Jing Yao

Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (3)8.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Transcription factors of the Sp family are known to play key roles in the regulation of both constitutive as well as cell type- and differentiation stage-specific gene expression. Binding sites for factors of the Sp family (Sp1 and Sp3) have previously been identified within the U3 region of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). Although previous studies have demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 can interact with the Tax-responsive element 1 (TRE-1) repeat III, the sequences required for Sp1/Sp3 binding have not been mapped in detail. Herein, we demonstrate that the GC-rich regions flanking the viral cAMP-responsive element (CRE) within TRE-1 repeat III exhibit substantial affinity for both Sp1 and Sp3. We demonstrate that purified Sp1 competes with purified CREB for binding to TRE-1 repeat III due to the physical proximity of the Sp1/Sp3 and ATF/CREB binding sites, while purified Sp1 forms a multiprotein complex with purified CREB in the presence of Tax as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift (EMS) analyses. Sp1 and Sp3 binding to the U3 region of the HTLV-1 LTR in the presence of Tax in vivo was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation using HTLV-1-infected T cells (SLB-1 and C8166). Overexpression of Sp1 was modestly enhanced, while overexpression of Sp3 inhibited basal and Tax-mediated transactivation of the HTLV-1 LTR in U-937 cells (which express relatively low levels of endogenous Sp1 and Sp3). Furthermore, the modest upregulation of LTR activation caused by overexpression of Sp1 could be blocked by site-directed mutagenesis of the GC-rich Sp1/Sp3 binding sites within TRE-1 repeat III. These results suggest that both Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factor binding to TRE-1 repeat III participate in regulation of HTLV-1 viral gene expression.
    DNA and Cell Biology 06/2006; 25(5):262-76. DOI:10.1089/dna.2006.25.262 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human T cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been identified as the causative agent of both adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the exact sequence of events that occur during the early stages of infection are not known in detail, the initial route of infection may predetermine, along with host, environmental, and viral factors, the subset of target cells and/or the primary immune response encountered by HTLV-I, and whether an HTLV-I-infected individual will remain asymptomatic, develop ATL, or progress to the neuroinflammatory disease, HAM/TSP. Although a large number of studies have indicated that CD4(+) T cells represent an important target for HTLV-I infection in the peripheral blood (PB), additional evidence has accumulated over the past several years demonstrating that HTLV-I can infect several additional cellular compartments in vivo, including CD8(+) T lymphocytes, PB monocytes, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, and resident central nervous system (CNS) astrocytes. More importantly, extensive latent viral infection of the bone marrow, including cells likely to be hematopoietic progenitor cells, has been observed in individuals with HAM/TSP as well as some asymptomatic carriers, but to a much lesser extent in individuals with ATL. Furthermore, HTLV-I(+) CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells can maintain the intact proviral genome and initiate viral gene expression during the differentiation process. Introduction of HTLV-I-infected bone marrow progenitor cells into the PB, followed by genomic activation and low level viral gene expression may lead to an increase in proviral DNA load in the PB, resulting in a progressive state of immune dysregulation including the generation of a detrimental cytotoxic Tax-specific CD8(+) T cell population, anti-HTLV-I antibodies, and neurotoxic cytokines involved in disruption of myelin-producing cells and neuronal degradation characteristic of HAM/TSP.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 02/2002; 190(2):133-59. DOI:10.1002/jcp.10053 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 LTR promoter proximal G/C box array has been demonstrated to function by interacting with the Spl transcription factor family whose members can act as either activators or repressors of transcription. In this regard, we have examined the interaction of the HIV-1 Sp binding sites with nuclear factors that are present in cell types that support HIV-1 replication, including those of lymphocytic, monocytic, and astrocytic origin. As determined by electro-phoretic mobility shift (EMS) competition analyses using oligonucleotides containing the sequences of each of the Spl sites of HIV-1 strain LAI, the NF-kB-proximal Sp site (site III) displayed the highest binding activity compared to sites I and II with regard to Spl and related factors present in lymphocytic (Jurkat) and astrocytic (U-373 MG) nuclear extracts. Spl and two Sp3 isoforms were detected as the primary cellular constituents of DNA-protein complexes formed with the NF-JcB-proximal site. Only modest differences in Spl:Sp3 binding ratios were observed when this site was reacted with either astrocytic or lymphocytic nuclear extract. However, when nuclear extracts derived from two monocytic cell types that differ in the degree of differentiation were reacted with the HIV-1 LAI Sp site III, a large difference in Spl and Sp3 binding was observed. To determine if naturally occurring and replication-competent strains of HIV-1 contain base pair alterations within the Sp elements that affect the ability of the site to interact with Spl and related factors, a series of Sp site III variants were constructed and examined by EMS analyses. One of these sites, obtained from the published sequence of the YU-2 strain (a brain-derived macrophage tropic strain of HIV-1), displayed almost no Spl or Sp3 binding activity as a result of a single base pair alteration in Sp site III. This base-pair alteration, when placed in the context of an HIV-1 LAI LTR-luciferase construct, resulted in a 40-50% reduction in LTR activity in transiently transfected Jurkat and U-373 MG cells. Overall, these results suggest that specific G/C box sequence alterations present in the brain-derived HIV-1 variant YU-2, or possibly other brain-derived variants, may exhibit altered replication properties as a result of the low affinity of the NF-KB-proximal G/C box for members of the Sp transcription factor family
    Journal of NeuroVirology 01/1998; 4(3):312-323. DOI:10.3109/13550289809114532 · 2.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

92 Citations
8.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2002
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • Microbiology and Immunology
      Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      University Park, Maryland, United States