[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Almost all successful protein structure-determination projects in the public sector culminate in a structure deposition to the Protein Data Bank (PDB). In order to expedite the deposition process, Deposit3D has been developed. This command-line script calculates or gathers all the required structure-deposition information and outputs this data into a mmCIF file for subsequent upload through the RCSB PDB ADIT interface. Deposit3D might be particularly useful for structural genomics pipeline projects because it allows workers involved with various stages of a structure-determination project to pool their different categories of annotation information before starting a deposition session.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 10/2005; 61(Pt 9):818-20. DOI:10.1107/S1744309105026126 · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The targets of the Structural GenomiX (SGX) bacterial genomics project were proteins conserved in multiple prokaryotic organisms with no obvious sequence homolog in the Protein Data Bank of known structures. The outcome of this work was 80 structures, covering 60 unique sequences and 49 different genes. Experimental phase determination from proteins incorporating Se-Met was carried out for 45 structures with most of the remainder solved by molecular replacement using members of the experimentally phased set as search models. An automated tool was developed to deposit these structures in the Protein Data Bank, along with the associated X-ray diffraction data (including refined experimental phases) and experimentally confirmed sequences. BLAST comparisons of the SGX structures with structures that had appeared in the Protein Data Bank over the intervening 3.5 years since the SGX target list had been compiled identified homologs for 49 of the 60 unique sequences represented by the SGX structures. This result indicates that, for bacterial structures that are relatively easy to express, purify, and crystallize, the structural coverage of gene space is proceeding rapidly. More distant sequence-structure relationships between the SGX and PDB structures were investigated using PDB-BLAST and Combinatorial Extension (CE). Only one structure, SufD, has a truly unique topology compared to all folds in the PDB.
Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 10/2005; 60(4):787-96. DOI:10.1002/prot.20541 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase required for signaling from immunoreceptors in various hematopoietic cells. Phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues in the activation loop of the Syk kinase catalytic domain is necessary for signaling, a phenomenon typical of tyrosine kinase family members. Syk in vitro enzyme activity, however, does not depend on phosphorylation (activation loop tyrosine --> phenylalanine mutants retain catalytic activity). We have determined the x-ray structure of the unphosphorylated form of the kinase catalytic domain of Syk. The enzyme adopts a conformation of the activation loop typically seen only in activated, phosphorylated tyrosine kinases, explaining why Syk does not require phosphorylation for activation. We also demonstrate that Gleevec (STI-571, Imatinib) inhibits the isolated kinase domains of both unphosphorylated Syk and phosphorylated Abl with comparable potency. Gleevec binds Syk in a novel, compact cis-conformation that differs dramatically from the binding mode observed with unphosphorylated Abl, the more Gleevec-sensitive form of Abl. This finding suggests the existence of two distinct Gleevec binding modes: an extended, trans-conformation characteristic of tight binding to the inactive conformation of a protein kinase and a second compact, cis-conformation characteristic of weaker binding to the active conformation. Finally, the Syk-bound cis-conformation of Gleevec bears a striking resemblance to the rigid structure of the nonspecific, natural product kinase inhibitor staurosporine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The computer programs ARP/wARP, MAID and RESOLVE are designed to build protein structures into experimentally phased electron-density maps without any user intervention, requiring only diffraction data and sequence information. However, the MAID and RESOLVE systems, which seek to extend the range of automated model-building to approximately 3 A resolution, have yet to receive significant testing outside the small numbers of data sets used in their development. Since these two systems employ a large number of scoring functions and decision-making heuristics, additional tests are required to establish their usefulness to the crystallographic community. To independently evaluate these programs, their performance was tested using a database containing 41 experimentally phased maps between 1.3 and 2.9 A resolution from a diverse set of protein structures. At resolutions higher than 2.3 A the most successful program was ARP/wARP 6.0, which accurately built an average of 90% of the main chain. This system builds somewhat larger fractions of the model than the previous version ARP/wARP 5.1, which accurately built an average of 87% of the main chain. Although not specifically designed for model building into high-resolution maps, MAID and RESOLVE were also quite successful in this resolution regime, typically building approximately 80% of the main chain. At 2.3-2.7 A resolution the MAID and RESOLVE programs automatically built approximately 75% of the main-chain atoms in the protein structures used in these tests, which would significantly accelerate the model-building process. Data sets at lower resolution proved more problematic for these programs, although many of the secondary-structure elements were correctly identified and fitted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose confers on certain pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides, including those derived from the innate immune system. ArnB catalysis of amino group transfer from glutamic acid to the 4"-position of a UDP-linked ketopyranose molecule to form UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose represents a key step in the lipid A modification pathway. Structural and functional studies of the ArnB aminotransferase were undertaken by combining X-ray crystallography with biochemical analyses. High-resolution crystal structures were solved for two native forms and one covalently inhibited form of S. typhimurium ArnB. These structures permitted identification of key residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis, including a rarely observed nonprolyl cis peptide bond in the active site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose confers on certain pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides, including those derived from the innate immune system. ArnB catalysis of amino group transfer from glutamic acid to the 4″-position of a UDP-linked ketopyranose molecule to form UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose represents a key step in the lipid A modification pathway. Structural and functional studies of the ArnB aminotransferase were undertaken by combining X-ray crystallography with biochemical analyses. High-resolution crystal structures were solved for two native forms and one covalently inhibited form of S. typhimurium ArnB. These structures permitted identification of key residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis, including a rarely observed nonprolyl cis peptide bond in the active site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of structure-determination initiatives that employ high-throughput protein crystallography emphasizes the need to establish quality-control methods for screening the resulting models prior to deposition with the public data banks. An in-house database of 26 new protein structures, associated diffraction data and high-quality experimentally determined electron-density maps have been used to develop (i) a set of minimal global quality criteria that a structure must meet before the refinement may be considered completed and (ii) a reliable set of indicators for detecting local errors in protein structures. These criteria have been applied to detecting local errors to a set of structures recently deposited in the Protein Data Bank and it is estimated that about 3% of amino acids are incorrectly modeled.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes new methods for X-ray crystallographic refinement and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure determination that are available in the recent release of the X-PLOR software, X-PLOR 98.0. The major new features of the X-PLOR 98.0 software are: (i) the introduction of maximum likelihood methods (Pannu and Read, Acta Crystallogr 1996;A52:659-668) for X-ray crystallographic refinement with structure factor amplitude, intensity and phase probability targets, (ii) the addition of the Andersen thermal coupling method for temperature control during simulated annealing refinements, (iii) a new utility function for converting reflection data in to the X-PLOR format, (iv) validated scripts and performance enhancements for structure determination from NMR distance restraints using torsion angle dynamics, (v) fast code for direct nuclear Oberhauser effect (NOE) refinement using matrix doubling and gaussian quadratures, (vi) methodologies for using ambiguous restraint information to perform automated iterative peak assignment and structure determination (Nilges et al., J Mol Biol 1997;269: 408-422). Additional developments in methodology for refining crystal structures from poor initial models include the implementation of a fast adaptive bulk solvent scattering correction and an energy minimization routine that makes use of second derivative information. Trial crystallographic refinements with an energy minimization protocol that includes these enhancements indicate significantly improved convergence. The quality of the resulting models appears comparable to models obtained from refinement protocols that incorporate torsion angle dynamics. Test applications of the new energy minimizer to NMR structure refinement with using NOE calculations also show improved convergence, leading to more optimized final models.
Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 05/1999; 35(1):25-33. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0134(19990401)35:13.3.CO;2-M · 2.63 Impact Factor