ABSTRACT: ISIS 2302, an antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits the expression of human intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, was evaluated in combination with a cyclosporine (CsA)-prednisone (Pred) regimen first in a phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study and then in a phase II assessment of prophylaxis of acute rejection episodes in deceased donor renal allografts.
Both phase I and phase II trials were double-blinded and placebo-controlled, including 17 stable and 39 de novo patients, respectively, in time-lagged, ascending-dose regimens. Each study compared the outcomes of 8 alternate-day intravenous infusions of four ISIS 2302 dose levels (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg) versus placebo (3:1 ratio). Patients were followed for 34 days (phase I) or 6 months (phase II). All transplant patients were followed for 3 years.
ISIS 2302 produced no evident toxicity; a significant, dose-related increase in activated partial thromboplastin time was accompanied by a trend toward a decreased platelet count. ISIS 2302 did not alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of CsA. At 6 months, the rates of acute rejection episodes were 38.1% in the ISIS 2302 group versus 20.0% in the placebo group. Three-year graft survivals were similar. The mean creatinine values at 1, 2, and 3 years for all ISIS dose groups combined versus placebo over 3 years showed no significant differences.
ISIS 2302 did not evoke side-effects and produced slightly improved renal function. However, in this pilot study, it did not further reduce the rate of acute rejection episodes or increase graft survival compared to a concentration-controlled CsA-Pred regimen.
Transplantation 10/2004; 78(6):858-63. · 4.00 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: ISIS 104838 is a 20-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA. It carries a 2'-methoxyethyl modification on the five 3' and 5' nucleotide sugars, with 10 central unmodified deoxynucleotides. ISIS 104838 was identified from a 264 ASO screen in phorbol myristate acetate-activated keratinocytes, and the dose response was assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated monocytes. Healthy males received multiple intravenous (i.v.) ISIS 104838 infusions in a placebo-controlled dose escalation trial (0.1-6 mg/kg). Additional volunteers received single or multiple subcutaneous (s.c.) injections. ISIS 104838 suppressed TNF-alpha protein by 85% in stimulated keratinocytes. The IC50 for TNF-alpha mRNA inhibition in stimulated monocytes was <1 microM. For i.v., C(max) occurred at the end of infusion. The effective plasma half-life was 15 to 45 min at 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg and 1 to 1.8 h for higher doses. The apparent terminal plasma elimination half-life approximated 25 days. Obese subjects had higher plasma levels following equivalent mg/kg doses. For s.c. injections, C(max) occurred at 2 to 4 h and was lower than with equivalent i.v. dosing. Plasma bioavailability compared with i.v. was 82% following a 200 mg/ml s.c. injection. Transient activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation occurred after i.v. infusions and minimally after s.c. injections. Two subjects experienced rash, one a reversible platelet decrease, and mild injection site tenderness was noted. TNF-alpha production by peripheral blood leukocytes, induced ex vivo by LPS, was decreased by ISIS 104838 (p < 0.01). ISIS 104838, a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide, was generally well tolerated intravenously and subcutaneously. The pharmacokinetics support an infrequent dosing interval. Inhibition of TNF-alpha production ex vivo was demonstrated.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/2002; 303(3):1334-43. · 3.83 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine the safety of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (ISIS 2302), administered in an intensive 4 week regimen with dose escalation; and to provide preliminary evidence for efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Patients with active RA were enrolled in a 6 month, double blind, placebo controlled, dual center, dose escalation (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) study. Subjects received a total of 13 intravenous ISIS 2302 infusions, given on alternate days for 2 weeks and then 3 times a week for another 2 weeks. Doses of corticosteroids (< or = 10 mg/day) and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (stable > or = 3 months) remained constant throughout the study. The primary efficacy endpoint was the Day 26 Paulus index, with secondary evaluations at Months 2-6.
A total of 43 patients were enrolled with 11, 10, 3, and 19 patients receiving placebo or 0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg of ISIS 2302, respectively. There were no differences between groups after randomization and the mean baseline swollen joint count was 22.5. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed a T(1/2) of 63 min and first-order kinetics with slight dose dependency, suggesting a saturable clearance process, although no accumulation was noted with repeat dosing. The Paulus 20% responses at Day 26 were 20%, 0%, and 5% for patients treated with ISIS 2302 (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, respectively) and 36% with placebo. For Months 2-6, the average intent-to-treat Paulus 20% responses were 21.2% for ISIS 2302 and 12.6% for placebo. Only ISIS 2302 treated subjects (19%) achieved Paulus 50% responses. ISIS 2302 was well tolerated. An expected and transient mean activated partial thromboplastin time increase of roughly 7 s was observed at the highest dose (2 mg/kg), as were small and clinically insignificant increases in serum C3a levels. T/B cell immunophenotyping, recall antigen skin testing, and serum immunoglobulin levels revealed no significant immunosuppressive effects.
This study shows that 13 ISIS 2302 infusions over 4 weeks are well tolerated in patients with active RA. Although significant efficacy was not evident at the primary endpoint (1 month), the study lacked sufficient power to draw any formal conclusions. We tested a 4-fold drug concentration range, which led to a lower area under the curve range than was therapeutic in a subsequent Crohn's disease trial. Any further evaluation of this well tolerated ICAM-1 antisense agent should therefore be conducted at higher dosing.
The Journal of Rheumatology 03/2002; 29(3):447-53. · 3.69 Impact Factor