[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a regulatory context, bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factors are used for considering secondary poisoning potential and assessing risks to human health via the food chain. In this paper, literature data on the bioaccumulation of molybdenum in the aquatic organisms are reviewed and assessed for relevance and reliability. The data available in the literature were generated at exposure concentrations below those recommended in the REACH registration dossiers for molybdenum compounds i.e. PNEC(freshwater) 12.7mg Mo/L. To address possible environmental concerns at regulatorily-relevant molybdenum concentrations, both a field study and a laboratory study were conducted. In the field study, whole body and organ-specific molybdenum levels were evaluated in fish (eel, stickleback, perch, carp bream, roach) held in the discharge water collector tanks of a molybdenum processing plant, containing a mean measured molybdenum level of 1.03mg Mo/L. In the laboratory study, rainbow trout were exposed to two different nominal molybdenum levels (1.0 and 12.7mg Mo/L), for 60days followed by a 60-day depuration period. Whole body concentrations in rainbow trout during the exposure period were between <0.20 and 0.53mg Mo/L. Muscle tissue molybdenum concentrations in fish taken from both experiments remained below 0.2mg/kg dry wt. These studies show an inverse relationship between exposure concentration and bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor for molybdenum. In aquatic organisms, and in fish in particular, internal molybdenum concentrations are maintained in the presence of variation in external molybdenum concentrations. These observations must be considered when evaluating potential risks associated with the bioconcentration and/or bioaccumulation of molybdenum in the aquatic environment.
Science of The Total Environment 07/2012; 435-436:96-106. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO(4)(2-)). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC(marine) using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC(10) levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and international regulatory purposes.
Science of The Total Environment 06/2012; 430:260-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dissolved constituents of crude oil, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can contribute substantially to the toxicity of aquatic organisms. Measured aqueous concentrations of high-molecular weight PAHs (e.g., chrysenes, benzo[a]pyrene) as well as long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons can exceed the theoretical solubility of these sparingly soluble compounds. This is attributed to the presence of a "microdroplet" or colloidal oil phase. It is important to be able to quantify the dissolved fraction of these compounds in oil-in-water preparations that are commonly used in toxicity assays because the interpretation of test results often assumes that the compounds are dissolved. A method is presented to determine the microdroplet contribution in crude oil-in-water preparations using a comparison of predicted and measured aqueous concentrations. Measured concentrations are reproduced in the model by including both microdroplets and dissolved constituents of petroleum hydrocarbons. Microdroplets were found in all oil-water preparation data sets analyzed. Estimated microdroplet oil concentrations typically ranged from 10 to 700 µg oil/L water. The fraction of dissolved individual petroleum hydrocarbons ranges from 1.0 for highly soluble compounds (e.g., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) to far less than 0.1 for sparingly soluble compounds (e.g., chrysenes) depending on the microdroplet oil concentration. The presence of these microdroplets complicates the interpretation of toxicity test data because they may exert an additional toxic effect due to a change in the exposure profile. The implications of the droplet model on toxicity are also discussed in terms of both dissolved hydrocarbons and microdroplets.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 05/2012; 31(8):1814-22. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ecotoxicity tests were performed with fish, invertebrates, and algae to investigate the effect of water quality parameters on Mn toxicity. Models were developed to describe the effects of Mn as a function of water quality. Calcium (Ca) has a protective effect on Mn toxicity for both fish and invertebrates, and magnesium (Mg) also provides a protective effect for invertebrates. Protons have a protective effect on Mn toxicity to algae. The models derived are consistent with models of the toxicity of other metals to aquatic organisms in that divalent cations can act as competitors to Mn toxicity in fish and invertebrates, and protons act as competitors to Mn toxicity in algae. The selected models are able to predict Mn toxicity to the test organisms to within a factor of 2 in most cases. Under low-pH conditions invertebrates are the most sensitive taxa, and under high-pH conditions algae are most sensitive. The point at which algae become more sensitive than invertebrates depends on the Ca concentration and occurs at higher pH when Ca concentrations are low, because of the sensitivity of invertebrates under these conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations have very little effect on the toxicity of Mn to aquatic organisms.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 08/2011; 30(11):2407-15. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO(4)(2-)). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this study can serve as a basis for the derivation of a PNEC(aquatic) that can be used for national and international regulatory purposes and for setting water quality criteria. Using all reliable data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 38.2 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach.
