E. Herbst

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (396)1427.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Both grain surface and gas phase chemistry have been invoked to explain the disparate relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers acetic acid and glycolaldehyde in the Sgr B2(N) star-forming region. While a network of grain surface chemistry involving radical–radical reactions during the warm-up phase of a hot core is the most chemically viable option proposed to date, neither qualitative nor quantitative agreement between modeling and observation has yet been obtained. In this study, we seek to test additional grain surface and gas phase processes to further investigate methyl formate-related chemistry by implementing several modifications to the Ohio State University gas/grain chemical network. We added two new gas phase chemical pathways leading to methyl formate, one involving an exothermic, barrierless reaction of protonated methanol with neutral formic acid; and one involving the reaction of protonated formic acid with neutral methanol to form both the cis and trans forms of protonated methyl formate. In addition to these gas phase processes, we have also investigated whether the relative product branching ratios for methanol photodissociation on grains influence the relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers. We find that while the new gas phase formation pathways do not alter the relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers, changes in the photodissociation branching ratios and adjustment of the overall timescale for warm-up can be used to explain their relative ratios in Sgr B2(N).
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2015; 728:71-9. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used the continuous-time random-walk Monte Carlo technique to study anew the formation of H2 on the surfaces of interstellar dust grains in diffuse interstellar clouds. For our study, we considered three different grain materials, olivine (a polycrystalline silicate), amorphous silicate, and amorphous carbon, as well as a grain temperature that depends on granular size. For some runs, we included temperature fluctuations. Four different granular surfaces were used, one "flat" with one type of binding site due to physisorption, one "rough" with five different types of physisorption binding sites due to lateral forces, and two with sites for chemisorption, one in which chemisorption sites are entered through precursor physisorption sites, and one in which chemisorption is direct but occurs with a barrier for the adsorption of the first hydrogen atom. We found that on flat and rough olivine surfaces, molecular hydrogen is formed at low efficiencies, with smaller grains contributing very little despite their large numbers due to high temperatures. For flat amorphous carbon and amorphous silicate surfaces, the efficiency increases, reaching unity for the largest grains. For models with barrierless chemisorption, the efficiency of formation of H2 is near unity at all grain sizes considered, while for direct chemisorption via a barrier, we found efficiencies of 0.13-0.6 depending upon the barrier, but independent of grain size. Treating the flat olivine and amorphous silicate surfaces with temperature fluctuations increases the efficiency of H2 formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 784:139. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] Ethylene oxide and its isomer acetaldehyde are important complex organic molecules because of their potential role in the formation of amino acids. Despite the fact that acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, ethylene oxide has not yet been detected in cold sources. We aim to understand the chemistry of the formation and loss of ethylene oxide in hot and cold interstellar objects (i) by including in a revised gas-grain network some recent experimental results on grain surfaces and (ii) by comparison with the chemical behaviour of its isomer, acetaldehyde. We test the code for the case of a hot core. The model allows us to predict the gaseous and solid ethylene oxide abundances during a cooling-down phase prior to star formation and during the subsequent warm-up phase. We can therefore predict at what temperatures ethylene oxide forms on grain surfaces and at what temperature it starts to desorb into the gas phase. The model reproduces the observed gaseous abundances of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde towards high-mass star-forming regions. In addition, our results show that ethylene oxide may be present in outer and cooler regions of hot cores where its isomer has already been detected. Despite their different chemical structures, the chemistry of ethylene oxide is coupled to that of acetaldehyde, suggesting that acetaldehyde may be used as a tracer for ethylene oxide towards cold cores.