[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53°C to 63°C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have completed the genomic sequence of a tobamovirus, cactus mild mottle virus (CMMoV), and compared it to those of other known tobamoviruses. The complete genome sequence of CMMoV consists of 6,449 nucleotides. The genome RNA of the virus contains four open reading frames, encoding, from the 5' to the 3' end, the 120-kDa viral replicase, the 186-kDa viral polymerase, the 33-kDa movement protein and the 18-kDa coat protein. Overall amino acid similarities for the four viral proteins of CMMoV ranged from 16.3 to 44.4% compared to those of 20 other tobamoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral replicases and MP revealed that CMMoV is closely related to cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses, while the CMMoV CP is more closely related to brassica- and solanaceous-infecting tobamoviruses.
Archives of Virology 07/2009; 154(8):1371-4. DOI:10.1007/s00705-009-0435-4 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological properties and the complete genome sequence of bell pepper mottle virus (BPeMV) were determined. The full genome of BPeMV consists of 6375 nucleotides. The BPeMV genomic RNA has four open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins of M(r) 126, 181, 30 and 18 kDa from the 5' to the 3' end, respectively. The lengths of the 5' nontranslated region (NTR) and the 3' NTR are 71 and 198 nucleotides, respectively. Overall identities for the four ORFs of BpeMV, at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, ranged from 36.0 to 80.6% and from 32.1 to 90.9%, compared to those of 22 other tobamoviruses. The CP gene of BPeMV displayed 43.5-73.5% and 32.1-82.4% identity to those of 22 other tobamoviruses at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of four viral proteins clearly supported the conclusion that BPeMV-encoded proteins were related to those of members of the Solanaceae-infecting tobamoviruses. BPeMV was closely related to tomato mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus and different from other tobamoviruses. Western blot analysis showed that BPeMV cross-reacted strongly with antibodies against members of Solanaceae-infecting tobamoviruses. These data represent the first molecular evidence supporting BPeMV as a separate species of the genus Tobamovirus.
Archives of Virology 02/2007; 152(7):1401-7. DOI:10.1007/s00705-007-0950-0 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genome sequence of maracuja mosaic virus (MarMV) was determined and analyzed. The full MarMV genome consisted of 6794 nucleotides, and this is the largest genome size among known tobamoviruses. The MarMV genome RNA contained four open reading frames (ORFs) coding for proteins of M(r) 126, 181, 34 and 18 kDa from the 5' to 3' end, respectively. The lengths of the 5' nontranslated region (NTR) and the 3' NTR were 54 and 177 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that these MarMV-encoded proteins are related to members of the Malvaceae- and Cucurbitaceae-infecting tobamoviruses. MarMV is different from other tobamoviruses and forms a new Passifloraceae-infecting subgroup. Western blot analysis showed that MarMV cross-reacted strongly with antibodies against Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus and Hibiscus latent Singapore virus. Synthesized capped transcripts from full-length cDNA of MarMV were infectious. These data clearly indicate that MarMV belongs to a separate species of the genus Tobamovirus.
Archives of Virology 01/2007; 151(12):2337-48. DOI:10.1007/s00705-006-0823-y · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new isolate of rod-shaped virus was identified from grafted cactus, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii grafted onto Hylocereus trigonus, in Korea. The virus proved to be a new Tobamovirus and called previously as Tobamovirus-Ca for which we suggest the name Cactus mild mottle virus (CMMoV), because it produced systemic mild mosaic symptoms on its original host CMMoV is distantly related to known species of the genus Tobamovirus on the basis of host range, serological and sequence analyses. Western blot analysis showed that CMMoV is serologically unrelated to Sammons' Opuntia virus, which is the only known species of the genus, found in cactus plants. The 3′-terminal 2,910 nucleotides have been sequenced for the virus. The coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) genes encode 161 and 306 amino acids residues, respectively. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the CP were 39.6% to 49.2% and 26.4% to 40.3% identical to other tobamoviruses, respectively. The MP and 3′ noncoding region shared 16.3% to 23.3% and 44.6% to 63.4% identities, respectively, with the members of the genus. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the CP gene revealed that CMMoV clusters with members of subgroup I of Tobamovirus. CMMoV particles contained genomic RNA along with two subgenomic RNAs, and this characteristic is common in the members of the subgroup II. This is the first information of sequence and comparative analysis of a Tobamovirus that infects cactus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new cactus-infecting tobamovirus, Cactus mild mottle virus (CMMoV), was isolated from diseased grafted cactus, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii and its molecular properties were characterized. CMMoV is distantly related to known species of the genus Tobamovirus on the basis of serological and sequence analyses. Western blot analysis showed that CMMoV is serologically unrelated to Sammon's Opuntia virus, which is the only known species of the genus Tobamovirus found in cactus plants. The 3'-terminal 2,910 nucleotides of CMMoV have been sequenced. The coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) genes encode 161 and 306 amino acids residues, respectively, and the 3' untranslated region (UTR) consists of 229 nucleotides long. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the CP of CMMoV were 39.6% to 49.2% and 25.8% to 40.3% identical to other seventeen tobamoviruses, respectively. The MP shared 34.9% to 40.6% and 16.3% to 27.0% and 44.6% to 63.4% identities, respectively, at the amino acid and nucleotide levels with other members of the genus. Percentage identities of nucleotides of the 3' UTR ranged from 42.5% to 63.4%. Phylogenetic tree analyses of the CP and MP suggest the existence of the fifth cactus-infecting subgroup in the genus Tobamovirus. Sequence analyses of these two viral proteins revealed that the highest amino acid sequence identity between the virus and seventeen other tobamoviruses was 40.6%, supporting the view that CMMoV is a new definite species of the genus Tobamovirus.
