Shangqin Liu

Yamaguchi University, Yamaguti, Yamaguchi, Japan

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Publications (14)68.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important growth factor for myeloma cells. IL-6 promotes the survival and proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells through the phosphorylated proteins, including STAT3, MAPK, and Akt. Chemical components that suppress the signaling proteins' phosphorylation have a potential role for MM therapy. We recently identified that baicalein, a component of Scutellaria radix, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of myeloma cells by blocking IkappaB-alpha degradation followed by down-regulating IL-6 and XIAP gene expression. In the present study of four myeloma cell lines, namely U266, NOP2, AMO1, and ILKM2, we demonstrated that baicalein not only inhibited IL-6-mediated phosphorylation of signaling proteins, such as Jak, STAT3, MAPK, and Akt, but also inhibited the expression of their target genes, such as bcl-xl. Finally, baicalein facilitated myeloma cell proliferation inhibited by dexamethasone. In contrast, baicalin, another major flavonoid derived from Scutellaria radix, had no significant effect on IL-6-mediated protein phosphorylation. Baicalein had no effect on Akt phosphorylation induced by the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in NOP2 cells. Compared with PD98059, an MAPK inhibitor, baicalein exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on Erk(1/2) phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that baicalein is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphorylation induced by IL-6, and thus may be a useful agent for the treatment of MM.
    European Journal Of Haematology 10/2009; 84(2):137-44. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human primary myeloma cells are well known to be heterogeneous with regard to morphology and surface phenotype. We confirmed the heterogeneous expression of such multilineage markers as CD33, CD7, CD56, CD4, and CD86 in primary myeloma cells from 20 patients with multiple myeloma and in 8 human myeloma cell lines. CD33 expression in the Liu01 cell line, a subclone of U266 cells, and in vitamin D3-treated ILKM3 cells, correlated with a monocytoid morphology featuring convoluted nuclei and with increased C/EBPalpha expression. CD56+ myeloma cells from some myeloma patients and the CD56+ (but not the CD56-) myeloma cell lines expressed neuronal cell markers, such as neuron-specific enolase and beta-tubulin III. CD7 expression in Liu01 cells and forskolin-stimulated U266 cells coincided with the presence of large cytoplasmic granules, and these cells featured increased expression of perforin messenger RNA and significant natural killer cell activity. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a growth factor for myeloma cells, down-regulated CD33, CD7, or CD56 expression in primary myeloma cells, as well as in Liu01 cells. Therefore, these data suggest that human myeloma cells are capable of inducing the expression of multilineage markers and that IL-6 can down-regulate such expression.
    International Journal of Hematology 02/2007; 85(1):49-58. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that regulates the proliferation of some tumor cells including multiple myeloma (MM). Ectopic expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR 3) associated with the chromosomal translocation, t(4;14)(p16.3;q32), is frequently found in MM, and therefore, has been implicated in the neoplastic transformation of this disease. Here, we show that IL-6 together with FGF enhanced proliferation of a myeloma cell line, KMS-11 carrying t(4;14)(p16.3;q32) and the FGFR 3-transfected U 266 myeloma cell line which ectopically expressed FGFR 3 but responded to neither IL-6 nor FGF alone. In KMS-11, IL-6 activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) while FGF activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase. As both MEK inhibitors and a PI 3-kinase inhibitor abolished the effect of IL-6 and FGF, the activation of both the ERK 1/2 and PI 3-kinase signaling cascades is essential for the proliferation of KMS-11 enhanced by IL-6 and FGF. Furthermore, the FGF-induced activation of ERK 1/2 contributed to the serine phosphorylation of STAT 3, suggesting that the signaling crosstalk between the cytokine receptor, IL-6 receptor alpha/gp 130 and the growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, FGFR 3. These results indicate that FGFR 3 plays a crucial role in the accelerated proliferation of MM carrying t(4;14)(p16.3;q32).
