Gianfranco Brunetti

The Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado, United States

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Publications (59)159.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In about 70% of the population of relaxed, cool-core galaxy clusters, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) is radio loud, showing non-thermal radio jets and lobes ejected by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). In recent years such relativistic plasma has been unambiguously shown to interact with the surrounding thermal intra-cluster medium (ICM) thanks to spectacular images where the lobe radio emission is observed to fill the cavities in the X-ray-emitting gas. This `radio feedback' phenomenon is widespread and is critical to understand the physics of the inner regions of galaxy clusters and the properties of the central BCG. At the same time, mechanically-powerful AGN are likely to drive turbulence in the central ICM which may also play a role for the origin of non-thermal emission on cluster-scales. Diffuse non-thermal emission has been observed in a number of cool-core clusters in the form of a radio mini-halo surrounding the radio-loud BCG on scales comparable to that of the cooling region. Large mini-halo samples are necessary to establish their origin and connection with the cluster thermal properties and dynamics, especially in light of future X-ray characterization of the cluster cores as it is expected by Athena-XIFU. We show that All-Sky reference survey at Band 2 with SKA1 at confusion limit (rms ~2 {\mu}Jy per beam) has the potential to detect up to ~620 mini-halos at redshift z<0.6, whereas Deep Tier reference surveys at Band 1/2 with SKA1 at sub-arcsec resolution (rms ~0.2 {\mu}Jy per beam) will allow a complete census of the radio-loud BCGs at any redshift down to a 1.4 GHz power of 10^{22} W/Hz. We further anticipate that SKA2 might detect up to ~1900 new mini-halos at redshift z<0.6 and characterize the radio-mode AGN feedback in every cluster and group up to redshift z ~1.7 (the highest-z where virialized clusters are currently detected).
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon radio recombination lines (RRLs) at low frequencies (<=500 MHz) trace the cold, diffuse phase of the interstellar medium, which is otherwise difficult to observe. We present the detection of carbon RRLs in absorption in M82 with LOFAR in the frequency range of 48-64 MHz. This is the first extragalactic detection of RRLs from a species other than hydrogen, and below 1 GHz. Since the carbon RRLs are not detected individually, we cross-correlated the observed spectrum with a template spectrum of carbon RRLs to determine a radial velocity of 219 +- 9 km/s . Using this radial velocity, we stack 22 carbon-{\alpha} transitions from quantum levels n = 468-508 to achieve an 8.5 sigma detection. The absorption line profile exhibits a narrow feature with peak optical depth of 0.003 and FWHM of 31 km/s. Closer inspection suggests that the narrow feature is superimposed on a broad, shallow component. The total line profile appears to be correlated with the 21 cm H I line profile reconstructed from H I absorption in the direction of supernova remnants in the nucleus. The narrow width and centroid velocity of the feature suggests that it is associated with the nuclear starburst region. It is therefore likely that the carbon RRLs are associated with cold atomic gas in the direction of the nucleus of M82.
