[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Epidemic adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis can spread rapidly among preterm infants who frequently undergo ophthalmological examination. Here we present our experience on a nosocomial outbreak that affected 8 nursery staff members and 26 premature infants. We focus on the presentation and progress of the outbreak, the diagnosis of the disease and the measures taken for its control. Methods: Data were collected from patients' files and records of the infection control team. Conjunctival swabs were collected to perform direct fluorescent assay (DFA) and viral culture. Diagnosis was made according to clinical evidence and/or detection of the virus. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Results: Infection was introduced to our unit after a laser photocoagulation procedure of a 28-week gestational infant and circulated rapidly within the unit due to direct transmission through contaminated medical equipment, fomites and hands of nursery staff members. Neither the patients, nor the nursery staff members developed systemic symptoms. While DFA tests were positive in seven infants, culture positivity could be demonstrated in only three infants. Contact and droplet precautions were implemented with the recommendation of the infection control team. No recurrence occurred after definition of the last case on the 32nd day. Conclusion: Ophthalmologic procedures continue to be a potential source of adenovirus outbreaks. However, negligence of contact measures during routine daily nursing care seems to be a more important contributing factor for rapid spread. Strict adherence to appropriate aseptic procedures is required to prevent this potentially hazardous infection in preterm infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish the characteristics of anaphylaxis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-four patients who had experienced anaphylaxis in a period of 10 years (from 1999 to 2009), were included in the study. Parameters analysed were age, gender, concomitant allergic disease, trigger, setting, clinical symptoms, treatment, prognosis and prophylaxis. RESULTS: The total numbers of anaphylaxis cases were 44 in a ten-year period. The ages of patients ranged from 3 to 14 years (11.50±3.87 years) and the majority were male. 33 of the patients (75%) had a concomitant allergic disease. The trigger was determined in 93.2% of the cases, being most frequent: food (27.3%), and SIT (25%), followed by bee sting, medications and others. Respiratory (95.5%), dermatological (90.9%), cardiovascular (20.5%), neuropsychiatric (25%), and gastrointestinal (11.4%) symptoms were seen most frequently. For anaphylaxis triggered by food, the duration of anaphylactic episode was significantly longer (p<0.05). No biphasic reaction was observed during these attacks. Of our patients, only one developed respiratory failure and cardiac arrest due to SIT, and intensive care support was required. DISCUSSION: As a trigger for anaphylaxis, the frequency of SIT is so high that it cannot be described by the study group including patients who were followed up in an outpatient allergy clinic.
Allergologia et Immunopathologia 10/2012; · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microcephaly-lymphedema-chorioretinal dysplasia (MLCRD) syndrome is a rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. Characteristic craniofacial features include severe microcephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, prominent ears, a broad nose, and a long philtrum with a pointed chin. Recently, mutations in KIF11 have been demonstrated to cause dominantly inherited MLCRD syndrome. Herein, we present a patient with MLCRD syndrome whose parents were first cousins. The parents are unaffected, and thus a recessive mode of inheritance for the disorder was considered likely. However, the propositus carries a novel, de novo nonsense mutation in exon 2 of KIF11. The patient also had midline cleft tongue which has not previously been described in this syndrome.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2012; 158A(7):1686-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. Intravenous ibuprofen is an expensive drug that is being used currently for treating and preventing patent ductus arteriosus. Although oral ibuprofen is much cheaper, there is limited data published about its safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare two forms of ibuprofen in terms of safety and efficacy in closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Design. This is a single-center retrospective study. Setting. Data were collected from patients' files of preterm infants who were hospitalized at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Dr. Behcet Uz Children's Hospital between April 2009 and June 2010. Patients. Six hundred sixty infants were evaluated by echocardiography between 24 and 48 postnatal hours. Clinically and hemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus was defined in 66 infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Interventions. Oral or intravenous ibuprofen (loading dose: 10 mg/kg on day 1, followed by maintenance dose: 5 mg/kg on days 2 and 3) was administered. Outcome Measures. Treatment success was defined as a completely closed duct without reopening on follow-up. Drug-associated renal, gastrointestinal, cerebral, hematological, and metabolic side effects were monitored and compared between treatment groups. Results. Ductal closure rates were 100% and 97.6%, respectively, in the oral and intravenous groups. Hypernatremia was the remarkable side effect in the intravenous group, whereas bronchopulmonary dysplasia and septicemia were prominent in the oral group. No statistically significant difference could be demonstrated between the groups in terms of mortality rates. Conclusion. Oral ibuprofen therapy is as efficacious as intravenous ibuprofen with some concerns about increased sepsis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence. However, comprehensive and large-scale pharmacokinetic studies are required in order to prove this efficacy. On the other hand, intravenous ibuprofen still remains to be the drug of choice for patent ductus arteriosus but only with meticulous control of serum sodium levels in smaller infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to assess the value of neutrophils CD11b, CD64, and CD62L for the early diagnosis of neonatal infection.