    Oncogene 10/2005; 24(41):6328-32. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the search for a more effective adjuvant therapy to treat multiple myeloma (MM), we investigated the effects of the traditional Chinese herbal medicines Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (GZFLW), and Huang-Lian-Tang (HLT) on the proliferation and apoptosis of myeloma cells. HLJDT inhibited the proliferation of myeloma cell lines and the survival of primary myeloma cells, especially MPC-1- immature myeloma cells, and induced apoptosis in myeloma cell lines via a mitochondria-mediated pathway by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further experiments confirmed that Scutellaria radix was responsible for the suppressive effect of HLJDT on myeloma cell proliferation, and the baicalein in Scutellaria radix showed strong growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in comparison with baicalin or wogonin. Baicalein as well as baicalin suppressed the survival in vitro of MPC-1- immature myeloma cells rather than MPC-1+ myeloma cells from myeloma patients. Baicalein inhibited the phosphorylation of IkB-alpha, which was followed by decreased expression of the IL-6 and XIAP genes and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Therefore, HLJDT and Scutellaria radix have an antiproliferative effect on myeloma cells, especially MPC-1- immature myeloma cells, and baicalein may be responsible for the suppressive effect of Scutellaria radix by blocking IkB-alpha degradation.
    Blood 05/2005; 105(8):3312-8. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD45, a receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase, is required for interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced proliferation in human myeloma cells, which express the shortest isoform, CD45RO, but not the longest isoform, CD45RA. Here, we showed that IL-6 induced the translocation of CD45 to lipid rafts in an isoform-dependent manner. In myeloma cells, CD45RO was translocated to lipid rafts more rapidly than CD45RB, but exogenously expressed CD45RA was not translocated. When an IL-6Ralpha-transfected B-cell line was stimulated with IL-6, CD45RA was not translocated, although CD45RB was. We further confirmed that the translocated CD45 bound to IL-6Ralpha, Lyn, and flotillin-2, and this was followed by the dephosphorylation of the negative regulatory Tyr507 of Lyn. CD45 also bound to phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAGs), which were subsequently dephosphorylated, resulting in the release of C-terminal src kinase (Csk) from lipid rafts. Therefore, these results indicate that a rapid translocation of CD45RO to lipid rafts may be responsible for IL-6-induced proliferation, and that the change from CD45RA to CD45RO confers the ability to respond to IL-6 in human myeloma cells.
    Blood 05/2005; 105(8):3295-302. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serum levels of an adrenal sex hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), are significantly more decreased in human myelomas compared with the reduction brought by physiologic decline with age. In order to clarify the effect of DHEA on myeloma cells, we investigated whether DHEA and DHEA-S could inhibit interleukin-6 (IL-6) production of bone marrow mononuclear cells and the proliferation of myeloma cells from patients with myeloma. DHEA-S and DHEA suppressed IL-6 production from a bone marrow stromal cell line, KM-102, as well as in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with myeloma. Furthermore, DHEA inhibited in vitro growth of the U-266 cell line and primary myeloma cells from the patients, as well as the in vivo growth of U-266 cells implanted i.p. in severe combined immunodeficiency-hIL6 transgenic mice. DHEA up-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), PPAR beta, but not PPARgamma or PPARalpha, and the expression of IkappaBalpha gene in myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells, which could explain the suppressive effect of DHEA on IL-6 production through the down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity. Therefore, these data revealed that DHEA-S, as well as DHEA, had a direct effect on myeloma and bone marrow stromal cells to inhibit their proliferation and IL-6 production, respectively.
