[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For an insight regarding the control of PtdEtn (phosphatidylethanolamine) synthesis via the CDPethanolamine pathway, rat liver cDNA encoding ECT (CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase) was transiently or stably transfected in Chinese-hamster ovary cells and a rat liver-derived cell line (McA-RH7777), resulting in a maximum of 26- and 4-fold increase in specific activity of ECT respectively. However, no effect of ECT overexpression on the rate of [3H]ethanolamine incorporation into PtdEtn was detected in both cell lines. This was explored further in cells overexpressing four times ECT activity (McA-ECT1). The rate of PtdEtn breakdown and PtdEtn mass were not changed in McA-ECT1 cells in comparison with control-transfected cells. Instead, an accumulation of CDPethanolamine (label and mass) was observed, suggesting that in McA-ECT1 cells the ethanolaminephosphotransferase-catalysed reaction became rate-limiting. However, overexpression of the human choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase in McA-ECT1 and control-transfected cells had no effect on PtdEtn synthesis. To investigate whether the availability of DAG (diacylglycerol) limited PtdEtn synthesis in these cells, intracellular DAG levels were increased using PMA or phospholipase C. Exposure of cells to PMA or phospholipase C stimulated PtdEtn synthesis and this effect was much more pronounced in McA-ECT1 than in control-transfected cells. In line with this, the DAG produced after PMA exposure was consumed more rapidly in McA-ECT1 cells and the CDPethanolamine level decreased accordingly. In conclusion, our results suggest that the supply of CDPethanolamine, via the expression level of ECT, is an important factor governing the rate of PtdEtn biosynthesis in mammalian cells, under the condition that the amount of DAG is not limiting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to study the role of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in the biosynthesis of two major membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Incubation of rat hepatocytes with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), an activator of AMPK, produced dose-dependent inhibition of the incorporation of [(3)H]choline and [(3)H]ethanolamine into PC and PE, respectively. Determination of the cellular uptake of choline and ethanolamine showed that the reduced synthesis of PC and PE did not result from impaired uptake of these two precursors. The decreased synthesis of PC was not mirrored by a reduction in the activities of the enzymes of the CDP-choline pathway. The diminution of PE biosynthesis, however, was paralleled by a depressed activity of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ET), the pace-setting enzyme of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. AICAR treatment of hepatocytes stimulated the conversion of choline into betaine, indicating that reduced PC synthesis most probably resulted from a decrease in the availability of choline. In addition, AICAR induced a 50% reduction in the cellular level of diacylglycerols, which may further impair the synthesis of PC and PE. The results thus indicate that AICAR inhibits the biosynthesis of PC and PE and that the effect is exerted at different sites in the two pathways. Increased oxidation of choline to betaine is the main target of AICAR in the PC pathway, whereas inhibition of ET activity is the locus of AICAR action in the PE pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipids and sphingolipids are important precursors of lipid-derived second messengers such as diacylglycerol and ceramide, which participate in several signal transduction pathways and in that way mediate the effects of various agonists. The cross-talk between glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism was investigated by examining the effects of cell-permeable ceramides on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) synthesis in Rat-2 fibroblasts. Addition of short-chain C6-ceramide to the cells resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the CDP-pathways for PtdCho and PtdEtn synthesis. Treatment of cells for 4 h with 50 microM C6-ceramide caused an 83% and a 56% decrease in incorporation of radiolabelled choline and ethanolamine into PtdCho and PtdEtn, respectively. Exposure of the cells for longer time-periods (>/= 16 h) to 50 microM C6-ceramide resulted in apoptosis. The structural analogue dihydro-C6-ceramide did not affect PtdCho and PtdEtn synthesis. In pulse-chase experiments, radioactive choline and ethanolamine accumulated in CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine under the influence of C6-ceramide, suggesting that synthesis of both PtdCho and PtdEtn were inhibited at the final step in the CDP-pathways. Indeed, cholinephosphotransferase and ethanolaminephosphotransferase activities in membrane fractions from C6-ceramide-treated cells were reduced by 64% and 43%, respectively, when compared with control cells. No changes in diacylglycerol mass levels or synthesis of diacylglycerol from radiolabelled palmitate were observed. It was concluded that C6-ceramide affected glycerophospholipid synthesis predominantly by inhibition of the step in the CDP-pathways catalysed by cholinephosphotransferase and ethanolaminephosphotransferase.
European Journal of Biochemistry 09/1999; 264(1):152-60. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work was undertaken to study the metabolism of fatty acids with trans double bonds by rat hepatocytes. In liver mitochondria, elaidoyl-CoA was a poorer substrate for carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) than oleoyl-CoA. Likewise, incubation of hepatocytes with oleic acid produced a more pronounced stimulation of CPT-I than incubation with trans fatty acids. This was not due to a differential effect of cis and trans fatty acids on acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity and malonyl-CoA levels. Elaidic acid was metabolized by hepatocytes at a higher rate than oleic acid. Surprisingly, compared to oleic acid, elaidic acid was a better substrate for mitochondrial and, especially, peroxisomal oxidation, but a poorer substrate for cellular and very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol synthesis. Results thus show that trans fatty acids are preferentially oxidized by hepatic peroxisomes, and that the ACC/malonyl-CoA/CPT-I system for coordinate control of fatty acid metabolism is not responsible for the distinct hepatic utilization of cis and trans fatty acids.