Eighty-four neonates who were followed up for a suspected neonatal infection were included in this study. They were assigned into an infection group (n=49) and a non-infection group (n=35). Healthy neonates served as controls (n=35). A full sepsis screening was performed and neutrophil and monocyte expressions of CD11b, CD64 and CD62L were determined by flow cytometry.
The expressions of CD64 and CD11b were significantly enhanced in the infection group compared to the non-infective group and the controls.
CD64 expression on neutrophils and monocytes is a useful diagnostic marker for the early diagnosis of neonatal infection. Combination of CD64, CD11b and C reactive protein further enhances the sensitivity of the expression and its negative predictive value.
World Journal of Pediatrics 08/2011; 8(1):72-5. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary complete deficiency of complement component C1q is associated with a high prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus and increased susceptibility to severe recurrent infections. An 11-year-old girl was screened for immunodeficiency due to a history of recurrent meningitis and pneumonia. Immunologic studies revealed absence of classic pathway hemolytic activity and undetectable levels of Clq. Exon-specific amplification of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation at codon 48 in the C1q C gene causing a glycine-to-arginine substitution affecting the collagen-like region of C1q. No changes were seen in the exons of the A and B chains. The mutation affected both the formation and the secretion of C1q variant molecules. We describe a novel mutation in the C1q C chain gene that leads to an interchange in amino acids resulting in absence of C1q in serum.
Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 01/2010; 20(3):255-8. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down regulation of HLA-DR expression on monocytes has been reported in adult sepsis. The aims of this study were, first to evaluate monocyte HLA-DR expression in late onset neonatal infection and second to investigate the prognostic value of monocyte HLA-DR expression at onset of symptoms for the final outcome.
Peripheral blood samples were taken from neonates, who were classified into three groups: late onset neonatal sepsis group (n=40); non-infective disorders group (n=24) and the control group (n=25). Monocyte expression of HLA-DR was determined by flow cytometry.
The percentage of monocytes expressing HLA-DR was lower in neonates with late onset sepsis (p<0.05). Of the 40 septic patients enrolled in the study, 32 survived, while 8 died. The percentage of HLA-DR expressing monocytes was significantly lower in the non-survivor sepsis group (16.6%) compared with that in the survivor sepsis group (45.2%). The optimal cutoff value of HLA-DR for predicting mortality was 30% with 87% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Patients with monocyte HLA-DR expression </=30% had lower survival rate with a 30-fold higher risk of mortality (Odds ratio 30; 95% CI 3-295).
According to our findings, monocyte HLA-DR expression seems to be an early predictive marker for the prognosis in late onset neonatal sepsis.
The Journal of infection 12/2009; 60(3):224-8. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response. Its development and outcome are associated with host defense, pathogenicity of the microorganism and genetic polymorphisms. Genetic polymorphisms of the immune system genes have been shown to have a close relationship with the clinical outcomes of sepsis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in the host defense against invading pathogens. It is therefore likely that polymorphisms in the ACE gene may have an important effect on determining the development and the outcome of sepsis.
Ninety-eight children diagnosed as having sepsis and 287 healthy children were included in the study. Insertion/deletion polymorphisms were analyzed using reverse-hybridization assay.
The carriers of I allele (D/I genotype and I/I genotype) were found to have an increased risk of developing sepsis compared to the controls.
DD genotype may play a positive role against the development of sepsis in healthy children.
