[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced cardiac output is one of the consequences of myocarditis. Bosentan, an endothelin-1 receptor (ET1R) antagonist, could be useful to reduce cardiac afterload, preserving cardiac output. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic use of bosentan in an animal model of viral myocarditis. Using a mouse model of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis, we demonstrated preserved ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) by treatment with bosentan (68+/-5.8% EF and 40+/-3.7% FS for treated versus 48+/-2.2% EF and 25+/-2.6% FS for controls; P=0.028). However, bosentan enhanced cardiac viral load (10.4+/-6.7% in the bosentan group versus 5.0+/-5.5% in control group; P=0.02), likely through enhancement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation (0.77+/-0.40% ATF2 activation in the bosentan group versus 0.03+/-0.02% in controls; P=0.0002), mediated by endothelin receptor type-A. We further demonstrate that a water soluble inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580 HCl, is a potent inhibitor of virus replication in the heart (0.28% antisense viral genome stained area for 3 mg/kg dose versus 2.9% stained area for controls; P=0.01), attenuates CVB3-induced myocardial damage (blinded cardiac histopathologic scores of 1.8+/-1.6 and 2.05+/-1.2 for the 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses, respectively, versus 3.25+/-1.2 for the controls), and preserves cardiac function (69+/-3.5% EF for 3 mg/kg dose and 71+/-6.7% EF for 10 mg/kg dose versus 60+/-1.5% EF control; P=0.038 and P=0.045, as compared to control, respectively). Bosentan, a prescribed vasodilator, improves cardiac function but enhances viral load and myocarditis severity through ETRA mediated p38 MAPK activation; p38 MAPK is a desirable antiviral target. Caution must be exercised during treatment of suspected infectious myocarditis with supportive vasoactive remedies.
Circulation Research 03/2009; 104(6):813-21. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus (CV)B3 is the primary cause of viral myocarditis. We previously observed CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) upregulation in the myocardium early in infection. However, the impact of CXCL10 in CVB3-induced myocarditis is unknown. Using isolated primary mouse cardiomyocytes we demonstrated for the first time that cardiomyocytes can express CXCL10 on interferon-gamma stimulation. To explore the role of CXCL10 in CVB3-induced myocarditis, both CXCL10 transgenic and knockout mice were used. Following CVB3 challenges, the viral titer in the hearts inversely correlated with the levels of CXCL10 at early phase of infection before visible immune infiltration. Furthermore, as compared with the control mice, the decreased virus titers in the CXCL10 transgenic mouse hearts led to less cardiac damage and better cardiac function and vice verse in the knockout mice. This antiviral ability of CXCL10 might be through recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells to the heart and increased interferon-gamma expression early in infection. At day 7 postinfection, with massive influx of mononuclear cells the expression of CXCL10 enhanced the infiltration of CXCR3(+) cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells, as well as the expression of associated inflammatory cytokines. However, the augmented accumulation of these immune cells and associated cytokines failed to alter the viral clearance and mice survival. These results suggest the protective role of CXCL10 during the early course of CVB3 infection, which is attributed to the recruitment of NK cells. Nonetheless, CXCL10-directed chemoattractant effect is not sufficient for host to clear the virus in the heart.
Circulation Research 02/2009; 104(5):628-38. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variable ventilation is superior to control mode ventilation in a number of circumstances. The nature of the breathing file used to deliver the variable rate and tidal volume has not been formally examined.
We compared two different noise files in a randomized prospective trial of variable ventilation. Pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Oleic acid was infused to introduce lung injury. The animals were ventilated at a tidal volume of 7 mL x kg(-1), in variable mode, with either physiologically-derived noise (variability file - 1,587 breath intervals-obtained from a spontaneously breathing volunteer; n = 10) or a variability file of identical length derived from computer- generated white noise (n = 10).
The physiologically-derived noise had a power law alpha-exponent of -0.27 and a Hölder exponent of -0.38, indicative of auto-correlated noise. The computer-generated noise had an alpha-exponent of -0.52 and a Hölder exponent of -0.49, indicative of white noise. Both files showed multifractal characteristics. There were no differences between groups, at any time period, for PaO2, PaCO2, and static or dynamic respiratory system compliance. No differences were observed between groups for wet:dry lung weight ratios or for interleukin-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
This study demonstrates that the nature of the variability files, chosen to drive the variable ventilator, had no effect on indices of gas exchange or respiratory mechanics in this model. A considerable overlap of the multifractal files existed. The potential to drive a variable ventilator using algorithm-derived files with multifractal characteristics, thereby eliminating the requirement to use physiologically-derived signals, is discussed.