Science of The Total Environment 10/2010; 408(22):5362-71. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) to normalize metal ecotoxicity data and predict effects in non-BLM organisms should be supported by quantitative evidence. This study determined the ability of chronic nickel BLMs developed for the cladocera Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia to predict chronic nickel toxicity to three invertebrates for which no specific BLMs were developed. Those invertebrates were the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, the insect Chironomus tentans, and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Similarly, we also determined the ability of chronic nickel BLMs developed for the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the terrestrial vascular plant Hordeum vulgare to predict chronic nickel toxicity to the aquatic vascular plant Lemna minor. Chronic nickel toxicity to the three invertebrates and the aquatic plant were measured in five natural waters that varied in pH, Ca, Mg, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which are known to affect chronic nickel toxicity and are the important input variables for the chronic nickel BLMs. Nickel toxicity to the three invertebrates varied considerably among the test waters, i.e., a 14-fold variation of EC50s in L. stagnalis, a 3-fold variation in EC20s in C. tentans, and a 10-fold variation in EC20s in B. calyciflorus, but the cladoceran BLMs were able to predict nickel effect concentrations within a factor of two. Nickel toxicity (EC50s) to L. minor varied by 6-fold among the test waters. Although the P. subcapitata and H. vulgare BLMs offered reasonable predictions of nickel EC50s to L. minor, the D. magna and C. dubia BLM showed better predictions. Our results confirm the influence of site-specific pH, hardness, and DOC on chronic nickel toxicity to aquatic organisms, and support the use of chronic nickel BLMs to manage this influence through normalizations of ecotoxicity data.
Science of The Total Environment 10/2010; 408(24):6148-57. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Legislation introduced by the United Nations International Maritime Organization (IMO) has focused primarily on standards defining successful treatments designed to remove invasive species entrained in ballast water. An earlier shipboard study found that ozone introduced into salt water ballast resulted in the formation of bromine compounds, measured as total residual oxidants (TRO) that were toxic to both bacteria and plankton. However, the diffuser system employed to deliver ozone to the ballast water tanks resulted in patchiness in TRO distribution and toxicity to entrained organisms. In this follow-up study, the shipboard diffuser system was replaced by a single Venturi-type injection system designed to deliver a more homogeneous biocide distribution. Within-tank variability in TRO levels and associated toxicity to zooplankton, phytoplankton and marine bacteria was measured via a matrix of tubes deployed to sample different locations in treated and untreated (control) tanks. Three trials were conducted aboard the oil tanker S/T Prince William Sound in the Strait of Juan de Fuca off Port Angeles, Washington State, USA, between June and December 2007. Mortalities of plankton and bacteria and oxidant concentrations were recorded for treated and untreated ballast water up to 3days following treatment, and residual toxicity beyond this period was measured by bioassay of standard test organisms. Results indicated uniform compliance with current IMO standards, but only partial compliance with other existing and pending ballast water legislation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adults and juvenile rainbow trout exposed for 21 d to sublethal levels of zinc or cadmium exhibited significant changes in their respective incipient lethal levels (ILL). Acclimation resulted in exposure-dependent changes in both tolerance (ILL concentration) and resistance (time to ILL) in both size classes of fish for each metal. The ILLs for adult rainbow trout exposed to zinc increased from 695 μg/L at 131 h for nonacclimated fish to 2,025 μ/L at 168 h for fish previously exposed to 0.5 ILL (324 μg/L zinc). The ILLs for cadmium-exposed fish increased from 6 μg/L at 187 h for nonacclimated fish to 122 μg/L at 266 h for fish acclimated to 0.5 ILL (10.2 μg/L cadmium). Similar, although somewhat less dramatic, acclimation responses were observed for juveniles with both zinc and cadmium. Juveniles were found to be approximately three times less sensitive to the toxic effects of the metals than were adult fish.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artificial incubation of eggs is employed in one-generation avian reproduction studies conducted under laboratory conditions. Maximizing overall hatch success while minimizing variability due to experimental methods can increase statistical power for quantifying effects caused by the test material. This study evaluated the effects of incubation temperature and daily warm-water misting of duck eggs on hatching success in a 2 × 2 matrix. Treatment groups were subjected to incubation temperatures of 37.2 or 37.5°C, with (M) or without (NM) misting. Eggs were collected daily from 15 breeding pairs per treatment group during a 10-week laying period. Within appropriate test groups, eggs were misted daily throughout the 24-d incubation and 4-d hatching period. Hatching success (as a percentage of fertile eggs) was 71, 32, 18, and 10 for the 37.5 M, 37.5 NM, 37.2 M, and 37.2 NM groups, respectively. Egg weight significantly decreased, as a percentage of initial egg weight, in misted eggs; no temperature-related differences in egg weight were observed. Results indicate that an incubation temperature of 37.5°C with daily warm-water misting proved to be the most effective treatment for maximizing overall hatching success.