A D Holdorf

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA, United States

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Publications (8)126.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although the accumulation of lipid rafts at the immunological synapse is now well accepted, the degree of the accumulation, the localization within the fine structure of the immunological synapse, and the region from which lipid rafts are recruited have not been defined. In this work we show that lipid rafts preferentially accumulate in the central zone of the immunological synapse, the central supramolecular activation complex (C-SMAC). However, quantitative analyses indicate that the level of recruitment of lipid rafts to the C-SMAC is relatively small and suggests that rearrangement of lipid rafts from the peripheral zone of the synapse into the C-SMAC can account for this accumulation. We also assessed the effects of CD28 deficiency on lipid raft recruitment to the immunological synapse. The accumulation of lipid occurred independently of the CD28/B7 system and was not measurably altered by CD28.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2002; 169(6):2837-41. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the Src family tyrosine kinase Lck is essential for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, whether or how Lck is activated is unknown. Using a phosphospecific antiserum to Lck, we show here that Lck becomes autophosphorylated when T cells are stimulated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We found that TCR cross-linking alone could not stimulate Lck autophosphorylation and CD45 was not required for this process. Instead, the T cell accessory molecules CD4 and CD28 cooperated to induce autophosphorylation of Lck. CD4 recruited Lck to the T cell--APC interface, whereas CD28 sustained Lck activation. These data show how the multiple interactions afforded by the immunological synapse drive efficient and highly specific signaling.
    Nature Immunology 04/2002; 3(3):259-64. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The area of contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC) is known as the immunological synapse. Although its exact function is unknown, one model suggests that it allows for T cell receptor (TCR) clustering and for sustained signaling in T cells for many hours. Here we demonstrate that TCR-mediated tyrosine kinase signaling in naïve T cells occurred primarily at the periphery of the synapse and was largely abated before mature immunological synapses had formed. These data suggest that many hours of TCR signaling are not required for T cell activation. These observations challenge current ideas about the role of immunological synapses in T cell activation.
    Science 03/2002; 295(5559):1539-42. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proliferation of T cells via activation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) requires concurrent engagement of accessory costimulatory molecules to achieve full activation. The best-studied costimulatory molecule, CD28, achieves these effects, in part, by augmenting signals from the TCR to the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. We show here that TCR-mediated stimulation of MAP kinase extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) is limited by activation of the Ras antagonist Rap1. CD28 increases ERK signaling by blocking Rap1 action. CD28 inhibits Rap1 activation because it selectively stimulates an extrinsic Rap1 GTPase activity. The ability of CD28 to stimulate Rap1 GTPase activity was dependent on the tyrosine kinase Lck. Our results suggest that CD28-mediated Rap1 GTPase-activating protein activation can help explain the augmentation of ERKs during CD28 costimulation.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/2000; 20(22):8409-19. · 5.37 Impact Factor
  • A D Holdorf, O Kanagawa, A S Shaw
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade the concept of T cell co-stimulation has emerged to take a central role in the process of T cell activation. However, the exact definition of co-stimulation is still unclear. In this review, we re-examine the concept of co-stimulation. We suggest that while co-stimulation is important, there is little evidence to link co-stimulation with T cell anergy. We then suggest a framework for studying co-stimulation. Focusing on recent advances in our understanding of CD28, we discuss four areas of T cell activation where co-stimulation may play a role.
    Reviews in immunogenetics 02/2000; 2(2):175-84.
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    ABSTRACT: The Src family tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn are critical for signaling via the T cell receptor. However, the exact mechanism of their activation is unknown. Recent crystal structures of Src kinases suggest that an important mechanism of kinase activation is via engagement of the Src homology (SH)3 domain by proline-containing sequences. To test this hypothesis, we identified several T cell membrane proteins that contain potential SH3 ligands. Here we demonstrate that Lck and Fyn can be activated by proline motifs in the CD28 and CD2 proteins, respectively. Supporting a role for Lck in CD28 signaling, we demonstrate that CD28 signaling in both transformed and primary T cells requires Lck as well as proline residues in CD28. These data suggest that Lck plays an essential role in CD28 costimulation.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/1999; 190(3):375-84. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Src family tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn are critical for signaling via the T cell receptor. However, the exact mechanism of their activation is unknown. Recent crystal structures of Src kinases suggest that an important mechanism of kinase activation is via engagement of the Src homology (SH)3 domain by proline-containing sequences. To test this hypothesis, we identified several T cell membrane proteins that contain potential SH3 ligands. Here we demonstrate that Lck and Fyn can be activated by proline motifs in the CD28 and CD2 proteins, respectively. Supporting a role for Lck in CD28 signaling, we demonstrate that CD28 signaling in both transformed and primary T cells requires Lck as well as proline residues in CD28. These data suggest that Lck plays an essential role in CD28 costimulation.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/1999; 190(3):375-384. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recognition of antigen by T cells requires the formation of a specialized junction between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell. This junction is generated by the recruitment and the exclusion of specific proteins from the contact area. The mechanisms that regulate these events are unknown. Here we demonstrate that ligand engagement of the adhesion molecule, CD2, initiates a process of protein segregation, CD2 clustering, and cytoskeletal polarization. Although protein segregation was not dependent on the cytoplasmic domain of CD2, CD2 clustering and cytoskeletal polarization required an interaction of the CD2 cytoplasmic domain with a novel SH3-containing protein. This novel protein, called CD2AP, is likely to facilitate receptor patterning in the contact area by linking specific adhesion receptors to the cytoskeleton.
    Cell 10/1998; 94(5):667-77. · 31.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
126.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2002
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1998–2002
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Pathology and Immunology
      Saint Louis, MO, United States