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) Protoplanetary disks are vital objects in star and planet formation, possessing all the material which may form a planetary system orbiting the new star. We investigate the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) in disks to constrain the achievable chemical complexity and predict species and transitions which may be observable with ALMA. We have coupled a 2D model of a protoplanetary disk around a T Tauri star with a gas-grain chemical network including COMs. We compare compare synthesised line intensities and calculated column densities with observations and determine those COMs which may be observable in future. COMs are efficiently formed in the disk midplane via grain-surface chemical reactions, reaching peak grain-surface fractional abundances 1e-6 - 1e-4 that of the H nuclei number density. COMs formed on grain surfaces are returned to the gas phase via non-thermal desorption; however, gas-phase species reach lower fractional abundances than their grain-surface equivalents, 1e-12 - 1e-7. Including the irradiation of grain mantle material helps build further complexity in the ice through the replenishment of grain-surface radicals which take part in further grain-surface reactions. There is reasonable agreement with several line transitions of H2CO observed towards several T Tauri star-disk systems. The synthesised line intensities for CH3OH are consistent with upper limits determined towards all sources. Our models suggest CH3OH should be readily observable in nearby protoplanetary disks with ALMA; however, detection of more complex species may prove challenging. Our grain-surface abundances are consistent with those derived from cometary comae observations providing additional evidence for the hypothesis that comets (and other planetesimals) formed via the coagulation of icy grains in the Sun's natal disk.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Water is observed throughout the universe, from diffuse interstellar clouds to protoplanetary disks around young stars, and from comets in our own solar system and exoplanetary atmospheres to galaxies at high redshifts. This review summarizes the spectroscopy and excitation of water in interstellar space as well as the basic chemical processes that form and destroy water under interstellar conditions. Three major routes to water formation are identified: low temperature ion-molecule chemistry, high-temperature neutral-neutral chemistry and gas-ice chemistry. The rate coefficients of several important processes entering the networks are discussed in detail; several of them have been determined only in the last decade through laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Astronomical examples of each of the different chemical routes are presented using data from powerful new telescopes, in particular the Herschel Space Observatory. Basic chemical physics studies remain critically important to analyze astronomical data.
    Chemical Reviews 11/2013; · 41.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is currently assumed that infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) represent the earliest evolutionary stages of high-mass stars ($>$ 8 M$_{\odot}$). Submillimeter and millimeter-wave studies performed over the past 15 years show that IRDCs possess a broad variety of properties, and hence a wide range of problems and questions that can be tackled. In this paper, we report an investigation of the molecular composition and chemical processes in two groups of IRDCs. Using the Mopra, APEX, and IRAM radio telescopes over the last four years, we have collected molecular line data for CO, H$_2$CO, HNCO, CH$_3$CCH, CH$_3$OH, CH$_3$CHO, CH$_3$OCHO, and CH$_3$OCH$_3$. For all of these species we estimated molecular abundances. We then undertook chemical modeling studies, concentrating on the source IRDC028.34+0.06, and compared observed and modeled abundances. This comparison showed that to reproduce observed abundances of complex organic molecules (COMs), a 0-D gas-grain model with constant physical conditions is not sufficient. We achieved greater success with the use of a warm-up model, in which warm-up from 10 K to 30 K occurs following a cold phase.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 780(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Files contain the observations of O2, C18O 1 C18O 5-4, and NO toward NGC 1333 IRAS 4A low mass protostar. C18O 1-0 and 3-2 observations conducted in mapping mode, therefore they were convolved to 44-arcsec beam in order to compare with the Herschel-HIFI observations of molecular oxygen. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss models that astrochemists have developed to study the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. These models aim at computing the evolution of the chemical composition of a mixture of gas and dust under as- trophysical conditions. These conditions, as well as the geometry and the physical dynamics, have to be adapted to the objects being studied because different classes of objects have very different characteristics (temperatures, densities, UV radia- tion fields, geometry, history etc); e.g., proto-planetary disks do not have the same characteristics as protostellar envelopes. Chemical models are being improved continually thanks to comparisons with observations but also thanks to laboratory and theoretical work in which the individual processes are studied.