Nazan Dalgic

Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey

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Publications (21)42.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background The primary objective of this study was to compare triple therapy with ertapenem treatments in pediatric patients with perforated appendicitis, especially in terms of postoperative infectious complications. The secondary objective of this study was to assess the relative impact of therapy with ertapenem and triple antibiotic regimen on the emergence of resistant bacteria in bowel flora in the patients.Materials and Methods Children aged 3 months to 17 years with perforated appendicitis were randomized 1:1 to receive ertapenem or triple therapy. Serial rectal cultures were obtained from participants enrolled in the study, allowing assessment of the relative impact of therapy with ertapenem and triple therapy on bowel colonization by resistant bacteria.Results In this study, 107 patients were included. No difference existed in time to full oral intake and regular diet, the length of antibiotic therapy, the length of the postoperative hospitalization, or the length of hospital stay between the two groups. Patients in the triple-therapy group were more likely to suffer from a postoperative infectious complication than those in the ertapenem group (6/54 vs. 2/53, p > 0.05). Bowel colonization with resistant organisms at the end of therapy in the triple-therapy group was significantly different than in the ertapenem group (35.2 vs. 11.3%, p < 0.05).Conclusions Bowel colonization with resistant bacteria was less likely to occur after ertapenem treatment than triple therapy. The results of this trial suggest that ertapenem may be a useful option that could eliminate the need for combination and/or multidosed antibiotic regimens for the empiric treatment of perforated appendicitis in children.
    European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/2013; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Probiotics have been successfully used for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children and this effect depends on the strains and dose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a synbiotic mixture on the duration of diarrhea and the length of hospital stay in children with acute watery diarrhea. This is a prospective randomized, multicenter single blinded clinical trial in hospitalized children with acute watery diarrhea. All children were treated with conventional hydration therapy with or without a daily dose of a synbiotic (2.5 × 10(9) CFU live bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus faecium, and 625 mg fructooligosaccharide) for 5 days. The primary endpoint was duration of diarrhea and duration of hospitalization was the secondary endpoint. Among 209 eligible children, 113 received the synbiotic mixture and 96 served as a control. The duration of diarrhea was significantly shorter (∼36 h) in children receiving the synbiotic group than the controls (77.9 ± 30.5 vs. 114.6 ± 37.4 h, p < 0.0001). The duration of hospitalization was shorter in children receiving the synbiotic group (4.94 ± 1.7 vs. 5.77 ± 1.97 days, p = 0.002). The effect of synbiotic mixture on diarrhea started after 24th hours and stool frequency significantly decreased after 24th and 48th hours. The percentage of diarrhea-free children is significantly higher in synbiotic group at 48th and 72nd hours of synbiotic group. In conclusion, this study showed a reduction in diarrhea duration by approximately 36 h and a reduction in the duration of hospitalization with approximately 1 day in children with acute diarrhea with this synbiotic mixture.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 12/2012; · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk factors for recurrent shunt-related cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infections were analyzed. A total of 58 children were treated for initial shunt infections (ISI): all children were treated with antibiotics and CSF drainage, either by removal of the shunt system and insertion of an external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheter (44 children, 75.9%) or by externalization of the existing ventricular catheter (14 children, 24.1%). Recurrent shunt infections (RSI) were detected in 15 children: nine had been treated with shunt removal and insertion of a new EVD catheter and six had been treated with externalization of the existing ventricular catheter. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of RSI in children treated with externalization of the existing ventricular catheter. Thus, to reduce the risk of RSI, total shunt removal and insertion of a new EVD catheter is preferred.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 04/2012; 19(6):844-8. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Varicella can cause complications that are potentially serious and require hospitalization. Our current understanding of the causes and incidence of varicella-related hospitalization in Turkey is limited and sufficiently accurate epidemiological and economical information is lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual incidence of varicella-related hospitalizations, describe the complications, and estimate the annual mortality and cost of varicella in children. VARICOMP is a multi-center study that was performed to provide epidemiological and economic data on hospitalization for varicella in children between 0 and 15 years of age from October 2008 to September 2010 in Turkey. According to medical records from 27 health care centers in 14 cities (representing 49.3% of the childhood population in Turkey), 824 children (73% previously healthy) were hospitalized for varicella over the 2-year period. Most cases occurred in the spring and early summer months. Most cases were in children under 5 years of age, and 29.5% were in children under 1 year of age. The estimated incidence of varicella-related hospitalization was 5.29-6.89 per 100,000 in all children between 0-15 years of age in Turkey, 21.7 to 28 per 100,000 children under 1 year of age, 9.8-13.8 per 100,000 children under 5 years of age, 3.96-6.52 per 100,000 children between 5 and 10 years of age and 0.42 to 0.71 per 100,000 children between 10 and 15 years of age. Among the 824 children, 212 (25.7%) were hospitalized because of primary varicella infection. The most common complications in children were secondary bacterial infection (23%), neurological (19.1%), and respiratory (17.5%) complications. Secondary bacterial infections (p < 0.001) and neurological complications (p < 0.001) were significantly more common in previously healthy children, whereas hematological complications (p < 0.001) were more commonly observed in children with underlying conditions. The median length of the hospital stay was 6 days, and it was longer in children with underlying conditions (<0.001). The median cost of hospitalization per patient was $338 and was significantly higher in children with underlying conditions (p < 0.001). The estimated direct annual cost (not including the loss of parental work time and school absence) of varicella-related hospitalization in children under the age of 15 years in Turkey was $856,190 to $1,407,006. According to our estimates, 882 to 1,450 children are hospitalized for varicella each year, reflecting a population-wide occurrence of 466-768 varicella cases per 100,000 children. In conclusion, this study confirms that varicella-related hospitalizations are not uncommon in children, and two thirds of these children are otherwise healthy. The annual cost of hospitalization for varicella reflects only a small part of the overall cost of this disease, as only a very few cases require hospital admission. The incidence of this disease was higher in children <1 year of age, and there are no prevention strategies for these children other than population-wide vaccination. Universal vaccination is therefore the only realistic option for the prevention of severe complications and deaths. The surveillance of varicella-associated complications is essential for monitoring of the impact of varicella immunization.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 12/2011; 171(5):817-25. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The rate of repeat shunt-related cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infections and the contributing risk factors were analyzed.
    Pediatric Research 11/2011; · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11/2011; 30(11):1012-3. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of a group of closely related species that differ in their epidemiological profiles, host ranges, pathogenicities, geographic distributions, and drug resistances. Identification of members in the MTBC is essential for monitoring the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and implementing appropriate public health control measures. In this study, 188 consecutive MTBC clinical isolates from 2007 to 2010 were evaluated to determine the prevalence of MTBC species in Turkey. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) of the gyrB gene were used, and results for species other than M. tuberculosis were confirmed using the GenoType MTBC assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany). Most of the strains were found to be M. tuberculosis (94.1%). The prevalences of M. bovis and M. caprae were 4.3% and 1.6%, respectively. Only one M. bovis BCG strain was identified. Overall, the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in humans was 5.3%. We had assumed that bovine TB infection was under control in animal herds, but primary M. bovis infections in humans caused by transmission from infected animals are still an issue in Turkey. Our results indicate that the frequent identification of M. bovis in routine mycobacteriological laboratory work has further importance due to the well-known resistance of this species to pyrazinamide.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2011; 49(11):3837-41. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In April 2009 a novel strain of human influenza A, identified as H1N1 virus, rapidly spread worldwide, and in early June 2009 the World Health Organization raised the pandemic alert level to phase 6. Herein we present the largest series of children who were hospitalized due to pandemic H1N1 infection in Turkey. We conducted a retrospective multicentre analysis of case records involving children hospitalized with influenza-like illness, in whom 2009 H1N1 influenza was diagnosed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, at 17 different tertiary hospitals. A total of 821 children with 2009 pandemic H1N1 were hospitalized. The majority of admitted children (56.9%) were younger than 5 y of age. Three hundred and seventy-six children (45.8%) had 1 or more pre-existing conditions. Respiratory complications including wheezing, pneumonia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and hypoxemia were seen in 272 (33.2%) children. Ninety of the patients (11.0%) were admitted or transferred to the paediatric intensive care units (PICU) and 52 (6.3%) received mechanical ventilation. Thirty-five children (4.3%) died. The mortality rate did not differ between age groups. Of the patients who died, 25.7% were healthy before the H1N1 virus infection. However, the death rate was significantly higher in patients with malignancy, chronic neurological disease, immunosuppressive therapy, at least 1 pre-existing condition, and respiratory complications. The most common causes of mortality were pneumonia and sepsis. In Turkey, 2009 H1N1 infection caused high mortality and PICU admission due to severe respiratory illness and complications, especially in children with an underlying condition.