[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoslot blot assays have been used for the analysis of many DNA adducts, but problems are frequently encountered in achieving reproducible results. Each step of the assay was examined systematically, and it was found that the major problems are in the DNA fragmentation step and the use of the manifold apparatus. Optimization was performed on both the malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine (M(1)dG) adduct and the O(6)-carboxymethyl-deoxyguanosine (O(6)CMdG) adduct to demonstrate the applicability to other DNA adducts. Blood samples from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC) study (n = 162) were analyzed for M(1)dG adducts, and the data showed no correlation with adduct levels in other tissues, indicating that the EPIC blood samples were not useful for studying M(1)dG adducts. Blood samples from a processed meat versus vegetarian diet intervention (n = 6) were analyzed for O(6)CMdG, and many were below the limit of detection. The reduction of background adduct levels in standard DNA was investigated using chemical and whole genome amplification approaches. The latter gave a sensitivity improvement of 2.6 adducts per 10(7) nucleotides for the analysis of O(6)CMdG. Subsequent reanalysis for O(6)CMdG showed a weakly significant increase in O(6)CMdG on the processed meat diet compared with the vegetarian diet, demonstrating that further studies are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To accurately quantify the number of single-strand breaks (SSBs) induced in plasmid DNA molecules after irradiation, a new type of assay methodology has been explored. The new method is based on the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end-labeling) assay that was adopted for use under ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) conditions. The assay was found to both improve the quantification and reduce the uncertainties in measurement of SSBs compared with the commonly used agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) method. Together with AGE, the new method can provide the additional data necessary for an accurate analysis of both SSB and double-strand break (DSB) formation in DNA molecules after irradiation. Furthermore, since only small amounts of DNA are required, the ELISA method can be used to quantify the damage in samples of DNA that are smaller than those required for AGE analysis. As an example of the data obtainable using the new method, plasmid DNA samples were irradiated with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light in an aqueous solution at 170 nm and subsequently analyzed by ELISA. The results were compared directly with those from AGE analysis. The ELISA gave results for SSBs that were an order of magnitude higher than those from AGE and suggested that DSBs are more likely to be the result of two SSBs rather than a single event and that a damaged molecule is more likely to be susceptible to VUV light than an undamaged one.
Radiation Research 11/2009; 172(5):529-36. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assessment of human cancer risk from chemical exposure requires the integration of diverse types of data. Such data involve effects at the cell and tissue levels. This report focuses on the specific utility of one type of data, namely DNA adducts. Emphasis is placed on the appreciation that such DNA adduct data cannot be used in isolation in the risk assessment process but must be used in an integrated fashion with other information. As emerging technologies provide even more sensitive quantitative measurements of DNA adducts, integration that establishes links between DNA adducts and accepted outcome measures becomes critical for risk assessment. The present report proposes an organizational approach for the assessment of DNA adduct data (e.g., type of adduct, frequency, persistence, type of repair process) in concert with other relevant data, such as dosimetry, toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and tumor incidence, to inform characterization of the mode of action. DNA adducts are considered biomarkers of exposure, whereas gene mutations and chromosomal alterations are often biomarkers of early biological effects and also can be bioindicators of the carcinogenic process.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology 02/2009; 39(8):659-78. · 6.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts can have important and adverse consequences for cellular and whole organism function. Available methods for identification of DNA damage and quantification of adducts are reviewed. Analyses can be performed on various samples including tissues, isolated cells, and intact or hydrolyzed (digested) DNA from a variety of biological samples of interest for monitoring in humans. Sensitivity and specificity are considered key factors for selecting the type of method for assessing DNA perturbation. The amount of DNA needed for analysis is dependent upon the method and ranges widely, from <1 microg to 3 mg. The methods discussed include the Comet assay, the ligation-mediated polymerase reaction, histochemical and immunologic methods, radiolabeled ((14)C- and (3)H-) binding, (32)P-postlabeling, and methods dependent on gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by electron capture, electrochemical detection, single or tandem mass spectrometry, or accelerator mass spectrometry. Sensitivity is ranked, and ranges from approximately 1 adduct in 10(4) to 10(12) nucleotides. A brief overview of oxidatively generated DNA damage is also presented. Assay limitations are discussed along with issues that may have impact on the reliability of results, such as sample collection, processing, and storage. Although certain methodologies are mature, improving technology will continue to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of adduct analysis. Because limited guidance and recommendations exist for adduct analysis, this effort supports the HESI Committee goal of developing a framework for use of DNA adduct data in risk assessment.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology 01/2009; 39(8):679-694. · 6.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A general and unambiguous approach has been developed for structural elucidation of modified purine nucleosides using NMR spectroscopy. Systematic assignment of proton and carbon signals of modified nucleosides was firmly established by COSY and the anomerism of the glycosidic linkage of synthetic nucleosides clearly elucidated by NOESY experiments. Characteristic properties of 15N-isotopic labelling at specific positions of nucleosides were also employed for structural studies. The reported approach is applicable to other modified nucleosides and nucleotides, as well as nucleobases.