    10/2014;
  • Julius Donnert, Gianfranco Brunetti
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    ABSTRACT: Particle acceleration by turbulence plays a role in many astrophysical environments. The non- linear evolution of the underlying cosmic-ray spectrum is complex and can be described by a Fokker-Planck equation, which in general has to be solved numerically. We present here an implementation to compute the evolution of a cosmic-ray spectrum coupled to turbulence considering isotropic particle pitch-angle distributions and taking into account the relevant particle energy gains and losses. Our code can be used in run time and post-processing to very large astrophysical fluid simulations. We also propose a novel method to compress cosmic- ray spectra by a factor of ten, to ease the memory demand in very large simulations. We show a number of code tests, which firmly establish the correctness of the code. In this paper we focus on relativistic electrons, but our code and methods can be easily extended to the case of hadrons. We apply our pipeline to the relevant problem of particle acceleration in galaxy clusters. We define a sub-grid model for compressible MHD-turbulence in the intra- cluster-medium and calculate the corresponding reacceleration timescale from first principles. We then use a magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of an isolated cluster merger to follow the evolution of relativistic electron spectra and radio emission generated from the system over several Gyrs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 443(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present simulations of a radio minihalo in a galaxy cluster core with sloshing cold fronts, under the assumption that the source of the synchrotron-emitting electrons is hadronic interactions between cosmic-ray protons with the thermal intracluster gas. This is an alternative to the hypothesis where the cosmic ray electrons are reaccelerated by the intracluster turbulence, which we have discussed in an earlier work. We follow the evolution of cosmic-ray electron spectra associated with passive tracer particles, taking into account the time-dependent injection of new electrons from the hadronic interactions and energy losses along each particle's trajectory. We then simulate the radio emission from these particles. The drop in radio emission at the cold front surfaces is less prominent than that in our previous simulations, based on electron reacceleration from sloshing-induced turbulence, where the emission is definitively confined to the regions within cold fronts. The result is that the emission is overall more spatially extended than found in some observed minihalos. We also explore spectral effects induced by the change of physical conditions in the ICM. Rapid changes in magnetic field strength are expected to produce radio spectra steeper than those calculated assuming stationary conditions, but we find this effect is marginal, with differences in the synchrotron spectral index $\Delta{\alpha}$ < 0.15 between $\nu\sim$ 300-1400 MHz and $\Delta{\alpha}$ < 0.25 between $\nu\sim$ 60-153 MHz.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new deep, high-resolution radio images of the diffuse minihalo in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX ,J1720.1+2638. The images have been obtained with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 317, 617 and 1280 MHz and with the Very Large Array at 1.5, 4.9 and 8.4 GHz, with angular resolutions ranging from 1" to 10". This represents the best radio spectral and imaging dataset for any minihalo. Most of the radio flux of the minihalo arises from a bright central component with a maximum radius of ~80 kpc. A fainter tail of emission extends out from the central component to form a spiral-shaped structure with a length of ~230 kpc, seen at frequencies 1.5 GHz and below. We observe steepening of the total radio spectrum of the minihalo at high frequencies. Furthermore, a spectral index image shows that the spectrum of the diffuse emission steepens with the increasing distance along the tail. A striking spatial correlation is observed between the minihalo emission and two cold fronts visible in the Chandra X-ray image of this cool core. These cold fronts confine the minihalo, as also seen in numerical simulations of minihalo formation by sloshing-induced turbulence. All these observations provide support to the hypothesis that the radio emitting electrons in cluster cool cores are produced by turbulent reacceleration.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 795(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    G. Brunetti, T. W. Jones
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    ABSTRACT: Radio observations prove the existence of relativistic particles and magnetic field associated with the intra-cluster-medium (ICM) through the presence of extended synchrotron emission in the form of radio halos and peripheral relics. This observational evidence has fundamental implications on the physics of the ICM. Non-thermal components in galaxy clusters are indeed unique probes of very energetic processes operating within clusters that drain gravitational and electromagnetic energy into cosmic rays and magnetic fields. These components strongly affect the (micro-)physical properties of the ICM, including viscosity and electrical conductivities, and have also potential consequences on the evolution of clusters themselves. The nature and properties of cosmic rays in galaxy clusters, including the origin of the observed radio emission on cluster-scales, have triggered an active theoretical debate in the last decade. Only recently we can start addressing some of the most important questions in this field, thanks to recent observational advances, both in the radio and at high energies. The properties of cosmic rays and of cluster non-thermal emissions depend on the dynamical state of the ICM, the efficiency of particle acceleration mechanisms in the ICM and on the dynamics of these cosmic rays. In this review we discuss in some detail the acceleration and transport of cosmic rays in galaxy clusters and the most relevant observational milestones that have provided important steps on our understanding of this physics. Finally, looking forward to the possibilities from new generations of observational tools, we focus on what appear to be the most important prospects for the near future from radio and high-energy observations.