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 10/2008; 55(9):577-86. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) causes human myocarditis, which can result in cardiac damage, maladaptive remodeling, and heart failure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8 and -9 have been identified in virus-infected myocardium, but their particular roles and underlying mechanisms of effect are unknown. For the first time, we examine the severity of CVB3-induced myocarditis in MMP-8-and MMP-9-deficient mice.
CVB3-infected MMP-8 and MMP-9 knockout (KO) mice and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were euthanized and harvested at 9 days after infection. Expression of MMP-2, -8, -12, and -13 and tissue inhibitors of MMPs was assessed by zymography or immunoblotting on harvested hearts, and in situ hybridization was performed to detect active infection. Infected MMP-9 KO mice had greater myocardial injury and foci of infection than WT mice despite similar pancreatic infection. Increased fibrosis (10.6+/-2.7% versus 7.1+/-2.6%, P=0.04), viral titer, as well as decreased cardiac output, were evident in MMP-9 KO compared with WT mice as assessed by picrosirius red staining, plaque assay, and echocardiography, respectively. Immune infiltration was also greatly increased in MMP-9 KO compared with WT mice (15.2+/-12.6% versus 2.0+/-3.0%, P<0.002). Myocardial interferon-beta1, interferon-gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha expression was elevated in MMP-9 KO mice as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA. In contrast, MMP-8 KO mice had the same degree of cardiac injury, fibrosis, and viral infection as their WT counterparts.
During acute CVB3 infection, MMP-9 appears necessary to halt virus propagation in the heart, promote proper immune infiltration and remodeling, and preserve cardiac output.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving for status asthmaticus, but how best to accomplish mechanical ventilation is unclear. Biologically variable ventilation (mechanical ventilation that emulates healthy variation) and conventional control mode ventilation (monotonously regular) were compared in an animal model of bronchospasm to determine which approach yields better gas exchange and respiratory mechanics.
A randomized prospective trial of biologically variable ventilation vs. control mode ventilation in swine.
University research laboratory.
Eighteen farm-raised pigs.
Methacholine was administered as a nebulized aerosol to initiate bronchospasm, defined as doubling of peak inspiratory pressure and respiratory system resistance, and then randomized (n = 9 each group) to either continue control mode ventilation or switch to biologically variable ventilation at the same minute ventilation. Over the next 4 hrs, hemodynamics, blood gases, respiratory mechanics, and carbon dioxide expirograms were recorded hourly. At end-experiment, tracheobronchial lavage was undertaken to determine interleukin-6 and -10 concentrations.
Measurements of physiologic variables and inflammatory cytokines showed that biologically variable ventilation significantly improved gas exchange, with greater arterial oxygen tensions (p = .006; group x time interaction), lower arterial carbon dioxide tensions (p = .0003; group effect), lower peak inspiratory pressures (p = .0001; group x time), greater static compliance (p = .0001; group x time), greater dynamic compliance (p = .0001; group x time), and lower total respiratory system resistance (p = .028; group x time), compared with conventional ventilation. The appearance of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (interleukin-6 and -10) was not affected by mode of ventilation.
In this experimental model, biologically variable ventilation was superior to control mode ventilation in terms of gas exchange and respiratory mechanics during severe bronchospasm.
