[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured linkage disequilibrium in mostly noncoding regions of Cryptomeria japonica, a conifer belonging to Cupressaceae. Linkage disequilibrium was extensive and did not decay even at a distance of 100 kb. The average estimate of the population recombination rate per base pair was 1.55 × 10(-5) and was <1/70 of that in the coding regions. We discuss the impact of low recombination rates in a large part of the genome on association studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The largest group of plant resistance (R) genes contain the regions that encode the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (NBS-LRR genes). To gain new resistance, amino acid substitutions and changes in number of the LRRs that recognize the presence of pathogens are considered important. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the number of LRRs and analyze the genome data of five plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus and Populus trichocarpa. We first categorized the NBS-LRR genes in each species into groups and subgroups based on the phylogenetic relationships of their NBS domain sequences. Then we estimated the evolutionary rate of the number of LRRs relative to the synonymous divergence in the NBS domain sequences by a maximum likelihood method assuming the single stepwise mutation model. The estimates ranged from 4.5 to 600 and differed between groups in the same species or between species. This indicated different roles played by different groups of the NBS-LRR genes within a species or the effects of various life history characteristics, such as generation time, of the species. We also tested the fit of the model to the data using the variance of number of LRRs in each subgroup. In some subgroups in some plants (16 out of 174 subgroups), the results of simulation using the estimated rates significantly deviated from the observed data. Those subgroups may have undergone different modes of selection from the other subgroups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This patient is a male in his 30's. He was diagnosed as hepatitis B virus-related huge primary liver cancer, 10cm in diameter, located in segment 4, accompanied with left portal thrombus and multiple lung metastases. Ten months after repeating systemic chemotherapy using gemcitabine (GEM)+carboplatin (CBDCA)+5-FU/leucovorin (LV) and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) 4 times, extended left lobectomy with caudate lobe could be successfully performed because of marked reducion of the huge tumor. The pathology revealed almost entirely necrotic changes of the main tumor, and the remaining, viable tumor nests showed combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. Systemic chemotherapy was repeatedly given afterwards, which kept the pulmonary metastases stable without growth. The present case suggests that systemic chemotherapy using GEM+CBDCA+5-FU/LV may be useful in the multimodal treatment for the combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma with distant metastases.
Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology 01/2011; 108(11):1892-901.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is high, whereas that of hypertension and ischemic heart diseases is low. We measured carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) to determine the incidence of atherosclerosis in patients with LC+DM and to compare it with that in patients with type 2 DM, and evaluated the risk factors for atherosclerosis in these patients.
We determined IMT of the common carotid artery by B-mode ultrasound, serum lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma levels of fasting and postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fibrinogen and platelet counts in 14 patients of the LC+DM group, 16 patients with type 2 DM (DM group) and 14 patients with LC without impaired glucose tolerance (LC group).
The IMT in the LC+DM group (0.694+/-0.175mm) was similar to that in the LC group (0.693+/-0.151mm) but significantly smaller than the DM group (0.904+/-0.337mm). There were no significant differences between the LC+DM group and DM group in the duration of DM, proportion of smokers, arterial blood pressure, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, and CRP, but HbA1c, platelet counts and fibrinogen were significantly lower in the LC+DM group than in the DM group.
Our study suggests that the development of atherosclerosis in patients with DM is suppressed by the presence of LC, probably due to reduced platelet counts and fibrinogen levels.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 12/2007; 78(2):176-81. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 79-year-old woman who had an abdominal pain and vomiting admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of ileus. An ileus tube was inserted and the fluoroscopic study of the small intestine revealed narrowing of the two parts, jejunum and the ileum. Because no improvement was obtained by conservative treatment, an operation was performed. We observed that an appendix epiploica of the sigmoid colon extended long, and its tip was adherent to the retroperitoneum. The small intestine was impacted into the aperture formed by the band. Seventeen cases with intestinal obstruction due to an appendix epiploica have been reported in Japan, including this case.
Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology 11/2007; 104(10):1480-5.