Ronald N Cohen

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

Are you Ronald N Cohen?

Claim your profile

Publications (24)127.31 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although patients with medullary thyroid cancer are known to present with paraneoplastic hormone production, this is much less common with papillary thyroid cancer.
    Clinica Chimica Acta. 08/2014; 438.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). Observational cohort study. REPL program in an academic medical center. 286 women with a history of ≥2 pregnancy losses <10 weeks. From 2004-2007, no treatment for women with SCH (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] >2.5 mIU/L with a normal free thyroxine or free thyroxine index); from 2008 onward, levothyroxine treatment prepregnancy to maintain TSH ≤2.5 mIU/L. Live-birth rate (LBR). The prevalence of SCH was 55 (19%) of 286 in this REPL cohort. The cumulative LBR was 27 (69%) of 39 for women with SCH versus 104 (74%) of 141 for euthyroid women. The per-pregnancy LBR was 34 (49%) of 69 for SCH versus 129 (58%) of 221 for euthyroid women. When the LBR was compared between treated and untreated SCH, the cumulative LBR was 17 (71%) of 24 versus 10 (67%) of 15, respectively. The per-pregnancy LBR for SCH treated versus untreated women was 22 (48%) of 46 versus 12 (52%) of 23, respectively. Although there was a high prevalence of SCH in the REPL cohort, there was no statistically significant difference in the subsequent live-birth rate when comparing women with SCH and euthyroid women, or treated and untreated SCH.
    Fertility and sterility 08/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: White adipose tissue serves as a critical energy storage depot and endocrine organ. Adipocytes are subject to numerous levels of regulation, including neuronal, endocrine and metabolic. While insulin is the classical endocrine regulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, other important endocrine hormones also control adipose tissue physiology. In this review, we will focus on the contribution of the pituitary in the modulation of adipocyte function, through the direct release of growth hormone as well as via the regulation of the thyroid gland and release of thyroid hormone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is a primary site for lipid storage containing trace amounts of glycogen. However, refeeding after a prolonged partial fast produces a marked transient spike in adipose glycogen, which dissipates in coordination with the initiation of lipid resynthesis. To further study the potential interplay between glycogen and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, the aP2-PTG transgenic mouse line was utilized since it contains a 100- to 400-fold elevation of adipocyte glycogen levels that are mobilized upon fasting. To determine the fate of the released glucose 1-phosphate, a series of metabolic measurements were made. Basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lactate production in vitro was significantly increased in adipose tissue from transgenic animals. In parallel, basal and isoproterenol-induced release of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) was significantly reduced in transgenic adipose tissue vs. control. Interestingly, glycerol release was unchanged between the genotypes, suggesting that enhanced triglyceride resynthesis was occurring in the transgenic tissue. Qualitatively similar results for NEFA and glycerol levels between wild-type and transgenic animals were obtained in vivo during fasting. Additionally, the physiological upregulation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic isoform (PEPCK-C) expression in adipose upon fasting was significantly blunted in transgenic mice. No changes in whole body metabolism were detected through indirect calorimetry. Yet weight loss following a weight gain/loss protocol was significantly impeded in the transgenic animals, indicating a further impairment in triglyceride mobilization. Cumulatively, these results support the notion that the adipocyte possesses a set point for glycogen, which is altered in response to nutritional cues, enabling the coordination of adipose glycogen turnover with lipid metabolism.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2010; 299(1):E117-25. · 4.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Erk-5, a member of the MAPK superfamily, has a catalytic domain similar to Erk1/2 and a unique C-terminal domain enabling binding with transcription factors. Aberrant vascularization in the Erk5-null mice suggested a link to angiogenesis. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Erk5 blocks endothelial cell morphogenesis and causes HIF1-α destabilization/degradation. However the mechanisms by which endogenous Erk5 regulates angiogenesis remain unknown. We show that Erk5 and its activating kinase MEK5 are the upstream mediators of the anti-angiogenic signal by the natural angiogenesis inhibitor, pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF). We demonstrate that Erk5 phosphorylation allows activation of PPARγ transcription factor by displacement of SMRT co-repressor. PPARγ, in turn is critical for NFκB activation, PEDF-dependent apoptosis, and anti-angiogenesis. The dominant negative MEK5 mutant and Erk5 shRNA diminished PEDF-dependent apoptosis, inhibition of the endothelial cell chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. This is the first evidence of Erk5-dependent transduction of signals by endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2010; 285(18):13517-13524. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) serves as a corepressor for nuclear receptors and other factors. Recent evidence suggests that SMRT is an important regulator of metabolism, but its role in adipocyte function in vivo remains unclear. We generated heterozygous SMRT knock-out (SMRT(+/-)) mice to investigate the function of SMRT in the adipocyte and the regulation of adipocyte insulin sensitivity. We show that SMRT(+/-) mice are normal weight on a regular diet, but develop increased adiposity on a high-fat diet (HFD). The mechanisms underlying this phenotype are complex, but appear to be due to a combination of an increased number of smaller subcutaneous adipocytes as well as decreased leptin expression, resulting in greater caloric intake. In addition, adipogenesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from these mice was increased. However, adipocyte insulin sensitivity, measured by insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis, was enhanced in SMRT(+/-) adipocytes. These finding suggest that SMRT regulates leptin expression and limits the ability of fat mass to expand with increased caloric intake, but that SMRT also negatively regulates adipocyte insulin sensitivity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2010; 285(24):18485-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Erk-5, a member of the MAPK superfamily, has a catalytic domain similar to Erk1/2 and a unique C-terminal domain enabling binding with transcription factors. Aberrant vascularization in the Erk5-null mice suggested a link to angiogenesis. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Erk5 blocks endothelial cell morphogenesis and causes HIF1-alpha destabilization/degradation. However the mechanisms by which endogenous Erk5 regulates angiogenesis remain unknown. We show that Erk5 and its activating kinase MEK5 are the upstream mediators of the anti-angiogenic signal by the natural angiogenesis inhibitor, pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF). We demonstrate that Erk5 phosphorylation allows activation of PPARgamma transcription factor by displacement of SMRT co-repressor. PPARgamma, in turn is critical for NFkappaB activation, PEDF-dependent apoptosis, and anti-angiogenesis. The dominant negative MEK5 mutant and Erk5 shRNA diminished PEDF-dependent apoptosis, inhibition of the endothelial cell chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. This is the first evidence of Erk5-dependent transduction of signals by endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2010; 285(18):13517-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor with a key role in mediating adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Recently, we and others have shown that PPARgamma recruits the nuclear corepressors NCoR and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) to modulate adipogenesis. While the synthetic ligands for PPARgamma, the thiazolidinediones (TZD), are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the biologically relevant endogenous PPARgamma ligand involved in adipogenesis remains unidentified. To further understand the role of ligand binding and corepressor interaction in PPARgamma-mediated adipogenesis, a mutation was introduced in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of murine PPARgamma. PPARgammamut was created via two amino acid substitutions known to be major determinants of ligand selectivity among PPAR isotypes, H323Y and R288M. These mutations alter PPARgamma to the corresponding residues of the PPARalpha. Characterizing the in vitro functional properties of this mutant, we show that PPARgammamut preferentially responds to the PPARalpha agonist, WY-14643, over the TZD, pioglitazone. When expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using recombinant adenovirus, wild-type PPARgamma leads to adipocyte formation with both hormonal and TZD treatment. PPARgammamut blocks the upregulation of adipocyte-specific proteins by TZD, but surprisingly, not by standard hormonal inducers. Our data suggest that TZDs and the purported endogenous ligand do not interact in the same way with the PPARgamma LBD. We propose that the endogenous ligand has distinct properties that allow for promiscuity within the hydrophobic PPAR ligand-binding pocket, yet fosters appropriate cofactor recruitment and release to allow adipogenesis to proceed.
