[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For an insight regarding the control of PtdEtn (phosphatidylethanolamine) synthesis via the CDPethanolamine pathway, rat liver cDNA encoding ECT (CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase) was transiently or stably transfected in Chinese-hamster ovary cells and a rat liver-derived cell line (McA-RH7777), resulting in a maximum of 26- and 4-fold increase in specific activity of ECT respectively. However, no effect of ECT overexpression on the rate of [3H]ethanolamine incorporation into PtdEtn was detected in both cell lines. This was explored further in cells overexpressing four times ECT activity (McA-ECT1). The rate of PtdEtn breakdown and PtdEtn mass were not changed in McA-ECT1 cells in comparison with control-transfected cells. Instead, an accumulation of CDPethanolamine (label and mass) was observed, suggesting that in McA-ECT1 cells the ethanolaminephosphotransferase-catalysed reaction became rate-limiting. However, overexpression of the human choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase in McA-ECT1 and control-transfected cells had no effect on PtdEtn synthesis. To investigate whether the availability of DAG (diacylglycerol) limited PtdEtn synthesis in these cells, intracellular DAG levels were increased using PMA or phospholipase C. Exposure of cells to PMA or phospholipase C stimulated PtdEtn synthesis and this effect was much more pronounced in McA-ECT1 than in control-transfected cells. In line with this, the DAG produced after PMA exposure was consumed more rapidly in McA-ECT1 cells and the CDPethanolamine level decreased accordingly. In conclusion, our results suggest that the supply of CDPethanolamine, via the expression level of ECT, is an important factor governing the rate of PtdEtn biosynthesis in mammalian cells, under the condition that the amount of DAG is not limiting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to study the role of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in the biosynthesis of two major membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Incubation of rat hepatocytes with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), an activator of AMPK, produced dose-dependent inhibition of the incorporation of [(3)H]choline and [(3)H]ethanolamine into PC and PE, respectively. Determination of the cellular uptake of choline and ethanolamine showed that the reduced synthesis of PC and PE did not result from impaired uptake of these two precursors. The decreased synthesis of PC was not mirrored by a reduction in the activities of the enzymes of the CDP-choline pathway. The diminution of PE biosynthesis, however, was paralleled by a depressed activity of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ET), the pace-setting enzyme of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. AICAR treatment of hepatocytes stimulated the conversion of choline into betaine, indicating that reduced PC synthesis most probably resulted from a decrease in the availability of choline. In addition, AICAR induced a 50% reduction in the cellular level of diacylglycerols, which may further impair the synthesis of PC and PE. The results thus indicate that AICAR inhibits the biosynthesis of PC and PE and that the effect is exerted at different sites in the two pathways. Increased oxidation of choline to betaine is the main target of AICAR in the PC pathway, whereas inhibition of ET activity is the locus of AICAR action in the PE pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipids and sphingolipids are important precursors of lipid-derived second messengers such as diacylglycerol and ceramide, which participate in several signal transduction pathways and in that way mediate the effects of various agonists. The cross-talk between glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism was investigated by examining the effects of cell-permeable ceramides on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) synthesis in Rat-2 fibroblasts. Addition of short-chain C6-ceramide to the cells resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the CDP-pathways for PtdCho and PtdEtn synthesis. Treatment of cells for 4 h with 50 microM C6-ceramide caused an 83% and a 56% decrease in incorporation of radiolabelled choline and ethanolamine into PtdCho and PtdEtn, respectively. Exposure of the cells for longer time-periods (>/= 16 h) to 50 microM C6-ceramide resulted in apoptosis. The structural analogue dihydro-C6-ceramide did not affect PtdCho and PtdEtn synthesis. In pulse-chase experiments, radioactive choline and ethanolamine accumulated in CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine under the influence of C6-ceramide, suggesting that synthesis of both PtdCho and PtdEtn were inhibited at the final step in the CDP-pathways. Indeed, cholinephosphotransferase and ethanolaminephosphotransferase activities in membrane fractions from C6-ceramide-treated cells were reduced by 64% and 43%, respectively, when compared with control cells. No changes in diacylglycerol mass levels or synthesis of diacylglycerol from radiolabelled palmitate were observed. It was concluded that C6-ceramide affected glycerophospholipid synthesis predominantly by inhibition of the step in the CDP-pathways catalysed by cholinephosphotransferase and ethanolaminephosphotransferase.
