[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of colonic inflammation and tissue degeneration in human or animal models. The contractile force generated by the smooth muscle is significantly attenuated, resulting in altered motility leading to diarrhea or constipation in IBD. The aim of this study is to clarify the altered contractility of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers in proximal colon of trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse. Colitis was induced by direct injection of TNBS (120 mg/kg, 50% ethanol) in proximal colon of ICR mouse using a 30 G needle anesthetized with ketamin (50 mg/kg), whereas animals in the control group were injected of 50% ethanol alone. In TNBS-induced colitis, the wall of the proximal colon is diffusely thickened with loss of haustration, and showed mucosal and mucular edema with inflammatory infiltration. The colonic inflammation is significantly induced the reduction of colonic contractile activity including spontaneous contractile activity, depolarization-induced contractility, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated contractile response in circular muscle layer compared to the longitudinal muscle layer. The inward rectification of currents, especially, important to Ca(2+) and Na(+) influx-induced depolarization and contraction, was markedly reduced in the TNBS-induced colitis compared to the control. The muscarinic acetylcholine-mediated contractile responses were significantly attenuated in the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle strips induced by the reduction of membrane expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel isoforms from the proximal colon of the TNBS-induced colitis mouse than the control.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 12/2012; 16(6):437-46. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in the expression profiles of specific proteins leads to serious human diseases, including colitis. The proteomic changes related to colitis and the differential expression between tuberculous (TC) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in colon tissue from colitis patients has not been defined. We therefore performed a proteomic analysis of human TC and UC mucosal tissue. Total protein was obtained from the colon mucosal tissue of normal, TC, and UC patients, and resolved by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The results were analyzed with PDQuest using silver staining. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF) to identify proteins differentially expressed in TC and UC. Of the over 1,000 proteins isolated, three in TC tissue and two in UC tissue displayed altered expression when compared to normal tissue. Moreover, two proteins were differentially expressed in a comparative analysis between TC and UC. These were identified as mutant β-actin, α-enolase and Charcot-Leyden crystal protein. In particular, the expression of α-enolase was significantly greater in TC compared with normal tissue, but decreased in comparison to UC, implying that α-enolase may represent a biomarker for differential diagnosis of TC and UC. This study therefore provides a valuable resource for the molecular and diagnostic analysis of human colitis.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 06/2012; 16(3):193-8. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TONIC SMOOTH MUSCLE EXHIBIT THE LATCH PHENOMENON: high force at low myosin regulatory light chains (MRLC) phosphorylation, shortening velocity (Vo), and energy consumption. However, the kinetics of MRLC phosphorylation and cellular activation in phasic smooth muscle are unknown. The present study was to determine whether Ca(2+)-stimulated MRLC phosphorylation could suffice to explain the agonist- or high K(+)-induced contraction in a fast, phasic smooth muscle. We measured myoplasmic [Ca(2+)], MRLC phosphorylation, half-time after step-shortening (a measure of Vo) and contractile stress in rabbit urinary bladder strips. High K(+)-induced contractions were phasic at both 22℃ and 37℃: myoplasmic [Ca(2+)], MRLC phosphorylation, 1/half-time, and contractile stress increased transiently and then all decreased to intermediate values. Carbachol (CCh)-induced contractions exhibited latch at 37℃: stress was maintained at high levels despite decreasing myoplasmic [Ca(2+)], MRLC phosphorylation, and 1/half-time. At 22℃ CCh induced sustained elevations in all parameters. 1/half-time depended on both myoplasmic [Ca(2+)] and MRLC phosphorylation. The steady-state dependence of stress on MRLC phosphorylation was very steep at 37℃ in the CCh- or K(+)-depolarized tissue and reduced temperature flattend the dependence of stress on MRLC phosphorylation compared to 37℃. These data suggest that phasic smooth muscle also exhibits latch behavior and latch is less prominent at lower temperature.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 06/2011; 15(3):171-7. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two farnesylacetones, 311 and 312, major active constituents of Sargassum siliquastrum collected from the coast of the East Sea in Korea, showed a moderate vasodilatation effect on the basilar arteries of rabbits. Therefore, treatment with farnesylacetones 311 and 312 may selectively accelerate cerebral blood flow through dilatation of the basilar artery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While arsenic in drinking water is known to cause various cardiovascular diseases in human, exact mechanism still remains elusive. Recently, trivalent-methylated arsenicals, the metabolites of inorganic arsenic, were shown to have higher cytotoxic potential than inorganic arsenic. To study the role of these metabolites in arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effect of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III), a major trivalent-methylated arsenical, on vasomotor tone of blood vessels. In isolated rat thoracic aorta and small mesenteric arteries, MMA III irreversibly suppressed normal vasoconstriction induced by three distinct agonists of phenylephrine (PE), serotonin and endothelin-1. Inhibition of vasoconstriction was retained in aortic rings without endothelium, suggesting that MMA III directly impaired the contractile function of vascular smooth muscle. The effect of MMA III was mediated by inhibition of PE-induced Ca2+ increase as found in confocal microscopy and fluorimeter in-lined organ chamber technique. The attenuation of Ca2+ increase was from concomitant inhibition of release from intracellular store and extracellular Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channel, which was blocked by MMA III as shown in voltage-clamp assay in Xenopus oocytes. MMA III did not affect downstream process of Ca2+, as shown in permeabilized arterial strips. In in vivo rat model, MMA III attenuated PE-induced blood pressure increase indeed, supporting the clinical relevance of these in vitro findings. In conclusion, MMA III-induced smooth muscle dysfunction through disturbance of Ca2+ regulation, which results in impaired vasoconstriction and aberrant blood pressure change. This study will provide a new insight into the role of trivalent-methylated arsenicals in arsenic-associated cardiovascular diseases.
Environmental Research 09/2008; 108(3):300-8. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sargahydroquinoic acid (2), a major active constituent of Sargassum micracanthum collected from the coast of the East Sea in Korea, showed a selective vasodilatation effect on the basilar arteries of rabbits. Therefore, treatment with sargahydroquinoic acid may selectively accelerate cerebral blood flow through dilatation of the basilar artery without lowering systemic blood pressure.