    Obesity 02/2009; 17(5):965-72. · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) has been shown to play an important role in adipogenesis and PPARgamma transcriptional activity. SMRT contains two interacting domains that mediate interactions with nuclear receptors. Interestingly, SMRT is recruited to PPARgamma via its C-terminal interacting domain, and mutation of the proximal interacting domain does not interfere with recruitment via PPARgamma. To understand how the distal interacting domain mediates recruitment by PPARgamma, we have now mutated residues in this domain to the corresponding amino acids found in the proximal domain. We show that specific residues in this distal domain are vital for interactions with PPARgamma, but not for a related receptor, RARalpha. Furthermore, naturally occurring SMRT isoforms that differ in interacting domain sequences have different effects on PPARgamma as opposed to RARalpha recruitment. These data suggest that PPARgamma and RARalpha interact with SMRT via distinct mechanisms. These differences will be important as ligands are designed that lead to specific patterns of nuclear receptor recruitment of corepressors.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 04/2007; 267(1-2):138-43. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify regions of the mouse GnRH (mGnRH) promoter that mediate tissue-specific gene expression, transgenic mice have been generated with fragments of mGnRH promoter fused to the luciferase reporter gene. In this manuscript, we examine transgenic mice, generated with -356/+28 bp and -249/+28 bp of the mGnRH gene. Both fragments of mGnRH promoter target ovarian expression of the luciferase transgene, but neuronal luciferase activity is detected only in the mice bearing the -356-bp fragment, suggesting that the DNA sequences essential for directing neuron-specific expression of the GnRH gene are located between -356 and -249 bp. Two consensus binding sites for Otx2 were identified in this promoter region and were confirmed to be functional. EMSAs demonstrated specific binding of Otx2 to the mGnRH promoter, and overexpression of Otx2 increased transcriptional activity of the mGnRH promoter in transient transfection studies. When both Otx2 binding sites were eliminated, overexpression of Otx2 had no effect. GnRH mRNA expression in immortalized GnRH-secreting cell lines was also found to correlate with Otx2 expression. In addition, transgenic mice, bearing the 356 fragment of the mGnRH gene in which the Otx2 binding sites were eliminated, have significantly lower luciferase activity in the neonatal brain compared with mice generated with intact Otx2 binding sites. Luciferase activity was, however, still present in the ovary. Our findings provide evidence that Otx2 may have a critical role in directing tissue-specific expression of the mGnRH gene to the neuron, but not the ovary.
    Molecular Endocrinology 03/2007; 21(2):457-71. · 4.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a dominantly inherited syndrome of variable tissue hyporesponsiveness to thyroid hormone (TH). We report a newborn who presented with severe RTH (Mkar) with serum TSH 1500 mU/liter and free T(3) greater than 50 pm (normal 3.1-9.4) and free T(4) 25.3 pm (normal 12-22). We hypothesized that the RTH was due to reduced ligand binding and/or abnormal interaction with nuclear cofactors. These were prospective in vivo and in vitro studies. The study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital. Patients included a newborn child and two other subjects with RTH. The effect of various TH-lowering agents in the subject with RTH was studied. In vitro studies including EMSA and mammalian two-hybrid assay as well as in vitro transfection studies were conducted. Sequencing of the TH receptor (TR)beta and in vitro measurements of receptor-cofactor interaction were measured. Sequencing of the TRbeta demonstrated a de novo heterozygous mutation, 1590_1591insT, resulting in a frameshift producing a mutant TRbeta (mutTR)-beta with a 28-amino acid (aa) nonsense sequence and 2-amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension. The Mkar mutation was evaluated in comparison to three other TRbeta frameshift mutations in the carboxyl terminus. EMSA demonstrated that the Mkar mutTRbeta1 had impaired ability to recruit nuclear receptor corepressor but intact association with silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptor (SMRT). Our data suggest that alterations in codons 436-453 in helix 11 result in significantly diminished association with nuclear receptor corepressor but not SMRT. This novel mutTRbeta demonstrates nuclear corepressor specificity that results in severe predominantly pituitary RTH due to impaired release of SMRT.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 06/2006; 91(5):1887-95. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia is found in patients with hypothyroidism and resistance to thyroid hormone. In this study, we examined cholesterol metabolism in a thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR-beta) mutant mouse model of resistance to thyroid hormone. Whereas studies of cholesterol metabolism have been reported in TR-beta knock-out mice, generalized expression of a non-ligand binding TR-beta protein in this knock-in model more fully recapitulates the hypothyroid state, because the hypothyroid effect of TRs is mediated by the unliganded receptor. In the hypothyroid state, a high cholesterol diet increased serum cholesterol levels in wild-type animals (WT) but either did not change or reduced levels in mutant (MUT) mice relative to hypothyroidism alone. 