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: According to traditional gas-phase chemical models, O2 should be abundant in molecular clouds, but until recently, attempts to detect interstellar O2 line emission with ground- and space-based observatories have failed. Following the multi-line detections of O2 with low abundances in the Orion and rho Oph A molecular clouds with Herschel, it is important to investigate other environments, and we here quantify the O2 abundance near a solar-mass protostar. Observations of O2, at 487 GHz toward a deeply embedded low-mass Class 0 protostar, NGC 1333-IRAS 4A, are presented, using the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Complementary data of the chemically related NO and CO molecules are obtained as well. The high spectral resolution data are analysed using radiative transfer models to infer column densities and abundances, and are tested directly against full gas-grain chemical models. The deep HIFI spectrum fails to show O2 at the velocity of the dense protostellar envelope, implying one of the lowest abundance upper limits of O2/H2 at <6x10^-9 (3 sigma). However, a tentative (4.5 sigma) detection of O2 is seen at the velocity of the surrounding NGC 1333 molecular cloud, shifted by 1 km/s relative to the protostar. For the protostellar envelope, pure gas-phase models and gas-grain chemical models require a long pre-collapse phase (~0.7-1x10^6 years), during which atomic and molecular oxygen are frozen out onto dust grains and fully converted to H2O, to avoid overproduction of O2 in the dense envelope. The same model also reproduces the limits on the chemically related NO molecule. The tentative detection of O2 in the surrounding cloud is consistent with a low-density PDR model with small changes in reaction rates. The low O2 abundance in the collapsing envelope around a low-mass protostar suggests that the gas and ice entering protoplanetary disks is very poor in O2.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; 558. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    A. I. Vasyunin, Eric Herbst
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    ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of terrestrial-type organic species such as methyl formate and dimethyl ether in the cold interstellar gas has proved that the formation of organic matter in the Galaxy begins at a much earlier stage of star formation than was thought before. This discovery represents a challenge for astrochemical modelers. The abundances of these molecules cannot be explained by the previously developed "warm-up" scenario, in which organic molecules are formed via diffusive chemistry on surfaces of interstellar grains starting at 30 K, and then released to the gas at higher temperatures during later stages of star formation. In this article, we investigate an alternative scenario in which complex organic species are formed via a sequence of gas-phase reactions between precursor species formed on grain surfaces and then ejected into the gas via efficient reactive desorption, a process in which non-thermal desorption occurs as a result of conversion of the exothermicity of chemical reactions into the ejection of products from the surface. The proposed scenario leads to reasonable if somewhat mixed results at temperatures as low as 10 K and may be considered as a step towards the explanation of abundances of terrestrial-like organic species observed during the earliest stages of star formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 769(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pure rotation spectrum of deuterated cyanamide was recorded at frequencies from 118 to 649 GHz, which was complemented by measurement of its high-resolution rotation-vibration spectrum at 8-350 cm<sup>{-1}</sup>. For D<sub>2</sub>NCN the analysis revealed considerable perturbations between the lowest K<sub>a</sup> rotational energy levels in the 0<sup>+</sup> and 0<sup>-</sup> substates of the lowest inversion doublet. The final data set for D<sub>2</sub>NCN exceeded 3000 measured transitions and was successfully fitted with a Hamiltonian accounting for the 0<sup>+</sup>↔ 0<sup>-</sup> coupling. A smaller data set, consisting only of pure rotation and rotation-vibration lines observed with microwave techniques was obtained for HDNCN, and additional transitions of this type were also measured for H<sub>2</sub>NCN. The spectroscopic data for all three isotopic species were fitted with a unified, robust Hamiltonian allowing confident prediction of spectra well into the THz frequency region, which is of interest to contemporary radioastronomy. The isotopic dependence of the determined inversion splitting, ΔE=16.4964789(8), 32.089173(3), and 49.567770(6) cm<sup>{-1}</sup>, for D<sub>2</sub>NCN, HDNCN, and H<sub>2</sub>NCN, respectively, is found to be in good agreement with estimates from a simple reduced quartic-quadratic double minimum potential. Δ