    Cancer Research 04/2005; 65(6):2269-76. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth and antiapoptotic factor for human myeloma cells. The autocrine loop and increased expression of the growth factor receptors have been postulated as the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Here we show that IL-6 stimulation induced the phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors in a human myeloma cell line, NOP2, highly expressing IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6R alpha) and in the IL-6R alpha-transfected U266 cell line. IL-6-dependent complex formation of IL-6R alpha with IGF-I receptor beta was found in NOP2 where IL-6R alpha colocalized with IGF-I receptors at lipid rafts. Moreover, the IL-6-induced phosphorylation of IGF-I receptor beta was not blocked by a Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) inhibitor. In addition to the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, IL-6 stimulation led to the activation of Akt, presumably following the phosphorylation of IGF-I receptors. Thus, our results suggest that in NOP2, IL-6R alpha and IGF-I receptors exist on the plasma membrane in close proximity, facilitating the efficient assembly of 2 receptors in response to IL-6. The synergistic effects of highly expressed IL-6R alpha on IGF-I receptor-mediated signals provide a novel insight into the Jak-independent IL-6 signaling mechanism of receptor cross-talk in human myeloma cells.
    Blood 04/2004; 103(6):2291-8. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Hematology 01/2004; 8(6):409-11. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a proliferative disorder of monoclonal plasma cells which accumulate in human bone marrow, and myeloma cells proliferate in response to a cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6). We recently found that MPC-1- CD49e- immature myeloma cells expressing CD45 form a proliferating population in MM. IL-6 activates at least two intracellular pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) following the activation of Janus kinases (JAKs) via its receptor complexes composed of the IL-6 receptor alpha chain and gp130. Although the roles of CD45 have been extensively studied for antigen receptors in B and T cells, its physiological consequences in other hematopoietic cells remain largely unknown. Myeloma cells expressing CD45 antigens which contain the activation of src family protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) independent of IL-6 stimulation proliferate in response to IL-6, whereas the proliferation of CD45- cells which lack a considerable activity of the src family PTKs is not promoted by IL-6. The STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways are similarly activated by IL-6 in both cells either expressing or not expressing CD45. In this review, we argue a novel mechanism of proliferation of myeloma cells, in that the activation of both STAT3 and ERK1/2 is not sufficient for IL-6-induced proliferation which further requires IL-6-independent activation of the src family kinases associated with CD45 phosphatase. We propose that the cellular context, such as CD45 expression and src family kinase activation, is crucial for myeloma cells to proliferate in response to IL-6.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 10/2003; 44(9):1477-81. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human myeloma cells are heterogenous morphologically and phenotypically. Myeloma cells can be classified into at least 5 subpopulations; MPC-1-CD45+CD49e-, MPC-1-CD45-CD49e- immature myeloma cells, MPC-1+CD45-CD49e-, MPC-1+CD45+CD49e- intermediate myeloma cells and MPC-1+CD45+CD49e+ mature myeloma cells. Interleukin-6(IL-6) is a major growth factor for human myeloma cells, but only MPC-1-CD45+CD49e- immature myeloma cells can response directly to IL-6 to proliferate. In the U-266 cell lines, IL-6 can lead to the induction of CD45 expression and CD45+ U-266 cells can proliferate in response to IL-6. In primary myeloma cells, MPC-1-CD45-CD49e- immature myeloma cells sorted from bone marrow samples can be changed to CD45+ cells by addition of IL-6 in vitro. In both CD45- and CD45+ U-266 cells, STAT3 and MAPK(ERK1/2) can be activated in response to IL-6 equally between them, but src family kinases such as Lyn, Fyn can be activated only in CD45+ U-266 cells. Thus, the activation of the src family kinases associated with CD45 expression is a prerequisite for the proliferation of myeloma cells. In the bone marrow of myeloma patients, most myeloma cells do not express CD45, and CD45+ immature myeloma cells are only 1 approximately 2%. In order to clarify the difference of cellular context between CD45- and CD45+ myeloma cells, PCR-based cDNA subtraction was performed from CD45+ U-266 cells to CD45-U-266 cells. The series of this subtraction selected several genes. Furthermore, sensitivity to stress stimuli between CD45+ and CD45- U-266 cells was also compared. CD45-U-266 cells were markedly more resistant to stress conditions such as serum-free condition. Therefore, we can speculate that in the bone marrow of human myelomas IL-6 can induce proliferation of CD45+ immature cells, but the amount of IL-6 is too low to support CD45+ myeloma cells and loss of CD45 results in no direct response to IL-6 to proliferate but confers resistance to stress condition leading to the longer survival at the limited amount of IL-6.
