eight, narrowed in two, and thrombosed below the renal veins in one. One patient developed a pulmonary embolus. The vast majority of traumatic injuries to the IVC can be managed by direct compression or local clamping and primary venorrhaphy. Direct repairs are associated with a low thrombosis and embolic complication rate.
    The American surgeon 04/2001; 67(3):207-13; discussion 213-4. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the role of physical examination, chest radiography, and angiography in the management of periclavicular penetrating trauma. A retrospective review of the last 100 patients who suffered periclavicular penetrating trauma was performed. Patients with hard signs of vascular injury went either directly to the operating room or first to the angiography suite depending on their hemodynamic stability. All others underwent angiography and subsequent intervention if needed. The results were examined to determine the role of arteriography in the absence of hard signs of vascular injury. Of the 100 patients in the study, there were 81 without hard signs of vascular injury. All underwent angiography, with 11 "occult" injuries discovered. Each of these patients exhibited some physical examination or chest radiographic finding that may have predicted the presence of vascular injury. Using clinical criteria, physical examination was found to have a sensitivity of 82%, a specificity of 91%, a positive predictive value of 60%, and a negative predictive value of 96%. When coupled with the chest radiographic findings, these numbers were 100%, 80%, 44%, and 100%, respectively. Using these criteria would have eliminated the need for angiography in 56 (69%) patients and would not have missed any injuries. In patients with periclavicular penetrating trauma, a normal physical examination and chest radiographic excludes vascular injury. Proximity alone does not warrant angiography, although the test may be useful for therapeutic interventions or to plan operative approaches. A prospective study is essential to validate these findings.
    The Journal of trauma 01/2001; 49(6):1029-33. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of guidelines have been proposed to aid in determining the need for radiologic evaluation of the cervical spine (c-spine) in victims of blunt trauma. Mechanism of injury has not been shown to be an independent predictor of injury or the lack thereof. The current study was undertaken to determine the incidence of clinically relevant c-spine injuries in patients who sustained a blunt assault to the head and neck. The trauma registry of an urban Level 1 trauma center was used to identify patients who suffered a blunt assault to the head and neck and were admitted to the hospital over a 30-month period. One hundred two patients were identified. Only 8 patients met criteria for clinical clearance of the c-spine. Eighty patients were unable to be evaluated because of head injury or intoxicants; 14 patients had neck pain on initial examination. These 94 patients underwent plain film examination of their c-spine. Twelve required CT scanning to supplement visualization. The possibility of ligamentous injury was investigated by MRI or flexion/extension radiographs in 26 patients. No clinically significant c-spine injuries were identified. Although many victims of a blunt assault to the head and neck region may have a decreased LOC or neck pain, the likelihood of a ligamentous injury is so low that plain-film X-ray evaluation of the c-spine is all that is necessary to rule out injury in this patient population.
    The American surgeon 05/2000; 66(4):326-30; discussion 330-1. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although sternal fractures after blunt chest trauma are markers for significant impact, the fracture itself is generally not associated with any specific wound complications. Mediastinal abscess and sternal osteomyelitis rarely occur after blunt trauma or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Management of such complications is difficult, and requires a spectrum of operative procedures that range from simple closure to muscle flap reconstruction. The trauma registry of a Level I trauma center was used to identify patients suffering a sternal fracture between January of 1994 and August of 1997. Records were reviewed for the mechanism of injury, length of hospital stay, and posttraumatic mediastinal abscess. Twenty-six patients were identified with sternal fracture. No clinically significant cardiac or aortic complications were noted. Three patients, all with a history of intravenous drug abuse and requiring central venous access in the emergency room, developed methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis. Sternal re-wiring and placement of an irrigation system successfully treated all three patients. Posttraumatic mediastinal abscess is an uncommon complication of blunt trauma in general and sternal fracture in particular. It can be recognized by the development of sternal instability. Risk factors include the presence of hematoma, intravenous drug abuse, and source of staphylococcal infection. Treatment with early debridement and irrigation can avoid the need for muscle flap closure.
    The Journal of trauma 10/1999; 47(3):551-4. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Critical Care Medicine - CRIT CARE MED. 01/1999; 27.