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2011; 43(11-12):923-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe sepsis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Given the link to pathogenesis, polymorphisms in genes involved in infection and inflammation may influence the outcomes in patients with sepsis and septic shock. The role of mutations within the innate immunity receptor NOD2/CARD15 has recently been demonstrated as a risk factor for bacteremia and mortality in adult patients with sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mutations of the NOD2/CARD15 gene in pediatric patients with sepsis. Prospective cohort study. A tertiary care, ten-bed, pediatric intensive care unit. One hundred twenty-eight patients with sepsis admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and healthy control group were included. Venous blood from the children with sepsis and healthy controls was collected to investigate common polymorphisms (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, Leu1007fsincC) within the NOD2/CARD15 gene. Standard polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used to determine NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphism. R702W, G908R, and Leu1007fsinsC variants in the NOD2/CARD15 gene were determined as significant risk factors associated with susceptibility to sepsis (p = .025, p = .031, p = .014, respectively). Sepsis-related mortality was increased in children carrying the Leu1007fsinsC variant (p = .041). The present article is the first report of clinical implications of NOD2/CARD15 gene variants in children with sepsis. Our findings suggest that common polymorphisms in the NOD2/CARD15 gene may play a major role in susceptibility to sepsis and the outcome of sepsis in children.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 03/2011; 13(2):e73-7. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine the occurrence of the Arg753Gln polymorphism of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene in Turkish children with pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease compared with that in healthy children with latent TB infection (LTBI) and to assess the risk of progression from LTBI to active TB disease in children. The Arg753Gln polymorphism of the TLR2 gene was studied in 198 TB patients compared with 200 ethnically and age-matched children with LTBI. The culture confirmed TB patients were more frequently Arg753Gln heterozygous [odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.61-9.76, p = 0.00], and Gln allele frequency was significantly higher in the patient group (13.86% vs 3.5%, OR 4.40, 95% CI 2.34-8.30, p = 0.00). We also showed that the frequencies of the heterozygous Arg753Gln genotype and the Gln allele were significantly higher in patients with pulmonary TB alone and in patients with definitive pulmonary plus extrapulmonary TB than in children with LTBI. Our data suggest that the Arg753Gln polymorphism of the TLR-2 gene influences the speed of progression from infection to TB disease in children. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether this polymorphism has a strong impact on susceptibility to TB in children.
    Human immunology 02/2011; 72(5):440-5. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc, probiotic bacteria, and lactose-free formula and their different combinations in the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in young children. Eight different treatment groups were formed: group 1, 60 patients receiving Saccharomyces boulardii; group 2, 60 patients receiving zinc; group 3, 60 patients receiving lactose-free formula; group 4, 60 patients receiving S. boulardii plus zinc; group 5, 60 patients receiving S. boulardii plus lactose-free formula; group 6, 60 patients receiving zinc plus lactose-free formula; group 7, 60 patients receiving S. boulardii plus zinc plus lactose-free formula; group 8, 60 patients receiving only oral and/or parenteral rehydration solutions. No statistically significant differences were found in the time to resolution of fever after intervention between the treatment groups and the control group. The time to resolution of vomiting was significantly lower in group 4 compared with groups 1 and 5. The duration of diarrhea was significantly reduced in groups 2 and 4 compared to control. A statistically significant difference in the duration of hospitalization was observed for the groups 2 and 4 in comparison to the control group. A different combination of adjunct therapies did not seem to bring additional value to rehydration therapy in children with rotavirus diarrhea except for in those receiving only zinc and zinc plus S. boulardii. Further studies are required to determine the optimal protocol of adjunct therapy use in children with rotavirus diarrhea.