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 03/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use a high-temperature chemical network to derive the molecular abundances in axisymmetric accretion disk models around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within 100 pc using simple radial and vertical density and temperature distributions motivated by more detailed physical models. We explore the effects of X-ray irradiation and cosmic-ray ionization on the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances of CO, CN, CS, HCN, HCO+, HC3N, C2H, and c-C3H2 using a variety of plausible disk structures. These simple models have molecular regions with an X-ray-dominated region layer, a midplane without the strong influence of X-rays, and a high-temperature region in the inner portion with moderate X-ray flux where families of polyynes (Cn H2) and cyanopolyynes can be enhanced. For the high midplane density disks we explore, we find that cosmic rays produced by supernovae do not significantly affect the regions unless the star formation efficiency significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. We highlight molecular abundance observations and ratios that may distinguish among theoretical models of the density distribution in AGN disks. Finally, we assess the importance of the shock crossing time and the accretion time relative to the formation time for various chemical species. Vertical column densities are tabulated for a number of molecular species at both the characteristic shock crossing time and steady state. Although we do not attempt to fit any particular system or set of observations, we discuss our models and results in the context of the nearby AGN NGC 1068.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 765(2):108. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Propene (CH3CHCH2), detected in the cold core TMC-1, is a surprisingly saturated (H-rich) species for observation in such regions. In a recently proposed gas-phase formation mechanism, interstellar propene is produced from its protonated precursor C3H+7 (CH3CHCH+3) via a dissociative recombination process. The precursor ion C3H+7 is itself produced via two consecutive radiative association reactions involving H2 starting from the isomer of C3H+3 with a linear carbon backbone (CH2CCH+). Initial calculations showed that the radiative association reactions are efficient enough to allow the production of an abundance of propene equal to that observed. However, a combination of experiments and more refined quantum chemical ab initio calculations reported here does not corroborate the initial result. Indeed, from both of these approaches, we have learned that the radiative association reactions leading to protonated propene do not occur efficiently at interstellar temperatures due to activation energy barriers. The result is that propene cannot be produced efficiently by the suggested gas-phase synthetic route. It is still difficult to say, however, that no suitable gas-phase syntheses for propene can occur in cold cores such as TMC-1.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 765(2):80. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use a high-temperature chemical network to derive the molecular abundances in axisymmetric accretion disk models around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within 100 pc using simple radial and vertical density and temperature distributions motivated by more detailed physical models. We explore the effects of X-ray irradiation and cosmic ray ionization on the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances of CO, CN, CS, HCN, HCO+, HC3N, C2H, and c-C3H2 using a variety of plausible disk structures. These simple models have molecular regions with a layer of X-ray dominated regions, a midplane without the strong influence of X-rays, and a high-temperature region in the inner portion with moderate X-ray flux where families of polyynes (C$_{\rm n}$H$_{2}$) and cyanopolyynes can be enhanced. For the high midplane density disks we explore, we find that cosmic rays produced by supernovae do not significantly affect the regions unless the star formation efficiency significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. We highlight molecular abundance observations and ratios that may distinguish among theoretical models of the density distribution in AGN disks. Finally, we assess the importance of the shock crossing time and the accretion time relative to the formation time for various chemical species. Vertical column densities are tabulated for a number of molecular species at both the characteristic shock crossing time and steady state. Although we do not attempt to fit any particular system or set of observations, we discuss our models and results in the context of the nearby AGN NGC 1068.