Archives of Virology 02/2006; 151(1):13-21. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0617-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genomic nucleotide sequence and structure of Daphne virus S (DVS), a daphne-infecting member of the genus Carlavirus, were determined. The genome of DVS was 8,739 nucleotides long, excluding the poly (A) tails. The genome of DVS contained six open reading frames coding for proteins of Mr 227 kDa (viral replicase), 25 kDa, 11 kDa and 7 kDa (triple gene block TGB) proteins 1, 2 and 3), 35 kDa (coat protein; CP), and 12 kDa from the 5' to 3' ends; respectively. This is the typical genome structure of members of the genus Carlavirus. Overall amino acid sequence similarities for the six ORFs of DVS were from 58.5% to 13.2% to those of the other carlaviruses. The 227 kDa replicase of DVS shared 45.5-39.2% amino acid similarities to that of 8 other known carlaviruses. Results from phylogenetic analyses of viral replicases and CPs demonstrated that DVS is a close relative of Helenium virus S and Chrysanthemum virus B. A total of 13 isolates of DVS shared 100-95.9% identities for the amino acid level and 99.5-81.0% identities for the nucleotide level. This is the first report of the complete genome sequence and structure of DVS and supports the conclusion that DVS is a typical species of the genus Carlavirus.
Archives of Virology 02/2006; 151(1):193-200. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0606-x · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have sequenced the complete genome of a hibiscus-infecting tobamovirus, Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV). The experimental host range of HLSV is similar to that of another distinct species of hibiscus infecting tobamovirus, Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV). The genomic structure of HLSV is similar to other tobamoviruses in general. It consists of a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by ORFs encoding for a 128 kDa protein and a 186 kDa readthrough protein, a 30 kDa movement protein (MP), 18 kDa coat protein (CP) and a 3' UTR. The unique feature of HLSV is the presence of a poly(A) tract within its 3' UTR. In our previous work, we have reported MP and CP sequences of HLSV and its phylogenetic analysis. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of HLSV, phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 128/186 kDa ORFs and the presence of a uniquely located poly(A) tract within the 3' UTR.
Archives of Virology 02/2005; 150(1):153-66. DOI:10.1007/s00705-004-0404-x · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequence of the genome of the type strain of Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV-C1) has been completely determined. The genome structure and sequence of the virus were compared to those of Yodo strain of KGMMV (KGMMV-Y). The genome of KGMMV-C1 is 6,514 nucleotides long consisting of 5' and 3' nontranslated regions (NTRs) and four open reading frames coding for 131 kDa and 189 kDa viral replicases, 28 kDa movement protein and 17 kDa coat protein. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences identities of the four encoded proteins and two NTRs between KGMMV-C1 and KGMMV-Y were 85.6% to 93.9% and 87.6% to 95.5%, respectively. Full-length cDNA of KGMMV-C1 was directly amplified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a set of S'-end primer anchoring T7 RNA promoter sequence and 3'-end primer. This full-length RT-PCR product allowed RNA to be transcribed in vitro. The T7 promoter-anchored RT-PCR product was cloned and used as templates for transcription for plant inoculation test. Capped transcript RNAs transcribed from the full-length cDNA clone as well as capped transcript RNAs from the uncloned RT-PCR products were infectious and caused symptoms characteristic of KGMMV when mechanically inoculated to systemic host plants such as zucchini squash, cucumber and Nicotiana benthamiana. Transcript-derived progeny virus was indistinguishable from the wild-type virus with the same biological and biochemical properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the generation of a biologically active KGMMV clone, driven by the T7 promoter, that is highly infectious to cucurbitaceous plants.
Archives of Virology 02/2001; 146(11):2085-96. DOI:10.1007/s007050170022 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel virus we call zucchini green mottle mosaic virus (ZGMMV) was isolated from zucchini squash and its properties were determined. The size and shape of its virions, and other properties suggest that the virus is a tobamovirus. The coat protein (CP) genes of ZGMMV and kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV), which also infects zucchini squash plants, were cloned and their nucleotides sequences were determined. The CP genes of ZGMMV and KGMMV are composed of 161 amino acid residues, and they share 77.6% amino acid identity. Western blot analysis showed that the two viruses are serologically related but not identical. Comparison of the sequences with those of sixteen other tobamoviruses revealed that the two viruses had much higher identity to cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), another tobamovirus infectious to cucurbit plants, than other tobamoviruses. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of ZGMMV were from 29.5 to 78.4% and from 29.3 to 77.6% identical, respectively, to those of other tobamoviruses. The predicted virion assembly origins of the two tobamoviruses were located in the CP region of the genomic RNAs, and the predicted secondary structures were more similar to that of CGMMV than those of other tobamoviruses. The seventeen tobamo-viruses could be classified into three main subgroups based on the phylogenetic tree analysis on the CP gene, and ZGMMV and KGMMV formed a third subgroup together with CGMMV and sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV). These results show that ZGMMV is a previously unknown member of the Tobamovirus genus.
Archives of Virology 02/2000; 145(11):2325-33. DOI:10.1007/s007050070023 · 2.39 Impact Factor