    International Journal of Modern Physics D 01/2014; 23(4). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We outline the science case for extended radio emission and polarization in galaxy clusters which would be a scientifically important area of research for an upcoming Jansky Very Large Array Sky Survey. The survey would provide a major contribution in three key areas of the physics of clusters: 1) the active galactic nucleus population and the impact of feedback on the evolution of the intra-cluster medium, 2) the origin and evolution of diffuse cluster radio sources to probe the physics of mergers with implications for cosmology, and 3) the origin and role of magnetic fields in the ICM and in large scale structures. Considering all three areas, a survey must have sufficient spatial resolution to study the tailed galaxies which trace the cluster weather as well as the radio lobes driving energy into the cluster from the central AGN. The survey must also have sensitivity to low surface brightness emission and large angular scales to probe radio halos and relics as well as the WHIM residing in the large scale structure filaments. Finally, we note that full polarization information would be a highly valuable tool to probe a number of cluster-related issues. Due to the general steep spectral index of the emission we consider the survey is best suited to this science when conducted in P, L, or S bands. We conclude that the choices of S Band + D Configuration, L Band + C Configuration, and P Band + B Configuration offer optimal resolutions for constraining galactic interactions and feedback in cluster environments, while still probing large scale structure and the bulk cluster environment itself. While the push to probe higher redshifts and lower mass limits strongly favors a narrow and deep (or even targeted) survey strategy, we note that a wide survey covering roughly 1/4-2/3 of the sky will have significant scientific return, discovery potential, and archival value.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present results on 12 X-ray bright clusters observed at 1.4 GHz with the Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources, we reach a median (best) 1-sigma noise level of 0.01 (0.006) microJy/sq. arcsec, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 clusters. We present initial 1.4 GHz Very Large Array results on Abell 2319. We find: (a) four new detections tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (b) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, making it a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo (alpha ~ 1.8); (c) a ~2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (d) a >2x increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in A2319; (e) a ~7x increase to the integrated radio flux and >4x increase to the observed extent of the peripheral, polarized radio relic in A1367 to ~600 kpc; (f) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters. Our radio halo detections agree with the well-known X-ray/radio luminosity correlation, but are larger and fainter than expected. The volume averaged synchrotron emissivities are 1-2 orders of magnitude below the previous characteristic values. Some of the halo-like detections may represent previously unseen, very low surface brightness emission or blends of shock structures and sub-Mpc scale turbulent regions. Four of the five tentative halos contain one or more X-ray cold fronts, suggesting a possible connection between gas sloshing and particle acceleration on large scales. We see evidence for a possible inter-cluster filament between A2061 and A2067. For our faintest detections, we note the possibility of residual contamination from faint radio galaxies. We also quantify the sensitivity of the NVSS to extended emission as a function of angular size.[abridged]
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first high resolution MHD simulation of cosmic-ray electron reacceleration by turbulence in cluster mergers. We use an idealised model for cluster mergers, combined with a numerical model for the injection, cooling and reacceleration of cosmic-ray electrons, to investigate the evolution of cluster scale radio emission in these objects. In line with theoretical expectations, we for the first time, show in a simulation that reacceleration of CRe has the potential to reproduce key observables of radio halos. In particular, we show that clusters evolve being radio loud or radio quiet, depending on their evolutionary stage during the merger. We thus recover the observed transient nature of radio halos. In the simulation the diffuse emission traces the complex interplay between spatial distribution of turbulence injected by the halo infall and the spatial distribution of the seed electrons to reaccelerate. During the formation and evolution of the halo the synchrotron emission spectra show the observed variety: from power-laws with spectral index of 1 to 1.3 to curved and ultra-steep spectra with index $> 1.5$.