    01/2013;
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    A. I. Vasyunin, E. Herbst
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    ABSTRACT: The observed gas-phase molecular inventory of hot cores is believed to be significantly impacted by the products of chemistry in interstellar ices. In this study, we report the construction of a full macroscopic Monte Carlo model of both the gas-phase chemistry and the chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. Our model treats icy grain mantles in a layer-by-layer manner, which incorporates laboratory data on ice desorption correctly. The ice treatment includes a distinction between a reactive ice surface and an inert bulk. The treatment also distinguishes between zeroth and first order desorption, and includes the entrapment of volatile species in more refractory ice mantles. We apply the model to the investigation of the chemistry in hot cores, in which a thick ice mantle built up during the previous cold phase of protostellar evolution undergoes surface reactions and is eventually evaporated. For the first time, the impact of a detailed multilayer approach to grain mantle formation on the warm-up chemistry is explored. The use of a multilayer ice structure has a mixed impact on the abundances of organic species formed during the warm-up phase. For example, the abundance of gaseous HCOOCH3 is lower in the multilayer model than in previous grain models that do not distinguish between layers (so-called "two phase" models). Other gaseous organic species formed in the warm-up phase are affected slightly. Finally, we find that the entrapment of volatile species in water ice can explain the two-jump behavior of H2CO previously found in observations of protostars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 762(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the molecular evolution and D/H abundance ratios that develop as star formation proceeds from a dense-cloud core to a protostellar core, by solving a gas-grain reaction network applied to a 1-D radiative hydrodynamic model with infalling fluid parcels. Spatial distributions of gas and ice-mantle species are calculated at the first-core stage, and at times after the birth of a protostar. Gas-phase methanol and methane are more abundant than CO at radii $r\lesssim 100$ AU in the first-core stage, but gradually decrease with time, while abundances of larger organic species increase. The warm-up phase, when complex organic molecules are efficiently formed, is longer-lived for those fluid parcels in-falling at later stages. The formation of unsaturated carbon chains (warm carbon-chain chemistry) is also more effective in later stages; C$^+$, which reacts with CH$_4$ to form carbon chains, increases in abundance as the envelope density decreases. The large organic molecules and carbon chains are strongly deuterated, mainly due to high D/H ratios in the parent molecules, determined in the cold phase. We also extend our model to simulate simply the chemistry in circumstellar disks, by suspending the 1-D infall of a fluid parcel at constant disk radii. The species CH$_3$OCH$_3$ and HCOOCH$_3$ increase in abundance in $10^4-10^5$ yr at the fixed warm temperature; both also have high D/H ratios.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; 760(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used the Herschel-HIFI instrument to observe interstellar nitrogen hydrides along the sight-lines towards W49N and G10.6-0.4 in order to elucidate the production pathways leading to nitrogen-bearing species in diffuse gas. All detections show absorption by foreground material over a wide range of velocities, as well as absorption associated directly with the hot-core source itself. As in the previously published observations towards G10.6-0.4, the NH, NH2 and NH3 spectra towards W49N show strikingly similar and non-saturated absorption features. We decompose the absorption of the foreground material towards W49N into different velocity components in order to investigate whether the relative abundances vary among the velocity components, and, in addition, we re-analyse the absorption lines towards G10.6-0.4 in the same manner. Abundances, with respect to molecular hydrogen, in each velocity component are estimated using CH. The analysis points to a co-existence of the nitrogen hydrides in diffuse or translucent interstellar gas with a high molecular fraction. Towards both sources, we find that NH is always at least as abundant as both o-NH2 and o-NH3, in sharp contrast to previous results for dark clouds. We find relatively constant N(NH)/N(o-NH3) and N(o-NH2)/N(o-NH3) ratios with mean values of 3.2 and 1.9 towards W49N, and 5.4 and 2.2 towards G10.6-0.4, respectively. The mean abundance of o-NH3 is ~2x10^-9 towards both sources. The nitrogen hydrides also show linear correlations with CN and HNC towards both sources, and looser correlations with CH. The upper limits on the NH+ abundance indicate column densities < 2 - 14 % of N(NH). Surprisingly low values of the ammonia ortho-to-para ratio are found in both sources, ~0.5 - 0.7 +- 0.1. This result cannot be explained by current models as we had expected to find a value of unity or higher.