Critical Care Medicine 08/2007; 35(7):1749-55. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is the most common causative agent of infectious myocarditis. Chronic inflammation, loss of contractile tissue, and maladaptive remodeling all contribute to dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The 4-1BB receptor is a costimulatory molecule expressed by T cells and cardiomyocytes. We infected mice with CVB3 to examine if virus infection triggers 4-1BB activation and whether inhibition of this pathway will reduce inflammation and improve heart function. Echocardiography was performed on days 3, 9, 30 and at 10 weeks post-infection (pi) and ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, contractility, and internal cardiac dimensions were measured. At day 9, reduced rate of wall thickening (30+/-17 vs 70+/-19%), increased LV wall thickness (0.15+/-0.04 vs 0.09+/-0.01 cm in diastole and 0.19+/-0.04 vs 0.15+/-0.02 cm in systole), and reduced cardiac volume (0.013+/-0.004 vs 0.023+/-0.003 ml in diastole and 0.004+/-0.002 ml vs 0.007+/-0.001 ml in systole) were observed in infected hearts as compared with shams. At 14 days pi, CVB3-infected mice were randomly assigned to receive either anti-4-1BBL neutralizing (M522) or control antibodies (Ab) for 8 weeks. Cardiac damage, fibrosis, and inflammation were assessed by histological stains and immunohistochemistry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and MMP-12 expressions. At 10 weeks pi, M522 treatment improved LV wall thickening rate (-10+/-13 vs -49+/-16%, expressed as percentage change from baseline) and reduced diastolic LV posterior wall thickness (17+/-10 vs 57+/-47%, expressed as percentage change from baseline), cardiac damage as assessed by histological scores (0 vs 1.3+/-1.5), fibrosis by collagen volume fraction (3.2+/-0.6 vs 4.9+/-2.2%), overall inflammation (5.9+/-1.3 vs 8.5+/-4.1%), and T-cell infiltration (1.3+/-0.9 vs 4.3+/-3.8%) as compared to control. MMP-12 was highly increased during acute and chronic myocarditis, but was significantly decreased by M522 treatment. Thus, long-term inhibition of the 4-1BB pathway reduces cardiac damage, remodeling, and inflammation during viral myocarditis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal injury is common after open-heart surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to the problem. We compared conventional nonpulsatile perfusion (NP) to biologically variable perfusion (BVP), which uses a computer controller to restore physiological beat-to-beat variability to roller pump flow. We hypothesized BVP would decrease renal injury after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.
Pigs were randomly assigned to either BVP (n = 9) or NP (n = 9), cooled, arrested at 18 degrees C (1 hour), reperfused, and rewarmed and maintained normothermic (3 hours). Additional pigs had NP for a similar time as above, but without circulatory arrest (n = 3), or were sham-treated without bypass (n = 3). Hemodynamics, acid-base status, temperature, and urine volumes were measured. Urinary enzyme markers of tubular injury were compared post-hoc for gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and glutathione S-transferase and by urine proteomics using mass spectrometry.
Urine output at 1 hour after arrest was 250 +/- 129 mL with BVP versus 114 +/- 66 mL with NP (p < 0.02). All three renal enzyme markers were higher with NP after arrest compared with BVP. In animals on bypass without arrest or those sham-treated, no elevations were seen in renal enzymes. Urine proteomics revealed abnormal proteins, persisting longer with NP. Biologically variable perfusion decreased cooling to 21.0 +/- 9.0 minutes versus 31.7 +/- 7.5 minutes (p < 0.002), and decreased rewarming to 22.1 +/- 3.9 minutes versus 31.2 +/- 5.1 minutes (p < 0.002).
Biologically variable perfusion improved urine output, decreased enzymuria, and attenuated mass spectrometry urine protein signal with more rapid temperature changes. This strategy could potentially shorten bypass duration and may decrease renal tubular injury with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 11/2006; 82(4):1480-8. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared biologically variable ventilation (V (bv); n = 9) with control mode ventilation (V (c); n = 8) at low tidal volume (VT)--initial 6 ml/kg--in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hemodynamics, respiratory gases, airway pressures, and VT data were measured. Static P-V curves were generated at 5 h. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 were measured in serum and tracheal aspirate. By 5 h, higher Pa(O(2)) (173 +/- 30 mm Hg versus 119 +/- 23 mm Hg; mean +/- SD; p < 0.0001 group x time interaction [G x T]), lower shunt fraction (6 +/- 1% versus 9 +/- 3%; p = 0.0026, G x T) at lower peak airway pressure (21 +/- 2 versus 24 +/- 1 cm H(2)O; p = 0.0342; G x T) occurred with V (bv). IL-8 concentrations in tracheal aspirate and wet:dry weight ratios were inversely related; p = 0.011. With V (c), IL-8 concentrations were 3.75-fold greater at wet:dry weight ratio of 10. IL-10 concentrations did not differ between groups. In both groups, ventilation was on the linear portion of the P-V curve. With V (bv), VT variability demonstrated an inverse power law indicating fractal behavior. In this model of ARDS, V (bv) improved Pa(O(2)) at lower peak airway pressure and IL-8 levels compared with V (c).
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/2002; 165(4):456-62. · 11.04 Impact Factor