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry 02/2008; 46(1):1-8. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interactions of VUV light and DNA samples in aqueous solutions are reported. The damage induced by such radiation is quantified by monitoring both loss of supercoiled DNA and formation of single and double strand breaks using agarose gel electrophoresis. Irradiations were performed using synchrotron VUV photons of 130, 150, 170 and 190 nm. VUV irradiation experiments revealed enhanced damage upon irradiation with 170 nm photons as compared with irradiations with photons of 150 nm and 130 nm. Irradiations carried at 190 nm caused the least damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of n-6 polyunsaturated fats upon the formation of the mutagenic DNA adduct malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine (M 1 dG) in blood was investigated in male volunteers (n = 13) who consumed diets high in saturated and polyunsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fat plus a-tocopherol supplemention (400 IU per day). On day 14 there was a significant difference in adduct levels between diets with saturated fats giving higher levels than polyunsaturated fats but this effect had disappeared by day 20 indicating that there is a relatively rapid adjustment to the effects on DNA damage of changes in dietary fat. a-Tocopherol showed a small benefit by day 20. Five females participated in the PUFA study and had higher mean adduct levels than men but there was no correlation with hormonal status. Overall, PUFA had a lim-ited beneficial effect on M 1 dG levels that warrants further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red and processed meat (PM) consumption increases the risk of large bowel cancer and it has been demonstrated that haem in red meat (RM) stimulates the endogenous production of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) within the human intestine. To investigate whether N-nitrosation occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 27 ileostomists were fed diets containing no meat, or 240 g RM or 240 g PM in a randomly assigned crossover intervention design carried out in a volunteer suite. Endogenous NOC were assessed as apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) in the ileostomy output. ATNC concentration in the diets was 22 microg ATNC/kg (RM) and 37 microg ATNC/kg (PM), and 9 microg ATNC/kg in the no meat diet. Levels significantly increased to 1175 microg ATNC/kg SEM = 226 microg ATNC/kg) following the RM (P=0.001) and 1832 microg ATNC/kg (SEM=294 microg ATNC/kg) following PM (P<0.001) compared to the no meat diet (283 microg ATNC/kg, SEM=74 microg ATNC/kg). ATNC concentrations in the ileal output were equivalent to those measured in faeces in similarly designed feeding studies. Supplementation with either 1 g ascorbic acid or 400 IU alpha-tocopherol had no effect on the concentration of ATNC detected in the ileal output. In in vitro experiments, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) was formed in the presence of nitrosated haemoglobin, at pH 6.8 but not in the absence of nitrosated haemoglobin. These findings demonstrate that haem may facilitate the formation of NOC in the absence of colonic flora in the upper human gastrointestinal tract.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrosated glycine derivatives react with DNA to form O6-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6-CMdG) and O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6-MedG) adducts concurrently. O6-CMdG is not repaired by O6-alkylguanine alkyltransferases and might be expected to lead to mutations via a similar mechanism to O6-MedG. Potassium diazoacetate (KDA) is a stable form of nitrosated glycine and its ability to induce mutations in the p53 gene in a functional yeast assay was studied. Treatment of a plasmid containing the human p53 cDNA sequence with KDA afforded readily detectable levels of O6-CMdG and O6-MedG. The treated plasmid was used to transform yeast cells and coloured colonies harbouring a p53 sequence with functional mutations were detected. Recovery of the mutated plasmids followed by DNA sequencing enabled the mutation spectrum of KDA to be characterised. The most common mutations induced by KDA were substitutions with >50% occurring at GC base pairs. In contrast to the methylating agent methylnitrosourea which gives predominantly (>80%) GC-->AT transitions, KDA produced almost equal amounts of transitions (GC-->AT) and transversions (GC-->TA and AT-->TA). This difference is probably due to a different mode of base mispairing for O6-CMdG compared with O6-MedG. The pattern of mutations induced by KDA was very similar to the patterns observed in mutated p53 in human gastrointestinal tract tumours. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that nitrosation of glycine (or glycine derivatives) may contribute to characteristic human p53 mutation profiles. This conclusion is borne out by recent observations that O6-CMdG is present in human DNA both from blood and exfoliated colorectal cells and is consistent with recent epidemiological studies that have concluded that endogenous nitrosation arising from red meat consumption is related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rats were fed from weaning on 1 of 3 diets. Those fed a cafeteria diet had livers that were enlarged and abnormal by visual inspection. The rats themselves appeared healthy, had a normal growth rate, and were not significantly different in weight from control animals. Histologic examination revealed the livers of these rats to be rich in lipids and glycogen. Liver function tests showed a depressed level of alanine transaminase and an abnormal high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein. Dietary lipids generate free radicals that can interact with, and damage, DNA. However, when DNA was extracted from the livers and examined for the presence of the adduct M1-dG, there were no significant differences in adduct levels in livers from animals fed any of the diets. We conclude that the cafeteria diet can have long-term adverse effects on liver function even though overt measures of health may be unimpaired, body mass is maintained within normal limits, and liver DNA is not adversely affected.