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 429(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed GMRT low frequency observations of the radio halos, relics and new candidates belonging to the GMRT Radio Halo Cluster Sample first observed at 610 MHz. High sensitivity imaging was performed using the GMRT at 325 MHz and 240 MHz. The properties of the diffuse emission in each cluster were compared to our 610 MHz images and/or literature information available at other frequencies, in order to derive the integrated spectra over a wide frequency range.Beyond the classical radio halos, whose spectral index $\alpha$ is in the range $\sim1.2\div1.3$ (S$\propto\nu^{-\alpha}$), we found sources with $\alpha\sim1.6\div1.9$. This result supports the idea that the spectra of the radiating particles in radio halos is not universal, and that inefficient mechanisms of particle acceleration are responsible for their origin. We also found a variety of brightness distributions, i.e. centrally peaked as well as clumpy halos. Even though the thermal and relativistic plasma tend to occupy the same cluster volume, in some cases a positional shift between the radio and X-ray peaks of emission is evident. Our observations also revealed the existence of diffuse cluster sources which cannot be easily classified either as halos or relics. New candidate relics were found in A1300 and in A1682, and in some clusters "bridges" of radio emission have been detected, connecting the relic and radio halo emission. Combining our new data with literature information, we derived the LogL$_{\rm X}$-LogP$_{\rm 325 MHz}$ correlation for radio halos, and investigated the possible trend of the spectral index of radio halos with the temperature of the intracluster medium.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), eMERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), Meerkat (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. Here we describe these projects, their science goals, and the technical challenges which are being addressed to maximise the science return.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia 10/2012; 30. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Giant radio halos (RH) are Mpc-scale synchrotron sources detected in a significant fraction of massive and merging galaxy clusters.Their statistical properties can be used to discriminate among various models for their origin. Theoretical predictions are important as new radio telescopes are about to begin to survey the sky at low and high frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to model the formation and evolution of RH in a cosmological framework by assuming that RH are either generated in turbulent merging clusters, or are purely hadronic sources generated in more relaxed clusters, "off-state" halos. The models predict that the luminosity function of RH at high radio luminosities is dominated by the contribution of RH generated in turbulent clusters. The generation of these RH becomes less efficient in less massive systems causing a flattening of the luminosity function at lower luminosities. This flattening is compensated by the contribution of "off-state" RH that dominate at lower luminosities. By restricting to clusters at z<0.6, we show that the planned EMU+WODAN surveys at 1.4 GHz have the potential to detect up to ~200 RH, increasing their number by one order of magnitude. A fraction of these sources will be "off-state" RH that should be found at flux level < 10 mJy, presently accessible only to deep pointed observations. We also explore the synergy between the Tier 1 LOFAR survey at 150 MHz and the EMU+WODAN surveys at 1.4 GHz. We predict a larger number of RH in the LOFAR survey due to the high LOFAR sensitivity, but also due to the existence of RH with very steep spectrum that glow up preferentially at lower frequencies. These RH are only predicted in the framework of turbulent re-acceleration models and should not have counterparts in the EMU+WODAN surveys, thus the combination of the two surveys will test theoretical models.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deep radio observations of galaxy clusters have revealed the existence of diffuse radio sources related to the presence of relativistic electrons and weak magnetic fields in the intracluster volume. The role played by this non-thermal intracluster component on the thermodynamical evolution of galaxy clusters is debated, with important implications for cosmological and astrophysical studies of the largest gravitationally bound structures of the Universe. The low surface brightness and steep spectra of diffuse cluster radio sources make them more easily detectable at low-frequencies. LOFAR is the first instrument able to detect diffuse radio emission in hundreds of massive galaxy clusters up to their formation epoch. We present the first observations of clusters imaged by LOFAR and the huge perspectives opened by this instrument for non-thermal cluster studies.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We combine all available information about the spectral shape and morphology of the radio halo of the Coma cluster with the gamma-ray upper limits obtained by the Fermi-LAT and with the magnetic field strength derived from Faraday rotation measures (RM). We explore the possibility that the radio halo is due to synchrotron emission of secondary electrons generated via p-p collisions in the intra-cluster-medium (ICM). First we investigate the case of pure secondary models. We use the observed spatial distribution of the halo's radio brightness to constrain the amount of cosmic rays (CRs) and their spatial distribution in the cluster that are required by the model. Under the canonical assumption that the spectrum of CRs is a power-law in momentum and that the spectrum of secondaries is stationary, we find that the combination of the steep spectrum of CRs necessary to explain the spectrum of the halo and their very broad spatial distribution (and large energy density) result in a gamma-ray emission in excess of present limits, unless the cluster magnetic