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We have observed velocity resolved spectra of four ro-vibrational far-infrared transitions of C3 between the vibrational ground state and the low-energy nu2 bending mode at frequencies between 1654--1897 GHz using HIFI on board Herschel, in DR21(OH), a high mass star forming region. Several transitions of CCH and c-C3H2 have also been observed with HIFI and the IRAM 30m telescope. A gas and grain warm-up model was used to identify the primary C3 forming reactions in DR21(OH). We have detected C3 in absorption in four far-infrared transitions, P(4), P(10), Q(2) and Q(4). The continuum sources MM1 and MM2 in DR21(OH) though spatially unresolved, are sufficiently separated in velocity to be identified in the C3 spectra. All C3 transitions are detected from the embedded source MM2 and the surrounding envelope, whereas only Q(4) & P(4) are detected toward the hot core MM1. The abundance of C3 in the envelope and MM2 is \sim6x10^{-10} and \sim3x10^{-9} respectively. For CCH and c-C3H2 we only detect emission from the envelope and MM1. The observed CCH, C3, and c-C3H2 abundances are most consistent with a chemical model with n(H2)\sim5x10^{6} cm^-3 post-warm-up dust temperature, T_max =30 K and a time of \sim0.7-3 Myr. Post warm-up gas phase chemistry of CH4 released from the grain at t\sim 0.2 Myr and lasting for 1 Myr can explain the observed C3 abundance in the envelope of DR21(OH) and no mechanism involving photodestruction of PAH molecules is required. The chemistry in the envelope is similar to the warm carbon chain chemistry (WCCC) found in lukewarm corinos. The observed lower C3 abundance in MM1 as compared to MM2 and the envelope could be indicative of destruction of C3 in the more evolved MM1. The timescale for the chemistry derived for the envelope is consistent with the dynamical timescale of 2 Myr derived for DR21(OH) in other studies.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the molecular evolution and D/H abundance ratios that develop as star formation proceeds from dense cloud cores to protostellar cores. We solve a gas-grain reaction network, which is extended to include multi-deuterated species, using a 1-D radiative hydrodynamic model with infalling fluid parcels to derive molecular distribution in assorted evolutionary stages. We find that the abundances of large organic species in the central region increase with time. The duration of the warm-up phase, in which large organic species are efficiently formed, is longer in infalling fluid parcels at later stages. Formation of unsaturated carbon chains in the CH4 sublimation zone (warm carbon chain chemistry) is more effective in later stage. The carbon ion, which reacts with CH4 to form carbon chains, increases in abundance as the envelope density decreases. The large organic molecules and carbon chains are both heavily deuterated, mainly because their mother molecules have high D/H ratios, which are set in the cold phase. The observed CH2DOH/CH3OH ratio towards protostars is reproduced if we assume that the grain-surface exchange and abstraction reactions of CH3OH + D occurs efficiently. In our 1-D collapse model, the fluid parcels directly fall into the protostar, and the warm-up phase in the fluid parcels is rather short. But, in reality, a circumstellar disk is formed, and fluid parcels will stay there for a longer timescale than a free-fall time. We investigate the molecular evolution in such a disk by assuming that a fluid parcel stays at a constant temperature (i.e. a fixed disk radius) after the infall. The species CH3OCH3 and HCOOCH3 become more abundant in the disk than in the envelope. Both have high D/H abundance ratios as well.
    07/2012;
  • Donghui Quan, Eric Herbst
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of detection of interstellar gas phase O_2 in cold dense interstellar clouds has been a problem to modelers of the chemistry of these regions. This non-detection disagrees with steady-state models which predict overly high concentrations compared with observed upper limits of this molecule obtained with SWAS and Odin observatories. Recently, gas phase O_2 was detected in an unusual region in Orion by the Herschel Space Observatory. In this work, we continue the study of Quan et al. 2008. Apart from the gas phase chemistry discussed in detail in Quan et al. 2008, the role of dust grains in interstellar chemistry is included. Here we present the results from a series of gas-grain models in which physical conditions were varied to simulate several interstellar hot and cold regions. The role of the dust grains can explain the low abundances of gaseous O_2 in the cold regions, and the possible places where this molecule may have observable abundances are suggested.
    06/2012;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
1,427.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • The Ohio State University
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Department of Physics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Chemistry
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2011
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Université Bordeaux 1
      Talence, Aquitaine, France
  • 2007
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1985–1997
    • Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1989–1994
    • University of Cologne
      • I. Institute of Physics
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • York University
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1983–1991
    • Duke University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 1987–1990
    • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
      Troy, New York, United States
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1986
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Santa Barbara, CA, United States