Nutrition Research - NUTR RES. 01/2007; 27(1):38-47.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red meat is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and increases the endogenous formation of N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). To investigate the genotoxic effects of NOC arising from red meat consumption, human volunteers were fed high (420 g) red meat, vegetarian, and high red meat, high-fiber diets for 15 days in a randomized crossover design while living in a volunteer suite, where food was carefully controlled and all specimens were collected. In 21 volunteers, there was a consistent and significant (P < 0.0001) increase in endogenous formation of NOC with the red meat diet compared with the vegetarian diet as measured by apparent total NOC (ATNC) in feces. In colonic exfoliated cells, the percentage staining positive for the NOC-specific DNA adduct, O(6)-carboxymethyl guanine (O(6)CMG) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher on the high red meat diet. In 13 volunteers, levels were intermediate on the high-fiber, high red meat diet. Fecal ATNC were positively correlated with the percentage of cells staining positive for O(6)CMG (r(2) = 0.56, P = 0.011). The presence of O(6)CMG was also shown in intact small intestine from rats treated with the N-nitrosopeptide N-acetyl-N'-prolyl-N'-nitrosoglycine and in HT-29 cells treated with diazoacetate. This study has shown that fecal NOC arising from red meat include direct acting diazopeptides or N-nitrosopeptides able to form alkylating DNA adducts in the colon. As these O(6)CMG adducts are not repaired, and if other related adducts are formed and not repaired, this may explain the association of red meat with colorectal cancer.
Cancer Research 02/2006; 66(3):1859-65. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Site-specific modification of the N1-position of purine was explored at the nucleoside and oligomer levels. 2'-deoxyinosine was converted into an N1-2,4-dinitrophenyl derivative 2 that was readily transformed to the desired N1-substituted 2'-deoxyinosine analogues. This approach was used to develop a post-synthetic method for the modification of the endocyclic N1-position of purine at the oligomer level. The phosphoramidite monomer of N1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2'-deoxyinosine 9 was prepared from 2'-deoxyinosine in four steps and incorporated into oligomers using an automated DNA synthesizer. The modified base, N1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-hypoxanthine, in synthesized oligomers, upon treatment with respective agents, was converted into corresponding N1-substituted hypoxanthines, including N1-15N-hypoxanthine, N1-methylhypoxanthine and N1-(2-aminoethyl)-hypoxanthine. These modified oligomers can be easily separated and high purity oligomers obtained. Melting curve studies show the oligomer containing N1-methylhypoxanthine or N1-(2-aminoethyl)-hypoxanthine has a reduced thermostability with no particular pairing preference to either cytosine or thymine. The developed method could be adapted for the preparation of oligomers containing mutagenic N1-beta-hydroxyalkyl-hypoxanthines and the availability of the rare base-modified oligomers should offer novel tools for biological and structural studies.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2005; 33(6):1767-78. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review covers some of the highlights in the field of chemical genetics published during 2004. A key enabling methodology in the field is the availability of diverse libraries of small molecules provided by combinatorial chemistry, and notable advances in this area are included. As the chemical genetic approach becomes more widely established the number of new biological pathways targeted by novel small molecules increases, and significant discoveries made during the year are summarised. Of particular note during 2004 was the publication of a series of review and commentary articles on the theme of ‘‘chemical space’’—a concept central to chemical genetics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that a range of nitrosated glycine derivatives react with DNA to form O6-carboxymethylguanine and O6-methylguanine DNA adducts [Harrison et al. (1999) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 12, 106-111). Nitrosated glycine derivatives may be formed in the gastrointestinal tract from the reaction of dietary glycine with nitrosating agents. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of dietary glycine in the formation of O6-guanine adducts at physiologically relevant concentrations. In vitro studies were performed by reacting 10 microM to 50 mM glycine with nitric oxide in the presence of oxygen. An HPLC assay was developed to measure the resulting nitrosated glycine derivative, diazoacetate anion. The amount of nitrosating agent present in the reaction mixture was determined by colorimetric measurement of nitrite, the hydrolysis product of N2O3. Diazoacetate anion formation depended linearly on glycine concentration. Solutions of nitrosated glycine reacted with 2'-deoxyguanosine and calf thymus DNA to give O6-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and, at high concentrations of glycine and nitric oxide, O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine. At physiological concentrations of glycine and nitric oxide, diazoacetate anion was not detectable. Studies with synthetic diazoacetate anion showed that concentrations < 14 microM did not give detectable O6-carboxyethylguanine in DNA, even when a sensitive immunoslot blot assay was used. However, O6-carboxymethylguanine was detected in human blood DNA samples obtained from three volunteers consuming a standardized high meat diet, using the immunoslot blot assay. O6-Carboxymethylguanine levels ranged from 35 to 80 (detection limit = 15) O6-carboxymethylguanine per 10(8) bases. These studies provide further evidence that nitrosated amino acids may be risk factors for gastrointestinal tract cancers.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 03/2004; 17(3):294-300. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several groups have developed methods for the analysis of protein and DNA adducts of 1,3- butadiene. Analysis of haemoglobin in both animals and occupationally exposed humans has revealed the presence of characteristic reaction products between 1,3-butadiene metabolites and the terminal amino acid, valine, of this protein. 2,3,4-Trihydroxybutyl adducts, which are derived from 3,4-epoxy-1,2-butanediol, are several orders of magnitude higher than N-(2- hydroxy-3-butenyl) adducts, which are derived from 1,2-epoxy-3-butene. Studies have demonstrated higher levels of either, or both, of these adducts in workers exposed to 1,3- butadiene (several thousand ppb) compared to controls (Perez et al., 1997). However, at low levels (less than 10 ppb) there were no correlations between exposure and levels of excreted mercapturic acids (Fustinoni et al., 2004). In one study of 1,3-butadiene-DNA adducts in humans, levels of N-1-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)adenine adducts were significantly higher in lymphocyte DNA of workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene compared to control subjects (Zhao et al., 2001). Isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) is structurally very similar to 1,3-butadiene and is a ubiquitous natural product as it is a key intermediate in plant and animal biochemistry. Humans, in fact, exhale isoprene. Isoprene is also used as an industrial chemical. It undergoes similar metabolism to 1,3-butadiene and forms DNA adducts (Begemann et al., 2004).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic DNA is under continuous assault by various chemical species produced by normal cellular metabolism. In addition, exposure to exogenous agents adds further insult. Modification of DNA by chemical carcinogens has long been recognized as an early event in carcinogenesis and many DNA adducts have been characterized. There appears to be great value in using DNA adducts as markers of exposure to genotoxic (i.e. DNA-damaging) agents and some may be even more useful as indicators of risk of disease. Studies of the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and liver cancer have illustrated particularly well the advantages of using specific DNA adducts and other biomarkers, not only to better characteristic the risk factors, but also as endpoints in intervention studies. DNA adducts of endogenous genotoxins such as malondialdehyde and nitrosated glycine are particularly informative in studies of the effects of diet on cancer risk. DNA adducts may also be useful in identifying no-exposure levels in risk assessment of low-level environmental exposures such as 1,3-butadiene (BD).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal biopsies from normal mucosa of participants in the United Kingdom Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial and European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC; n = 162) were analyzed for the presence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine (M(1)-dG), a DNA adduct derived from lipid peroxidation. The aim was to investigate whether dietary factors can modulate M(1)-dG levels and whether M(1)-dG in normal mucosa is a risk factor for colorectal adenomas. Samples were analyzed using a sensitive immunoblot blot assay. This study has shown for the first time that M(1)-dG is present in human colorectal tissue. M(1)-dG levels ranged from undetectable (n = 13) to 12.23 per 10(7) total bases. Mean levels were 4.3 +/- 3 and 4.6 +/- 2.9 per 10(7) total bases in men and women, respectively. In men, there were positive associations of adduct levels with height and age, and inverse associations with body mass index. Legumes, fruit, salad, and whole meal bread were inversely associated with M(1)-dG adducts, whereas consumption of offal, white meat, beer, and alcohol were positively associated with elevated levels. In women, there was an inverse association of the adduct with the ratio of polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acids (P = 0.019) and a weak positive correlation with saturated fat (P < 0.061). When levels of adducts were compared in individuals with and without adenomas, there was a trend for higher levels in individuals presenting with adenomas especially in the highest category of M(1)-dG adducts (P < 0.005).