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A one-generation reproductive toxicity study and a direct eggshell application toxicity study were conducted using the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess the toxicity of naturally weathered North Slope crude oil (WEVC), obtained following the Exxon Valdez spill. In the reproductive study, birds were fed diets containing 0, 200, 2,000, and 20,000 mg of WEVC/kg diet. No significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in mortality, body weight, food consumption, reproductive parameters, or hatchling parameters were observed. Significant decreases in mean serum phosphorous, serum total protein, albumin, bilirubin, and calcium concentrations were observed in high-dose-group females; no differences were noted among males. Eggshell strength and thickness in the high-dose group were significantly reduced compared to controls. Trends toward increased liver weights and decreased spleen weights were observed in WEVC-treated birds. Applications of WEVC to developing eggs showed it to be less toxic than unweathered North Slope crude oil. Doses covering up to one-third of the shell area of developing mallard eggs (92 mg) resulted in no effects on developing embryos. Eggs treated with the control material, petrolatum, were adversely affected by applications covering approximately one-sixth of the eggshell (24 mg), suggesting inhibition of gas exchange. Neither material affected hatchling survival or growth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed for 21 d to sublethal levels of No. 2 fuel oil (2FO). The four exposure concentrations ranged from 12 to 100 mg/L 2FO dispersed in water and resulted in 0 to 12% mortality. Following this exposure period (preexposure) the ability of preexposed trout to survive exposure to acutely lethal levels of 2FO was observed. Preexposure to either 50 or 100 mg/L 2FO consistently resulted in decreased survival and a lower LC50 for a given observation period. Unfortunately, because the LC50 determinations were not obtained independently, they could not be used to test statistically the effects of preexposure on survival. Therefore, two proportional hazard modeling techniques were applied to the data to test for effects due to preexposure. Both modeling techniques indicated that preexposure results in decreased survival of rainbow trout exposed to acutely toxic levels of 2FO. Thus, in contrast to preexposure to metals, which results in acclimation, preexposure to 2FO results in decreased survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential modifying effects of certain water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, alkalinity, pH) on the acute toxicity of boron were tested using a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. By comparison, boron acute toxicity was less affected by water quality characteristics than some metals (e.g., copper and silver). Increases in alkalinity over the range tested did not alter toxicity. Increases in water hardness appeared to have an effect with very hard waters (>500 mg/L as CaCO(3)). Decreased pH had a limited influence on boron acute toxicity in laboratory waters. Increasing chloride concentration did not provide a protective effect. Boron acute toxicity was unaffected by sodium concentrations. Median acute lethal concentrations (LC(50)) in natural water samples collected from three field sites were all greater than in reconstituted laboratory waters that matched natural waters in all respects except for dissolved organic carbon. Water effect ratios in these waters ranged from 1.4 to 1.8. In subsequent studies using a commercially available source of natural organic matter, acute toxicity decreased with increased dissolved organic carbon, suggesting, along with the natural water studies, that dissolved organic carbon should be considered further as a modifier of boron toxicity in natural waters where it exceeds 2 mg/L.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 10/2008; 57(1):60-7. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A water solubility of 5.5 (+/-0.22) microg/L for di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) was measured using the slow-stir method. This value is consistent with computer estimations and over two orders of magnitude lower than that previously determined using the shake-flask method. We performed a 21-day chronic Daphnia magna limit test at an average exposure of 4.4 microg/L in laboratory diluent water to avoid insoluble test material and avoid physical entrapment. One hundred percent of the DEHA-treated organisms survived compared to 90% survival in both the controls and solvent controls. Mean neonate reproduction was 152, 137, and 148 and mean dry weight per surviving female was 0.804, 0.779, and 0.742 mg in the DEHA treatment, control, and solvent control, respectively. No adverse effects were observed.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/2008; 80(6):539-43. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chronic (early life stage [ELS]) and short-term chronic (STC) toxicity of silver (as silver nitrate) to fathead minnows (FHM) was determined concurrently in flow-through exposures (33 volume additions/d). Paired ELS (approximately 30 d) and STC (7 d) studies were conducted with and without the addition of 60 mg/L Cl (as NaCl). The paired studies in unamended water were later repeated using standard flow conditions (9 volume additions/d). The purpose of the paired studies was to determine if short-term chronic endpoints can be used to predict effects in ELS studies. For each experiment, a "split-chamber" design (organisms were held in a common exposure chamber) allowed the direct comparison between short-term and chronic exposures. It appeared that the chronic toxicity of silver was mitigated to some extent by NaCl addition. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for growth in the ELS study was 0.53 microg dissolved Ag/L under standard flow conditions. Early life stage and STC endpoints in all three studies typically agreed within a factor of two. Whole-body sodium and silver concentrations measured in individual fathead minnows during these studies showed an increase in silver body burdens and a decrease in sodium concentration. These results indicate that the STC study could be used as a surrogate test to estimate chronic toxicity and that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity may be the same as for acute toxicity.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10/2007; 26(9):1922-30. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The toxicity of oils can be understood using the concept of toxic potential, or the toxicity of each individual component of the oil at the water solubility of that component. Using the target lipid model to describe the toxicity and the observed relationship of the solubility of oil components to log (Kow), it is demonstrated that components with lower log (Kow) have greater toxic potential than those with higher log (Kow). Weathering removes the lower-log (Kow) chemicals with greater toxic potential, leaving the higher-log (Kow) chemicals with lower toxic potential. The replacement of more toxically potent compounds with less toxically potent compounds lowers the toxicity of the aqueous phase in equilibrium with the oil. Observations confirm that weathering lowers the toxicity of oil. The idea that weathering increases toxicity is based on the erroneous use of the total petroleum hydrocarbons or the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration as if either were a single chemical that can be used to gauge the toxicity of a mixture, regardless of its makeup. The toxicity of the individual PAHs that comprise the mixture varies. Converting the concentrations to toxic units (TUs) normalizes the differences in toxicity. A concentration of one TU resulting from the PAHs in the mixture implies toxicity regardless of the specific PAHs that are present. However, it is impossible to judge whether 1 microg/L of total PAHs is toxic without knowing the PAHs in the mixture. The use of toxic potential and TUs eliminates this confusion, puts the chemicals on the same footing, and allows an intuitive understanding of the effects of weathering.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 02/2007; 26(1):24-36. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ballast water transport of nonindigenous species (NIS) is recognized as a significant contributor to biological invasions and a threat to coastal ecosystems. Recently, the use of ozone as an oxidant to eliminate NIS from ballast while ships are in transit has been considered. We determined the toxicity of ozone in artificial seawater (ASW) for five species of marine organisms in short-term (< or = 5 h) batch exposures. Larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were the most sensitive to oxidant exposure, and the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) was the most sensitive invertebrate. Conversely, benthic amphipods (Leptocheirus plumulosus and Rhepoxinius abronius) were the least sensitive of all species tested. Mortality from ozone exposure occurred quickly, with median lethal times ranging from 1 to 3 h for the most sensitive species, although additional mortality was observed 1 to 2 d following ozone exposure. Because ozone does not persist in seawater, toxicity likely resulted from bromide ion oxidation to bromine species (HOBr and OBr-), which persist as residual toxicants after at least 2 d of storage. Total residual oxidant (TRO; as Br2) formation resulting from ozone treatment was measured in ASW and four site-specific natural seawaters. The rate of TRO formation correlated with salinity, but dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen did not affect TRO concentrations. Acute toxicity tests with each water over 48 h using mysid shrimp, topsmelt, and sheepshead minnows yielded results similar to those of batch exposure. Addition of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) to ozonated waters resulted in TRO elimination and survival of all organisms. Our results provide necessary information for the optimization of an efficacious ozone ballast water treatment system.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10/2006; 25(10):2683-91. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tests were conducted with mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina) to evaluate the influence of salinity and organic carbon on the chronic toxicity of silver. During 7- and 28-d tests conducted at 10, 20, and 30% per hundred salinity, higher concentrations of dissolved silver generally were required to cause a chronic effect as the salinity of the seawater was increased. The 28-d mysid and silverside 20%-effective concentration values (expressed as dissolved silver) ranged from 3.9 to 60 and from 38 to 170 microg/L, respectively, over the salinity range. This pattern was not observed when the same test results were evaluated against the concentrations of free ionic silver (measured directly during toxicity tests), as predicted by the free-ion activity model. Increasing the concentration of dissolved organic carbon from 1 mg/L to the apparent maximum achievable concentration of 6 mg/L in seawater caused a slight decrease in chronic toxicity to silversides but had no effect on the chronic toxicity to mysids. The possible additive toxicity of silver in both food and water also was investigated. Even at the maximum achievable foodborne concentration, the chronic toxicity of silver added to the water was not affected when silver was also added to the food, based on the most sensitive endpoint (growth). However, although fecundity was unaffected at all five tested concentrations during the test with silver in water only, it was significantly reduced at the two highest waterborne silver concentrations (12 and 24 microg/L) during the test with silver dosed into food and water.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 08/2006; 25(7):1809-16. · 2.62 Impact Factor