7alpha-Hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol metabolism and mRNA levels were undetectable in the hypothyroid state in all animals. triiodothyronine replacement restored CYP7A1 mRNA levels in WT mice but had minimal effect in MUT mice. In contrast, a high cholesterol diet markedly induced CYP7A1 levels in MUT but not WT mice in the hypothyroid state. Elevation of CYP7A1 mRNA levels and reduced hepatic cholesterol content in MUT animals are likely because of cross-talk between TR-beta and liver X receptor alpha (LXR-alpha), which both bind to a direct repeat + 4 (DR+4) element in the CYP7A1 promoter. In transfection studies, WT but not MUT TR-beta antagonized induction of this promoter by LXR-alpha. Electromobility shift analysis revealed that LXR/RXR heterodimers bound to the DR+4 element in the presence of MUT but not WT TR-beta. A mechanism for cross-talk, and potential antagonism, between TR-beta and LXR-alpha is proposed.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2006; 281(1):295-302. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Ronald N Cohen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor corepressors NCoR and SMRT repress gene transcription by recruiting a histone deacetylase complex. Their roles in PPARgamma action have been controversial. Recent evidence, however, suggests that NCoR and SMRT repress PPARgamma-mediated transcriptional activity on specific promoters in the adipocyte. In addition, by repressing PPARgamma action, these corepressors inhibit the ability of adipocyte differentiation to proceed. A further understanding of corepressor action in the adipocyte will provide insight into the balance of forces regulating adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Nuclear Receptor Signaling 02/2006; 4:e003.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in humans is caused by mutations of pituitary-specific transcription factors such as Pit-1. Although many patients with CPHD have an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a Pit-1 DNA-binding mutation, there are a number of reports of mutant Pit-1 molecules that either by prediction or through experimentation bind normally to DNA. The objective of this study was to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of mutant Pit-1 molecules with intact DNA binding. DNA-binding and functional studies were used to assess five Pit-1 mutations: F135C, R143Q, A158P, K216E, and R271W. In gel-shift studies using well-characterized DNA-binding elements from the GH and prolactin genes, the K126E mutant displayed markedly enhanced Pit-1 dimer binding to either element, whereas the R271W mutant bound with high avidity, but only as a monomer. In contrast, the R143Q mutant was unable to bind these elements, and the F135C and A158P mutants displayed near-normal DNA-binding characteristics. We observed that CBP/p300 bound poorly to the A158P and K216E mutant Pit-1 molecules, but bound normally to the F135C, R143Q, and R271W mutants. In functional assays, CBP/p300 cotransfection with mutant Pit-1 expression vectors resulted in less transactivation of either the GH or prolactin reporter genes. From these studies, we suggest that CBP/p300 recruitment and Pit-1 dimerization are necessary for Pit-1 target gene activation and are important in the pathogenesis of CPHD.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 02/2006; 91(1):239-47. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Ronald N. Cohen
    01/2006;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone (TH) action is mediated by TH receptors (TRs), which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TR activity is regulated by interactions with corepressor and coactivator proteins (CoRs and CoAs, respectively). TH stimulation is thought to involve dissociation of CoRs and recruitment of CoAs to the liganded TR. In contrast, negative regulation by TH is thought to occur via recruitment of CoRs to the liganded TR. The physiological role of CoAs bound to TRs, however, has yet to be defined. In this study, we used gene-targeting techniques to mutate the TR-beta locus within its activation function-2 (AF-2) domain (E457A). This mutation was chosen because it completely abolished CoA recruitment in vitro, while preserving normal triiodothyronine (T3) binding and CoR interactions. As expected, TH-stimulated gene expression was reduced in homozygous E457A mice. However, these animals also displayed abnormal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Serum thyroxine, T3, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and pituitary Tshb mRNA levels were inappropriately elevated compared with those of WT animals, and L-T3 treatment failed to suppress serum TSH and pituitary Tshb mRNA levels. Therefore, the AF-2 domain of TR-beta is required for positive and, paradoxically, for negative regulation by TH in vivo.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2005; 115(9):2517-23. · 12.