ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer in certain portions of the world. Currently no effective therapies exist for patients with advanced or metastatic HCC. KW-2189, a DNA minor groove-binding agent, has shown promising activity against HCC in preclinical evaluations. METHODS: A phase II study was conducted to evaluate the activity of KW-2189 in patients with histologic or cytologic confirmed advanced or metastatic HCC who had no prior systemic therapy. Patients received KW-2189 at a dose of 0.5 mg/m(2) administered on day 1 of a 6-week cycle. The primary endpoint of the trial was objective regression. Other endpoints included toxicity, disease-free survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: Due to hematologic toxicity the dose of KW-2189 was reduced to 0.375 mg/m(2) after 11 patients had been enrolled into the trial. Due to continued significant hematologic toxicity in the next five patients enrolled at the lower dose the trial was closed to accrual. Two responses were seen in patients enrolled at the higher dose, including one sustained CR. CONCLUSION: KW-2189 showed evidence of anti-tumor activity in HCC. However, because of significant and prolonged hematologic toxicity, when given as a single dose every 6 weeks, further development of this drug in HCC is not possible. Further exploration of DNA minor groove-binding agents in the treatment of HCC appears warranted.
International Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer 02/2008;
ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and evaluate the toxicities and clinical activity of two irinotecan (CPT-11), fluorouracil (FU), leucovorin (LV), and oxaliplatin schedules in patients with advanced solid tumors. Additionally, we investigated the effect of CPT-11 on oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics.
Thirteen patients (cohort 1) received intravenous CPT-11 (infusion) and FU/LV (bolus) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 and oxaliplatin (infusion) on days 1 and 15 every 6 weeks for a total 37 courses (median, three courses) at three dose levels. Twenty-two cohort 2 patients received intravenous CPT-11/oxaliplatin (infusion, day 1) and FU/LV (90-minute bolus infusion, days 2 to 5) every 3 weeks for a total of 122 courses (median, four courses) at three dose levels. Pharmacokinetic and neurotoxicity assessments were performed at the cohort 2 MTD.
Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) seen in both cohorts at the starting dose required dose de-escalation. Cohort 1 DLT included diarrhea and neutropenia. In cohort 2, diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and paresthesias were DLTs. Antitumor activity was seen in both cohorts. In cohort 2, the total platinum area under the curve of patients increased 17% in cycle 2 (P =.048), but objective neurotoxicity was not seen.
The toxicities resulting from the addition of oxaliplatin to CPT-11/FU/LV are significant but manageable. The MTDs for the weekly schedule are CPT-11 (75 mg/m2), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2), FU (320 mg/m2), and LV (20 mg/m2); and, for the 3-weekly schedule, the MTDs are CPT-11 (175 mg/m2), oxaliplatin (85 mg/m2), FU (240 mg/m2), and LV (20 mg/m2). Second-cycle platinum accumulation raises the possibility for enhanced cumulative neurotoxicity with CPT-11/oxaliplatin combinations.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2003; 21(20):3761-9. · 18.37 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of patients with gallbladder cancer who received postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Curative resection followed by adjuvant combined modality therapy with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy was attempted in 21 consecutive gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 through 1997. All patients received concurrent 5-fluorouracil during EBRT. EBRT fields encompassed the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose of 54 Gy in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions). One patient received 15 Gy intraoperatively after EBRT. A retrospective analysis was performed for the end points of local control, distant failure, and overall survival.
After maximal resection, 12 patients had no residual disease on pathologic evaluation, 5 had microscopic residual disease, and 4 had gross residual disease. One patient had Stage I disease, and 20 had Stage III-IV disease. With median follow-up of 5 years (range: 2.6-11.5 years), 5-year survival for the entire cohort was 33%. The 5-year survival rate of patients with Stage I-III disease was 65% vs. 0% for those with Stage IV disease (p < 0.02). For patients with no residual disease, 5-year survival was 64% vs. 0% for those with residual disease (p = 0.002). The median survival was 0.6, 1.4, and 5.1 years for patients with gross residual, microscopic residual, and no residual disease, respectively (p = 0.02). The 5-year local control rate for the entire cohort was 73%. Two-year local control rates were 0%, 80%, and 88% for patients with gross residual, microscopic residual, or no residual disease, respectively (p < 0.01). Five-year local control rates were 100% for the 6 patients who received total EBRT doses >54 Gy (microscopic residual, 3 patients; gross residual, 1 patient; negative but narrow margins, 2 patients) vs. 65% for the 15 who received a lower dose (3, gross residual; 2, microresidual; 10, negative margins).
Patients with completely resected (negative margins) GBC followed by adjuvant EBRT plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy had a relatively favorable prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 64%. These results seem to be superior to historical surgical controls from the Mayo Clinic and other institutions, which report 5-year survival rates of approximately 33% with complete resection alone. Both tumor stage and extent of resection seemed to influence survival and local control. More aggressive measures using current cancer therapies and integration of new cancer treatment modalities will be required to favorably impact on the poor prognosis of patients with Stage IV or subtotally resected GBC. Additional investigation leading to earlier diagnosis is warranted, because most patients with GBC present with advanced disease.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 01/2002; 52(1):167-75. · 4.11 Impact Factor