Pediatrics International 09/2008; 50(4):477-80. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial meningitis is a rare presentation for congenital immunodeficiency, but meningococcal invasive diseases and meningitis have been associated with late complement component deficiencies and properdin deficiency. A 5-y-old boy of non-consanguineous parents was admitted to our hospital with meningococcal septic shock. He had previously been suffering from recurrent respiratory infections. His 13-y-old brother had also been treated for meningococcal meningitis when he was 7 y old. Immunological studies, done after recovery, on the patient and his two brothers revealed normal immunoglobulin, IgG subclasses, C3, C4 and CH50 levels. Haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway could not be detected, and properdin concentrations were <0.01 mg/l in serum samples from the patient and his brothers. The patient and family members received quadrivalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine. The patient was discharged on penicillin prophylaxis, and he remained healthy during the ensuing year. Conclusion: Our findings stress that measurement of the haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway in addition to classical pathway haemolytic complement activity should be performed in patients with meningococcal disease to reveal various forms of complement deficiency. This is particularly important when there is a family history, or recurrences or infection due to uncommon serogroups. Deficient individuals and affected family members might be protected from infection by vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients with IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency are asymptomatic but some may suffer from frequent mainly respiratory infections. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiencies and the rate of chronic pulmonary damage secondary to recurrent pulmonary infections in these children. Serum IgA and IgG subclass levels were measured in 225 children aged 6 months to 6 years with recurrent sinopulmonary infections (44 with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 100 with recurrent pulmonary infections and 81 with recurrent bronchiolitis). In order to determine chronic pulmonary damage due to recurrent infections in patients with recurrent pulmonary infections CT scans of thorax were also obtained. The overall frequency of antibody defects was found to be 19.1%. IgA deficiency was observed in 9.3%, IgG subclass deficiency in 8.4% and IgA + IgG subclass deficiency in 1.4%. The prevalance of IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency was 25% in patients with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 22% in patients with recurrent pulmonary infections and 12.3% in patients with recurrent bronchiolitis (p>0.05). Chronic pulmonary damage in lungs was determined radiologically in 17 of 100 cases with recurrent pulmonary infection. In IgG subclass deficiencies sequel changes, although not statistically significant, were observed five times more frequently than that of IgA deficiencies. CT scans revealed pulmonary sequels in 5 of the 22 (22.7%) patients with recurrent pulmonary infections and immunodeficiency (bronchiectasis in 2 patients with IgG3 deficiency, fibrotic changes in one with IgA deficiency and in one with IgG3 deficiency, bronchiolitis obliterans in one with IgG2 + IgG3 deficiency). On the other hand, pulmonary sequels were observed in 12 patients (15.4%) with normal immunoglobulin levels. Eight of them were bronchiolitis obliterans, 2 of them were atelectasia and 1 of them was bronchiectasia. We therefore suggest that determination of antibody levels and evaluation of pulmonary alterations is crucial in patients with recurrent sinopulmonary infections since the deficiency of antibodies is associated with a greater pulmonary damage.
Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 01/2005; 15(1):69-74. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 5-year-old boy with recurrent liver abscesses and pleural empyema, presumed to be amoebic, is described. Despite surgical drainage of the liver and thoracic wall combined with metronidazole and chloroquine, he died 7 weeks after admission.
Annals of Tropical Paediatrics International Child Health 10/2004; 24(3):267-9. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism characterized by elevated cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, xanthomas and early onset atherosclerosis. Tendinitis and arthritis have been reported in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. A report is presented of a 9-year-old girl with an acute arthritic attack who was diagnosed as homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia with hypercholesterolemic arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous muscle disorder, defined by the presence of characteristic nemaline bodies on muscle biopsy. The disease has a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from forms with neonatal onset and fatal outcome to asymptomatic forms. The neonatal form is severe and usually fatal. The clinical variability, with differing age of onset and severity of symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult during infancy. There is no curative treatment. L-tyrosine may prevent aspiration by reducing pharyngeal secretions and drooling. Most of the patients die from respiratory and cardiac failure. This article discusses a newborn infant who presented with generalized weakness and respiratory failure. Partial response to L-tyrosine treatment was noted. The case is worth presenting to remind clinicians of congenital myopathies in the differential diagnosis of floppy infant during neonatal period and to emphasize the importance of muscle biopsy in diagnosis.
Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska 47(5):493-8. · 0.49 Impact Factor