[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this paper was to investigate the particular anatomic features of the endodontic space of third molars in the general population of Croatia. A total of 106 fully developed third molars (56 maxillar and 50 mandibular) has been analyzed. The respective number of roots and of root canals, the structure of the roots, and the curvature and absolute length of the root-canals were analyzed. In most cases, upper third molars had three roots (83.9%), while most of the lower molars were single rooted (56.0%). Upper third molars had mostly three root canals (75.1%), lower third molars two (90.0%). In both jaws, most third molars had curved canals (60.7% in the upper and 84.0% in the lower jaw). 12.5% of upper third molars had lateral and accessory canals, whereas only 4.0% of the lower third molars were found to have them. The Student t-test showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the length of the root-canals, mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals being significantly shorter than palatinal canals. The same test showed that in the lower third molars the mesial root canals were significantly longer that the distal ones, although slightly. The results obtained are in compliance with similar results by other authors; however, they tend to show some specific population-related features.
Collegium antropologicum 06/2013; 37(2):437-42. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and efficiency of pulp capping preparations based on hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxide, and dentin adhesive on the pulp tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were killed and extracted teeth sectioned transversely through the pulp. The slices were placed in a RPMI 1640 cell culture medium supplemented with 10 % foetal calf serum. During 14 days of cultivation cultures were treated with preparations that contained hyaluronic acid (Gengigel Prof®), and calcium hydroxide (ApexCal®), or with dentin adhesive (Excite®). Cellularity and viability of fibroblasts and odontoblasts was analysed using a haemocytometer. Hyaluronic acid proved most efficient and the least toxic for direct pulp capping. Even though calcium hydroxide and dentin adhesive demonstrated a higher degree of cytotoxicity, their effects were still acceptable in terms of biocompatibility.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 06/2011; 62(2):155-61. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inserting a self-threading pin can cause dentinal cracks, but it is not known whether dentin bonding agents can penetrate these cracks.
Part I of this in vitro pilot study was conducted to document the presence of dentinal cracks after the placement of self-threading pins with 3 methods. Part II was conducted to observe changes in dentin when a dentin bonding agent was applied before insertion of the self-threading pins.
The crowns of 14 noncarious third molars were sectioned horizontally 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, and the occlusal portions were discarded. The teeth were put into a nontransparent bag and divided randomly into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 12 teeth. In each tooth, 4 pinholes were prepared with a handpiece at normal rotation speed (30,000 rpm). Self-threading pins were placed into 3 of the pinholes in each tooth: 1 manually, 1 by handpiece at 7000 rpm, and 1 by handpiece at 30,000 rpm. The fourth pinhole was left empty and served as the control. All group 1 teeth were sectioned vertically through the pins, dental hard tissue, and control pin holes. The examination surface of each specimen in group 1 was polished, and the smear layer was removed with Calcinase and NaOCl solutions. After dehydration in ascending grades of alcohol, specimens were coated with a 10- to 15-nm-thick layer of gold and examined with a scanning electron microscope. In the remaining 2 teeth (group 2), a dentin bonding agent was introduced into the pinholes prior to pin placement. Two pins were placed manually and 2 by handpiece at 30,000 rpm. After pin placement, sectioning, cleaning, and dehydration, the specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, and x-ray mapping was performed to determine the presence of titanium, silicon, and calcium.
Craze lines in dentin were associated with 54.5% of pins placed manually and 54.5% of pins placed with a handpiece at reduced speed (7000 rpm). Dentinal cracks were associated with 50% of pins placed with a handpiece at standard speed and with 16.7% of the control pinholes. X-ray mapping analysis revealed the presence of the dentin bonding agent between the pin and dentin wall. The dentin bonding agent was not found in the dentinal cracks except at the crack orifice.
Within the limitations of this pilot study, the method of pin insertion had no direct bearing on the presence of dentinal cracks. The dentin bonding agent tested did not fill the entire space of dentinal cracks but did occlude their orifices and fill the spaces between pin surface and dentin walls in the pin preparation.