field is sufficiently large. However such a field appears inconsistent with constraints from RM. Second we investigate more complex models based on secondary particles in which CR protons and their secondaries are all reaccelerated by MHD turbulence. We show that under these conditions it is possible to reproduce the radio data and to predict gamma-rays in agreement with the Fermi-LAT limits without tension with constraints on the cluster magnetic field. Reacceleration of secondaries by MHD turbulence also requires a spatial distribution of CRs much flatter than that of the ICM, if both the turbulent and magnetic field energy densities scale with that of the ICM. However broader spatial distributions of turbulence and field and/or the reacceleration of additional primary electrons in the ICM greatly alleviate this requirement.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 426(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abell 2256 is one of the best known examples of a galaxy cluster hosting large-scale diffuse radio emission that is unrelated to individual galaxies. It contains both a giant radio halo and a relic, as well as a number of head-tail sources and smaller diffuse steep-spectrum radio sources. The origin of radio halos and relics is still being debated, but over the last years it has become clear that the presence of these radio sources is closely related to galaxy cluster merger events. Here we present the results from the first LOFAR Low band antenna (LBA) observations of Abell 2256 between 18 and 67 MHz. To our knowledge, the image presented in this paper at 63 MHz is the deepest ever obtained at frequencies below 100 MHz in general. Both the radio halo and the giant relic are detected in the image at 63 MHz, and the diffuse radio emission remains visible at frequencies as low as 20 MHz. The observations confirm the presence of a previously claimed ultra-steep spectrum source to the west of the cluster center with a spectral index of -2.3 \pm 0.4 between 63 and 153 MHz. The steep spectrum suggests that this source is an old part of a head-tail radio source in the cluster. For the radio relic we find an integrated spectral index of -0.81 \pm 0.03, after removing the flux contribution from the other sources. This is relatively flat which could indicate that the efficiency of particle acceleration at the shock substantially changed in the last \sim 0.1 Gyr due to an increase of the shock Mach number. In an alternative scenario, particles are re-accelerated by some mechanism in the downstream region of the shock, resulting in the relatively flat integrated radio spectrum. In the radio halo region we find indications of low-frequency spectral steepening which may suggest that relativistic particles are accelerated in a rather inhomogeneous turbulent region.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2012; 543(A2256):1-13. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of relaxed, cool-core galaxy clusters exhibit diffuse, steep-spectrum radio sources in their central regions, known as radio mini-halos. It has been proposed that the relativistic electrons responsible for the emission have been reaccelerated by turbulence generated by the sloshing of the cool core gas. We present a high-resolution MHD simulation of gas sloshing in a galaxy cluster coupled with subgrid simulations of relativistic electron acceleration to test this hypothesis. Our simulation shows that the sloshing motions generate turbulence on the order of $\delta{v} \sim$ 50-200 km s$^{-1}$ on spatial scales of $\sim$50-100 kpc and below in the cool core region within the envelope of the sloshing cold fronts, whereas outside the cold fronts, there is negligible turbulence. This turbulence is potentially strong enough to reaccelerate relativistic electron seeds (with initial $\gamma \sim 100-500$) to $\gamma \sim 10^4$ via damping of magnetosonic waves and non-resonant compression. The seed electrons could remain in the cluster from, e.g., past AGN activity. In combination with the magnetic field amplification in the core, these electrons then produce diffuse radio synchrotron emission that is coincident with the region bounded by the sloshing cold fronts, as indeed observed in X-rays and the radio. The result holds for different initial spatial distributions of preexisting relativistic electrons. The power and the steep spectral index ($\alpha \approx 1-2$) of the resulting radio emission are consistent with observations of minihalos, though the theoretical uncertainties of the acceleration mechanisms are high. We also produce simulated maps of inverse-Compton hard X-ray emission from the same population of relativistic electrons.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 762(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Gianfranco Brunetti
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of magnetic turbulence and relativistic particles is a important process for understanding particles propagation and acceleration in many astrophysical environments. Large-scale turbulence can be generated in the intra-cluster-medium (ICM) during mergers between galaxy clusters and affects their non-thermal properties. Giant radio halos, Mpc-scale synchrotron sources observed in merging clusters, may probe the connection between turbulence and non-thermal cluster-scale emission. After discussing relevant aspects of the physics of turbulence and turbulent acceleration in the ICM, I will focus on recent advances in the modeling of non-thermal emission from galaxy clusters.