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a central regulator of adipogenesis and recruits coactivator proteins in response to ligand. However, the role of another class of nuclear cofactors, the nuclear receptor corepressors, in modulating PPARgamma transcriptional activity is less clear. Such corepressors include the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and the silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). Our data suggest that PPARgamma recruits SMRT and NCoR in the absence of ligand and that these corepressors are capable of down-regulating PPARgamma-mediated transcriptional activity. The addition of the PPARgamma ligand pioglitazone results in dissociation of the PPARgamma-corepressor complex. To define the role of SMRT and NCoR in PPARgamma action, 3T3-L1 cells deficient in SMRT or NCoR were generated by RNA interference. When these cells are exposed to differentiation media, they exhibit increased expression of adipocyte-specific genes and increased production of lipid droplets, as compared with control cells. These data suggest that the nuclear receptor corepressors decrease PPARgamma transcriptional activity and repress the adipogenic program in 3T3-L1 cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(14):13600-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone, most commonly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene. Mutations are mostly located in the ligand-binding domain of the TRbeta, decreasing T(3) binding to the mutant TRbeta molecule, which in turn interferes with the function of the wild-type (WT) TR. A total of 122 different TRbeta gene mutations have been identified so far, with 46 occurring in more than one family. We now report a family with two novel TRbeta mutations occurring in the same nucleotide. The proposita had two children from each of her two marriages. One daughter and one son from each marriage had severe RTH with free T(4) and T(3) levels 3- to 4-fold the mean normal values and unsuppressed TSH, mental retardation, and deafness. The proposita had a missense mutation (GTG to GGG) in codon 458 of the TRbeta gene, resulting in the replacement of the normal valine with glycine (V458G). Although this mutation was transmitted to her affected son, the mutated codon in her affected daughter was GAG, encoding glutamic acid (V458E). Haplotype analysis showed that this de novo mutation occurred on the already mutant allele of the proposita. Cotransfection of each of these mutant TRbetas with the wild-type TRbeta showed a potent dominant negative effect. Large amounts of T(3) were required to dissociate homodimers of the mutant TRbeta bound to DNA. In addition, and in contrast to other mutant TRbetas with severe T(3)-binding defects, homodimer release failed to recruit the steroid receptor coactivator. No defects in heterodimerization with retinoid X receptor-alpha or association with a nuclear receptor corepressor, were identified. These in vitro data are in agreement with the in vivo phenotype of severe RTH. Unique and previously unreported in human inherited diseases is the occurrence of a de novo mutation at an already mutant nucleotide. Because the occurrence by chance is extremely unlikely, it is postulated that the presence of three guanines in the sequence created by the mutant nucleotide of the proposita results in a mutagenic site prone to de novo mutation.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 04/2005; 90(3):1760-7. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) interacts with retinoid X receptor (RXR) on PPAR response elements (PPREs) to regulate transcription of PPAR-responsive genes. To investigate the binding of PPARgamma and RXR to PPREs, three mutations were constructed in the DNA-binding domains of PPARgamma; two of the mutants maintained the structure of zinc finger I (PPARgamma-GS and PPARgamma-AA), and a third mutation disrupted the protein structure of zinc finger I (PPARgamma-CS). Results indicated that the mutations of PPARgamma that maintained intact zinc fingers were capable of binding to a variety of PPREs in the presence of RXR and could activate transcription on several PPREs. In parallel, a mutation was created in the DNA-binding domain of RXRalpha that maintained the structure of the zinc fingers (RXR-GS) but did not bind DNA and was transcriptionally inactive. Examination of the 3' half-site of several PPREs revealed that variations from the consensus sequence reduced or abolished transcriptional activity, but conversion to consensus improved transcriptional activity with PPARgamma-GS and PPARgamma-AA. Examination of the 5' half-site indicated that the upstream three nucleotides were more important for transcriptional activity than the downstream three nucleotides. Our data demonstrated that stringent binding of RXR to the 3' half-site of a PPRE is more influential on the binding of the PPARgamma/RXR heterodimer than the ability of PPARgamma to bind DNA. Thus, unlike RXR, PPARgamma exhibits promiscuity in binding on a PPRE, suggesting that the definition of a PPRE for PPARgamma may need to be expanded.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(5):3529-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HESX1 is a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor that functions as a repressor of PROP1-mediated gene stimulation. Mutations in HESX1 have been implicated in cases of septooptic dysplasia and congenital hypopituitarism. All mutations in HESX1 identified to date have resulted in impaired DNA binding and defective HESX1 action. We have identified a novel HESX1 mutation in genomic nucleotide position 1684 (g.1684delG), which results in a mutant protein with increased DNA binding. In turn, this mutation causes increased repression of PROP1-dependent gene activity. These data suggest that enhancement of transcriptional repression during pituitary organogenesis is a novel mechanism for the development of congenital pituitary disorders.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 11/2003; 88(10):4832-9. · 6.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

554 Citations
127.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • Gunma University
      • Department of Medicine and Molecular Science
      Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken, Japan
  • 2000
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States