    Pediatrics International 01/2011; 53(5):677-82. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a problem frequently encountered by paediatric healthcare providers. Recent data suggest that extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are an emerging cause of UTIs in non-hospitalized patients. We report our experience of ertapenem use in 50 patients with complicated UTIs, mainly pyelonephritis, caused by ESBL-producing organisms. Fifty patients aged <16 y who had a complicated UTI caused by ESBL-producing organisms and who were treated with ertapenem at our hospital from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009, were included in the study. There were 20 (40%) males and 30 (60%) females with a mean ± standard deviation age of 38.6 ± 36.9 months (range 6-156 months). Twenty-eight patients had no urological abnormality. In 40 patients ertapenem was initiated after results of microbiological cultures became available. Ertapenem was initiated empirically for 10 patients known to be colonized with ESBL-producing bacteria. Urine cultures were negative at 3.3 ± 0.7 days (range 2-5 days) after starting ertapenem treatment. The mean duration of ertapenem treatment was 7.8 ± 1.2 days (range 7-14 days). No laboratory or clinical side effects were observed. Ertapenem is promising for the culture-guided treatment of ESBL-producing Gram-negative complicated UTIs. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to define the role of ertapenem in treating complicated paediatric UTIs, especially upper UTIs.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2011; 43(5):339-43. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variants in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are considered a potential indicator for host susceptibility to and outcome of several infectious diseases including tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether -129 C/G and Met1Val polymorphisms of TLR8 were associated with pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis in Turkish population. The -129 C/G and Met1Val polymorphisms were studied in 124 children with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to 150 age-matched healthy control subjects. Results: We did not identify any statistically significant differences between the patients with TB and control groups with regard to the frequency of genotypes GG or G/(-), CG, and CC or C/(-); and alleles G and C at rs3764879 (p> 0.05). We found a strong association with genotype A/(-) at rs3764880 with susceptibility to pulmonary TB in males (OR 2.87, 95%CI 1.38-5.98, p=0.007). Our results provide evidence, for the first time, of a role for the TLR8 gene in susceptibility to pulmonary TB in male children. Additional research to verify our results are necessary. Tuberculosis in children presents particularly difficult challenges, but research priorities and advances in pediatric tuberculosis could provide wider insights and opportunities for tuberculosis control.