    12/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a giant radio halo in the galaxy cluster RXC J1514.9-1523 at z=0.22 with a relatively low X-ray luminosity, $L_{X \, [0.1-2.4 \rm \, kev]} \sim 7 \times 10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This faint, diffuse radio source is detected with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 327 MHz. The source is barely detected at 1.4 GHz in a NVSS pointing that we have reanalyzed. The integrated radio spectrum of the halo is quite steep, with a slope \alpha = 1.6 between 327 MHz and 1.4 GHz. While giant radio halos are common in more X-ray luminous cluster mergers, there is a less than 10% probability to detect a halo in systems with $L_X \ltsim 8 \times 10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The detection of a new giant halo in this borderline luminosity regime can be particularly useful for discriminating between the competing theories for the origin of ultrarelativistic electrons in clusters. Furthermore, if our steep radio spectral index is confirmed by future deeper radio observations, this cluster would provide another example of the recently discovered population of ultra-steep spectrum radio halos, predicted by the model in which the cluster cosmic ray electrons are produced by turbulent reacceleration.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2011; 534. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Shea Brown, Andrew Emerick, Lawrence Rudnick, Gianfranco Brunetti
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    ABSTRACT: We derive the best characterization to date of the properties of radio quiescent massive galaxy clusters through a statistical analysis of their average synchrotron emissivity. We stacked 105 radio images of clusters from the 843 MHz SUMSS survey, all with X-ray luminosities greater than 1.0E+44 erg/s and redshifts z < 0.2, after removing point-source contamination and rescaling to a common physical size. Each stacked cluster individually shows no significant large-scale diffuse radio emission at current sensitivity levels. Stacking of sub-samples leads to the following results: (i) clusters with L_{X} > 3.0E+44 erg/s show a 6-sigma detection of Mpc-scale diffuse emission with a 1.4 GHz luminosity of 2.4\pm0.4 x 1.0E+23 W/Hz. This is 1.5-2 times lower than the upper limits for radio quiescent clusters from the GMRT Radio Halo Survey (Venturi et al. 2008), and is the first independent confirmation of radio halo bi-modality; (ii) clusters with low X-ray concentrations have a mean radio luminosity (2.6\pm0.6 x 1.0E+23 W/Hz) that is at least twice that of high X-ray concentration clusters, and (iii) both of these detections are likely close to the low-level "off-state" of GRHs in most or all luminous X-ray clusters, and not due to contributions from a much smaller subset of "on-state" GRHs following the radio/X-ray luminosity correlation. Upcoming deep radio surveys will conclusively distinguish between these two options. We briefly discuss possible origins for the "off-state" emission and its implications for magnetic fields in most or all luminous X-ray clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 09/2011; 740(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    A. Lazarian, G. Brunetti
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    ABSTRACT: Recent years have been marked by substantial changes in our understanding of magnetic turbulence and magnetic reconnection, which, in its turn induced better understanding of cosmic ray diffusion and acceleration. Current models of magnetized turbulence are no more ad hoc constructions, but numerically tested theories. In this very short review we summarize topics presented in two talks given at the conference and provide a brief sketch of the vast and rapidly developing field. We discuss how turbulence decreases the efficient mean free path of the particles in the collisionless plasmas in galaxy clusters and claim that this makes MHD turbulence description applicable to a wider range of scales. We discuss the properties of MHD turbulence and its relation to magnetic reconnection. Finally, we overview how turbulence induces particle acceleration via second order Fermi process and affects first order Fermi acceleration in shocks and reconnection regions.
    08/2011;