European Journal of Biochemistry 09/1999; 264(1):152-60. DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00589.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work was undertaken to study the metabolism of fatty acids with trans double bonds by rat hepatocytes. In liver mitochondria, elaidoyl-CoA was a poorer substrate for carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) than oleoyl-CoA. Likewise, incubation of hepatocytes with oleic acid produced a more pronounced stimulation of CPT-I than incubation with trans fatty acids. This was not due to a differential effect of cis and trans fatty acids on acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity and malonyl-CoA levels. Elaidic acid was metabolized by hepatocytes at a higher rate than oleic acid. Surprisingly, compared to oleic acid, elaidic acid was a better substrate for mitochondrial and, especially, peroxisomal oxidation, but a poorer substrate for cellular and very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol synthesis. Results thus show that trans fatty acids are preferentially oxidized by hepatic peroxisomes, and that the ACC/malonyl-CoA/CPT-I system for coordinate control of fatty acid metabolism is not responsible for the distinct hepatic utilization of cis and trans fatty acids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arylsulfatases A (EC 188.8.131.52) and B (EC 184.108.40.206) are lysosomal enzymes that can remove sulfate groups from sulfatides and sulfo-glycosaminoglycans, respectively. The activities of these enzymes in cerebral cortex and in spinal cord of developing rat pups were measured. The tissues were homogenized and the arylsulfatases A and B in the soluble fraction were separated from each other by anion exchange chromatography on DE-52 cellulose. Subsequently, the enzyme activities were assayed with p-nitrocatechol sulfate as substrate at 37 degrees C and pH 5.6. We observed a developmental profile of arylsulfatase A, similar to that previously reported for cerebroside sulfatase (EC 220.127.116.11; (Van der Pal et al. (1990) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1043, 91-96]. The activity of arylsulfatase A increased gradually during development, whereas arylsulfatase B rose more steeply, peaked around day 15 and declined thereafter. As a consequence the ratio between B and A forms of arylsulfatase dropped from about 4 in 1-week-old pups to 2.2 (cortex) and 0.7 (cord) in 7-week-old rat pups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo metabolism of sulfatides was studied in spinal cord and cerebral cortex of developing rat pups. Developmental changes in the rate of sulfolipid synthesis were measured after the intraperitoneal injection of 35SO4(2-). We also measured the accumulation of sulfatides, as well as the profiles of cerebroside sulfotransferase, cerebroside sulfatase and arylsulfatase A in both brain regions as a function of postnatal development. The accumulation of sulfatides was higher in spinal cord than in cerebral cortex. In addition, sulfatide metabolism was more active in spinal cord. In both brain regions, the developmental pattern of 35SO4(2-) incorporation into sulfolipids was closely correlated to the activities of cerebroside sulfotransferase and of arylsulfatase A. The activity of these enzymes was initially low, increased during the period of active myelination and declined thereafter. However, the activity of cerebroside sulfatase, measured with its physiological substrate, [35S]sulfatide, increased during development and did not decline. An explanation for the difference between the developmental profiles of the arylsulfatase A and cerebroside sulfatase reactions (which are supposed to be catalysed by the same enzyme) is proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glial cells were isolated from 1-week-old rat brain and cultured in a serum-free medium supplemented with the hormones insulin, hydrocortisone, and triiodothyronine. After 1 week in culture the cell population consisted mainly of galactocerebroside-positive cells (GC+; oligodendrocytes), the remainder of the cells being positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+; astrocytes). Oligodendrocytes were selectively removed from the cultures by complement-mediated cytolysis. The activities of glutamine synthetase and of various marker enzymes were measured in the nonlysed cells remaining after complement treatment of the cultures and in the culture medium containing proteins of the lysed cells. We found that the cellular activity of glutamine synthetase decreased in parallel with the lysis of GC+ cells and that the activity of glutamine synthetase in the supernatant increased. The activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a marker enzyme for oligodendrocytes, was no longer detectable in complement-treated cultures and the activity of glutamine synthetase was markedly lowered, whereas the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was as high as in untreated cultures. The location of glutamine synthetase both in oligodendrocytes and in astrocytes was confirmed by double-label immunocytochemistry with antisera against glutamine synthetase, GC, and GFAP. We conclude that in this culture system glutamine synthetase is expressed in both types of glial cells and that the activity of lactate dehydrogenase is at least one order of magnitude higher in astrocytes than in oligodendrocytes.