    Disease markers 01/2011; 31(1):33-8. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared two strategies for treating newborns with myeloschisis or myelomeningocele (open neural tube defect [oNTD]) and hydrocephalus. These strategies involved insertion of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VPS) either synchronous with or sequential to surgical closure of the oNTD. We investigated shunt infection and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage rates and their effects on the duration of hospitalization for both treatments. The study involved 65 patients with hydrocephalus and open neural placodes which were covered with a thin pseudomembrane. Thirty-eight infants underwent an oNTD repair operation and shunting during the same surgical session (synchronous group [group 1]), and 27 infants underwent sequential procedures, in which shunt insertion was delayed until the thoracolumbar wound was partially healed (sequential group [group 2]). Group 1 had a mean duration of hospital stay of 15.5 days, significantly less than the average 28.8 days of group 2 (p < 0.05). No significant differences in CSF leakage and shunt infections occurred between the two groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of shunt infection due to CSF fistulas that developed postoperatively was higher for patients with CSF leakage as a result of oNTD at birth than for patients without CSF leakage (p < 0.05). Patients with oNTD are at significant risk of infections because of the thin pseudomembrane over the defect. In addition, newborn patients may also have a weakened immune system. Despite these disadvantages, VPS placement within a single session can be advantageous for the patient, family and physician, compared to multiple surgical procedures. It is also more cost-effective.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 12/2010; 17(12):1493-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The P2X7 gene polymorphisms have been linked to increased risk for pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in some populations. In this study, the genotype and allelic frequencies 1513A-->C variant within the P2X7 gene was significantly higher than in the healthy controls (P = 0.035, P = 0.041). This is the first study demonstrating that the 1513A-->C polymorphism is associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/2010; 29(8):779-82. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a cause of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection is a disconcerting phenomenon that often requires the use of alternative antimicrobial agents due to resistance against commonly used medications. Linezolid, a member of a new class of antimicrobial agents, has good activity against virtually all important gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. The object of this article is to report a single-center experience with linezolid treatment in 6 young patients with VP shunt infections caused by drug-resistant strains. The authors reviewed the records of 6 pediatric patients who developed VP shunt infection and in whom initial antimicrobial treatment regimens, including vancomycin, either failed or were associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. All 6 patients were treated at their hospital between July 1, 2008, and June 29, 2009. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and various treatment modalities used before linezolid therapy were evaluated. The 6 patients included were 2 boys and 4 girls with a mean (+/- SD) age of 11.83 +/- 12 months (range 4-36 months). Five patients had acquired an infection within 4 months (mean 7.50 +/- 13.51 months, range 1-35 months) after shunt insertion. Four patients were treated with external ventricular drainage. Two patients' parents refused to allow shunt removal and placement of an external ventricular drain. The CSF was clear of bacterial growth within a mean of 3.67 +/- 1.36 days (range 2-6 days) after initiation of linezolid treatment. The mean duration of linezolid treatment was 18.17 +/- 3.31 days (range 14-21 days). Microbiological clearance of CSF and clinical cure were achieved in all patients. No laboratory or clinical side effects were observed during the treatment period. The mean length of hospital stay was 22.8 +/- 4.96 days (range 17-28 days). Linezolid could be an appropriate treatment alternative in children with ventriculostomy-related CSF infections caused by drug-resistant strains, including cases in which shunt removal is not an option. Well-designed prospective studies providing additional information on linezolid levels in plasma and CSF are necessary to confirm the authors' observations.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 05/2010; 5(5):443-8. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) meningitis/ventriculitis is a difficult therapeutic problem owing to the limited penetration of antibiotics into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 2-month-old girl with ventriculitis caused by MDRAB is reported. Despite therapy with intravenous (IV) colistin ventricular fluid, cultures remained positive for MDRAB. Institution of combination therapy with IV and intraventricular colistin resulted in a successful clinical and microbiological outcome. Intraventricular/intrathecal and IV colistin might be the best therapeutic option in the treatment of central nervous system infection caused by MDRAB. Further studies are required to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of combined IV and intraventricular/intrathecal colistin administration, especially in children.
    Annals of Tropical Paediatrics International Child Health 07/2009; 29(2):141-7. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infections in immunocompromised children can stem from bacteria, fungi, viruses, or protozoa, but most importantly, from the host's endogenous bacterial flora. Disseminated infection caused by Trichosporon species is one of the emerging mycoses in neutropenic patients, particularly when they are treated for haematological malignancy with cytotoxic and immunosuppressive chemotherapy. We report a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, whose Trichosporon mucoides infection was successfully treated with lipid complex amphotericin B plus 5-fluorocytosine.
    Mycoses 04/2006; 49(3):251 - 253. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Candida lipolytica has infrequently been identified as a cause of infection and is associated mostly with vascular catheter-related fungaemia. Patients reported in the literature have been successfully treated with catheter removal or amphotericin B treatment. We report 2 infants with C. lipolytica fungaemia unresponsive to catheter removal and amphotericin B therapy and treated successfully with the addition of caspofungin to amphotericin B.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2006; 38(6-7):559-62. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2006; 24(12):1125. · 3.57 Impact Factor