[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use has been associated with a decline in various aspects of mnemonic function in humans. We therefore postulated that MDMA-induced damage of serotonergic nerve terminals would alter hippocampal processing. Seven days following treatment with MDMA (2 x 20 mg/kg sc, given 12 h apart), rat spatial learning and memory were tested utilizing the Morris water maze (MWM). No statistical differences were found in MWM platform acquisition latency or pathlength between controls and MDMA-treated animals. Probe trials revealed significantly higher proximity score averages and significantly reduced preference for the target quadrant in the MDMA-treated animals. MDMA treatment resulted in significant reduction (34%) in hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels 14 days after initial treatment. The findings of this study demonstrate that hippocampal serotonergic lesions induced by MDMA may be ostensibly linked to a reference memory deficit in rats tested with the MWM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The abuse potential of tramadol was investigated using both in vivo microdialysis measures of dopamine (DA) release within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in rats. Tramadol (75 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a statistically significant increase (starting 80 min posttreatment) in DA release within the NAc shell, which was maintained for at least 120 min posttreatment. Tramadol (18.75, 37.5, and 75 mg/kg i.p.) produced a statistically significant CPP, with the effects of the two highest doses comparable to those induced by morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.). The release of DA within the NAc shell may be responsible for the rewarding properties of tramadol and, together with the CPP results, provide evidence that tramadol may possess greater abuse potential than originally believed.