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 03/2002; 87(2):182-8. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endodontic procedure requires removal of the pulp tissue and necrotic dentine, as well as a significant amount of healthy hard dental tissue, which results in reducing the resistance of the tooth to the occlusal loading forces. Restoration of such a tooth needs to satisfy requirements for retention of the restorative material, its resistance, as well as the resistance of the remaining dental tissue to occlusal forces, good coronal and intraradicular obturation and also aesthetic requirements. Postendodontic treatment includes the following procedures: replacement of lost tissues using alloplastic materials directly or indirectly (amalgam, composite resin and glass-ionomer cement fillings or inlay, onlay or overlay restorations); the alloplastic material crown restorations using intracanal posts and parapulpal pins; the alloplastic material core buildup with or without intracanal posts and parapulpal pins covered with prosthetic crown; restoration of lost tooth structure using laboratory made post and core covered with prosthetic crown. Sealing of endodontic cavity using one of the alloplastic materials would be the treatment of choice in uncomplicated cases, whereas in severely damaged teeth ensuring remaining tooth structure by vertical stabilization and the prosthetic crown would be necessary. The choice of procedure depends on the severity of crown damage, the tooth position in the arch, occlusal contacts, morphology of root canal spaces, functional and aesthetic aspects, financial ability and available time for performing the procedure. The correct indication evaluation respecting all steps of the chosen procedure will provide long term survival of the postendodontically treated tooth in the stomatognathic system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microorganisms are the main cause of disease in root canals and periapically. Facultative bacteria and fungi have been identified in persistent endodontic infection. The objective of this study was to determine in vitro the efficacy of: Calasept (Speiko, Darmstadt, Germany), Superlux calcium hydroxide liner (Dental Material Gesellschaft, Hamburg, Germany) and gutta-percha with calcium hydroxide (Roeko, Langenau, Germany) in direct contact with microorganisms. The microorganisms used were: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans (NCTC 3123). An overnight mixed broth culture of microorganisms (108 CFU/ml) was prepared. Paper points and gutta-percha points were immersed in suspension for 5 min. The paper points were then covered with Calasept and Superlux calcium hydroxide liner. At intervals of 0; 6; 12; 24; 48 and 72 h at 37°C, aerobically. The antimicrobial effect of Calasept and Superlux calcium hydroxide liner apparently occured after 6h on Enterococcus faecalis and 12 h on Candida albicans. With gutta-percha, this effect did not occur for either Enterococcus faecalis or Candida albicans after 72 h.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the electronic apex locator, Endometer ES-02 in measurement of root canal length in clinical practice. The Endometer ES-02 instrument uses impedance of high frequency electric current. The sample consisted of 631 teeth (328 single rooted, 70 bi-rooted and 250 tri-rooted teeth). After extirpation of the pulp by pulp extirpators, the root canal was rinsed with the 2.6% NaOCl solution and dried by paper points. The root canal length was measured using an Endometer ES-02 instrument. After the standard endodontic procedure, the root canals were obturated with Diaket and gutta-percha points, based on the measurement result obtained by Endometer ES-02. The teeth were then X-rayed and accuracy of the procedure was evaluated by measuring the distance between radiographic apex and endodontic filling with a digital caliper. The accuracy of the procedure was 96.4%.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the genotoxic activity of five dentin bonding agents: Adper Single Bond, Adper Single Bond 2, Prompt L-pop, Excite and Opti-Bond Solo Plus. This in vitro study was performed on human lymphocytes from peripheral blood, and the concentrations of dentin bonding agents tested were 0.2, 0.5 i 5 μg/ml, and elution times tested were 1 hour, 24 hours and 5 days. Genotoxicity testing was done using the Structural chromosomal aberration analysis cytogenic method , which determined the complete number of chromosome breaks, chromatide breaks and acentric fragments. The results showed genotoxicity of Opti-Bond Solo Plus in the 0.2 μg/ml concentration after a 24-hour elution period, then OptiBond Solo Plus in the 0.5 μg/ml concentration after a 1 hour elution period and OptiBond Solo Plus, Adper Single Bond 2 and Excite in the 0.5 μg/ml concentration after a 1 day elution period. In the 5 μg/ml concentration after 1 hour of elution, genotoxic potential was observed in cultures with OptiBond Solo Plus, Excite, Adper Single Bond 2 and Adper Single Bond, while all dentin bonding agents showed genotoxicity at that highest concentration but after 1 day of elution. From the results it is obvious that genotoxicity increases with the concentration of the dentin bonding agent, and decreases over time. The highest genotoxicity was observed after a 24-hour-elution period.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of following the proper rules for performing a procedure, such as making a postendodontic post and core system. A postendodontic system should provide retention and resistance of the restoration, resistance of the remaining tooth structure and good sealing of the root canal. Microleakage can occur in the root canal filling as well as in the post and core system. After preparation of the intraradicular post space remains apical root canal filling which is 3-5 mm in length, and is a questionable barrier to prevent microorganisms and their toxins from penetrating into the periradicular tissue. Therefore, one should use the proper techniques in aseptic conditions during post and core treatments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain is known to be a frequent reason for the patient’s arrival to the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to determine how often patients come to the dental clinic because of toothache or pain in the oral cavity; how high the percentage of acute or chronic pain, and the distribution of the aforementioned pains according to the sex of the patients. Examination of the frequency of pain in dental patients was carried out on a sample of 2,735 subjects during a period of approximately one year. Pain was determined in 16.49% of patients and the remaining 83.51% of patients were without pain. There were slightly more female patients (54%) than male (46%), although correlation between pain and sex of the patients was not statistically significant. The higher number of female patients was the result of the greater number of female patients admitted. With regard to the duration of pain, acute pain was significantly more frequent (around 84%) than chronic pain (around 16%). Within the structure of acute and chronic pain odontalgia was most frequent in 89% of all the acute pains and in 90% of all chronic pains, which was significantly more than all other types of pain. The frequency of acute odontalgia, with respect to the total number of admitted patients, amounted to 12.36% of patients and chronic odontalgia 2.38% of patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic periapical lesion is a result of the mutual activity of microbiota in the root canal and multilateral response of the host to infection. Nonspecific, acute and chronic inflammations, including humoral and cellular immunological responses, participate in the occurrence, development and perpetuation of these lesions. Biopsy samples of periapical tissue were taken by surgical procedure in 34 patients, with the object of verifying immunoglobulin classes G, A and M. The study involved determination of total proteins by Lowry’s method. Concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the method of radial immunodiffusion. Their correct amount was obtained by placing them in relation to the verified amount of total proteins. The study revealed different percentages of the share of immunoglobulins, classes G, A and M, and diversity in their values. IgG was found in 100% of cases, IgA in 76% and IgM in 44%. Mean value of the quantity of IgG amounted to 385.2 mg/g protein, ranging in value from 27.3 to 826.0 mg/g protein, IgA 51.0 mg/g protein, ranging from 0 to 336.8 mg/g protein, and IgM 20.3 mg/g, ranging from 0 to156.2 mg/g protein. The results obtained on the basis of this study indicate the local synthesis of immunoglobulins in chronic periapical lesions, and the involvement of nonspecific inflammatory and specific immunological reactions, which together are responsible for the pathogenesis of these lesions.