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Publications (2)5.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The type 1 sigma receptor (sigmaR1) is a nonopiate and nonphencyclidine binding site that has numerous pharmacological and physiological functions. In some studies, agonists for sigmaR1 have been shown to afford neuroprotection against overstimulation of the NMDA receptor. sigmaR1 expression has been demonstrated recently in retinal ganglion cells (RGC). RGCs undergo apoptosis early in diabetic retinopathy via NMDA receptor overstimulation. In the present study we asked whether RGCs cultured under hyperglycemic conditions and RGCs of diabetic mice continue to express sigmaR1. RGCs were cultured 48 h in RPMI medium containing either 45 mM glucose or 11 mM glucose plus 34 mM mannitol (osmolar control). C57BL/6 mice were made diabetic using streptozotocin. The retina was dissected from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice 3, 6 and 12 weeks post-onset of diabetes. sigmaR1 was analyzed in cells using semiquantitative RT-PCR and in tissues by semiquantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, Western blot analysis and immunolocalization. The RT-PCR analysis of cultured RGCs showed that sigmaR1 mRNA is expressed under hyperglycemic conditions at levels similar to control cells. Similarly, analysis of retinas of diabetic mice showed no difference in levels of mRNA encoding sigmaR1 compared to retinas of control mice. In situ hybridization analysis showed that expression patterns of sigmaR1 mRNA in the ganglion cell layer were similar between diabetic and control mice. Western blot analysis suggested that levels of sigmaR1 in retina were similar between diabetic and control retinas. Immunohistochemical analysis of sigmaR1 showed a similar pattern of sigmaR1 protein expression between control and diabetic retina. These studies demonstrate that sigmaR1 is expressed under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro and in vivo.
    Molecular Brain Research 12/2002; 107(2):97-107. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The polarized distribution of reduced-folate transporter (RFT)-1 to the apical retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) membrane was demonstrated recently. Nitric oxide (NO) significantly decreases the activity of RFT-1 in cultured RPE cells. NO is elevated in diabetes, and therefore in the present study the alteration of RFT-1 activity in RPE under conditions of high glucose was investigated. Human ARPE-19 cells were incubated in media containing 5 mM glucose plus 40 mM mannitol (control) or 45 mM glucose for varying periods and the activity of RFT-1 was assessed by determining the uptake of [3H]-N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate (MTF). The levels of mRNA encoding RFT-1 were determined by RT-PCR and protein levels by Western blot analysis. The activity of RFT-1 and expression of mRNA encoding RFT-1 were analyzed also in RPE of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Exposure of RPE cells to 45 mM glucose for as short an incubation time as 6 hours resulted in a 35% decrease in MTF uptake. Kinetic analysis showed that the hyperglycemia-induced attenuation was associated with a decrease in the maximal velocity of the transporter with no significant change in the substrate affinity. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA encoding RFT-1 was significantly decreased in cells exposed to high glucose, and Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in protein levels. The uptake of [3H]-MTF in RPE of diabetic mice was reduced by approximately 20%, compared with that in nondiabetic, age-matched control animals. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA encoding RFT-1 was decreased significantly in RPE of diabetic mice. These findings demonstrate for the first time that hyperglycemic conditions reduce the expression and activity of RFT-1 and may have profound implications for the transport of folate by RPE in diabetes.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 03/2002; 43(2):556-63. · 3.66 Impact Factor