    International Journal of Hematology 09/2002; 76 Suppl 1:329-33. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a proliferative disorder of monoclonal plasma cells which accumulate in human bone marrow (BM). CD19 is a hallmark differentiation antigen of the B cell lineage and positively regulates antigen receptor signal transduction in mature B cells. We have previously shown that malignant plasma cells (myeloma cells) isolated from the MM patients lack the CD19 expression, while non-malignant plasma cells isolated from the healthy donors do express the CD19 antigens. It is also intriguing that there exists both CD19- and CD19+ plasma cells in some cases in pre-myeloma states including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). It indicates that MGUS is usually composed of phenotypically non-malignant (CD19+) and malignant (CD19-) plasma cells. Furthermore, we recently demonstrate that, expression of the CD19 gene markedly inhibits the proliferation of human myeloma cell lines in vitro, and exhibits the reduced tumorigenicity in vivo and no anchorage-independent growth in vitro of a tumorigenic myeloma cell line. This inhibitory effect might result from the CD19-mediated intracellular signals because it is not observed in cells expressing the mutant CD19, which lacks the cytoplasmic domain. In this review, we suggest that loss of CD19 in MM could contribute to the proliferative advantage of the malignant plasma cell clones in this disease. Furthermore, we propose the usefulness of the phenotypic analysis of plasma cells in human plasma cell dyscrasia as a new diagnostic tool, and the CD19 gene as a potential target for the gene therapy in MM.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 04/2002; 43(3):613-6. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Specific intracellular signals mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor complexes, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, are considered to be responsible for inducing a variety of cellular responses. In multiple myeloma, IL-6 only enhanced the proliferation of CD45+ tumor cells that harbored the IL-6-independent activation of src family kinases even though STAT3 and ERK1/2 could be activated in response to IL-6 in both CD45+ and CD45(minus sign) cells. Furthermore, the IL-6-induced proliferation of CD45+ U266 myeloma cells was significantly suppressed by Lyn-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or a selective src kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that the activation of both STAT3 and ERK1/2 is not enough for IL-6-induced proliferation of myeloma cell lines that require src family kinase activation independent of IL-6 stimulation. Thus, the activation of the src family kinases associated with CD45 expression is a prerequisite for the proliferation of myeloma cell lines by IL-6. We propose a mechanism for IL-6-induced cell proliferation that is strictly dependent upon the cellular context in myelomas.
    Blood 04/2002; 99(6):2172-8. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth and anti- apoptotic factor for human myeloma cells. The autocrine loop and increased expres- sion of the growth factor receptors have been postulated as the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Here we show that IL-6 stimulation induced the phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) recep- tors in a human myeloma cell line, NOP2, highly expressing IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and in the IL-6R-transfected U266 cell line. IL-6-dependent complex formation of IL-6R with IGF-I receptor was found in NOP2 where IL-6R colocalized with IGF-I receptors at lipid rafts. Moreover, the IL-6-induced phosphorylation of IGF-I receptor was not blocked by a Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) inhibitor. In addition to the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellu- lar signal-regulated kinase 1/2, IL-6 stimu- lation led to the activation of Akt, presum- ably following the phosphorylation of IGF-I receptors. Thus, our results suggest that in NOP2, IL-6R and IGF-I receptors exist on the plasma membrane in close proximity, facilitating the efficient assem- bly of 2 receptors in response to IL-6. The synergistic effects of highly expressed IL-6R on IGF-I receptor-mediated sig- nals provide a novel insight into the Jak- independent IL-6 signaling mechanism of receptor cross-talk in human myeloma cells. (Blood. 2004;103:2291-2298)