Journal of Neurochemistry 06/1988; 50(5):1461-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1988.tb03031.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (3)H(2)O and [3-(14)C]acetoacetate were injected i.p. into developing rats (5-50 days of age). After 2 h the brains were dissected into 6 parts. The incorporation of (3)H and (14)C into total fatty acids and into cholesterol in these 6 parts and in the spinal cord was measured. The data were analysed to evaluate the developmental patterns of the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol in various parts of the rat CNS and to compare the contribution of acetoacetate to these processes. Our results indicate (1) a large variation between CNS regions in the rates of lipid synthesis as well as in the developmental patterns; highest activities were found in the spinal cord during the third postnatal week, whereas the activities in cortical areas were much lower during all stages of development; (2) a constant ratio between the amounts of label incorporated into lipid fractions from [3-(14)C]acetoacetate and from (3)H(2)O, indicating that acetoacetate contributes to a similar extent to lipid synthesis in all parts of the developing rat CNS; (3) a similar preference in the use of acetoacetate for cholesterogenesis as compared to lipogenesis in all parts of the CNS of suckling rats; (4) a marked increase of this preference after weaning of the pups.
Neurochemistry International 01/1985; 7(4):647-53. DOI:10.1016/0197-0186(85)90062-2 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat pups, 3 weeks old, were injected i.p. with combinations of 3H2O and either [3-14C]acetoacetate or [14C]glucose. 3H/14C incorporation ratios were measured in lipid fractions of homogenates and myelin prepared from whole brain and spinal cord. Spinal cord synthesized at least twice as much fatty acids and 3-fold more sterols than whole brain. Both tissues used acetoacetate preferentially for sterol synthesis, whereas label from [14C]glucose was distributed between fatty acids and sterols in the same way as 3H from 3H2O. The relative contributions of acetoacetate to sterol synthesis in whole tissue and in the purified myelin fraction were about the same, both for the cerebrum and for the spinal cord.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of ketone bodies between oxidation and lipid synthesis was analysed in homogenates of developing rat brain. The capacity for lipid synthesis of homogenized or minced brain preparations was compared with rates of lipid synthesis in vivo, assessed by incorporation of (3)H from (3)H(2)O into fatty acids and cholesterol. Brain homogenates of suckling rats (but not those of adults) incorporated label from [3-(14)C]ketone bodies into lipids, but this process was slow as compared to (14)CO(2) production (< 5%) and much slower than the total rate of ketone-body utilization (< 0.5%). Study of (3)H(2)O incorporation demonstrated that the rates of lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis are at least one order of magnitude higher in vivo than in vitro. Maximal rates of (3)H incorporation into fatty acids (3 ?mol/g brain . h) and into cholesterol (0.6 ?mol/g brain . h) were found during the third postnatal week. Adult rats still incorporated (3)H into brain fatty acids at an appreciable rate (1 ?mol/g brain . h), whereas cholesterogenesis was very low. It is concluded that in vitro measurements of lipid synthesis severely underestimate the rates that occur in developing rat brain in vivo. The high rate of (3)H incorporation into lipids by developing and adult rat brain as compared to the amounts of these lipids present in the brain suggests an important contribution of endogenous lipid synthesis during brain development and an appreciable rate of fatty acid turnover during brain growth, but also in the adult brain.
Neurochemistry International 01/1984; 6(4):459-66. DOI:10.1016/0197-0186(84)90115-3 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of 14C from [3-14C]ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO2. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.
Neurochemical Research 07/1982; 7(6):687-703. DOI:10.1007/BF00965522 · 2.59 Impact Factor