[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A chemically bonded cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase (CSP) was prepared by a radical polymerization reaction. The prepared CSP was packed into fused-silica capillaries with inner diameter of 75 microm to perform enantiomer separations in CEC. The electrochromatographic behavior of the CSP was investigated. On the prepared CSP, high EOF could be generated under acidic mobile phases, which represented an advantage for the separation of acidic enantiomers. Several neutral, acidic, and basic enantiomers were resolved on the prepared CSP under aqueous mobile phases. The column efficiencies were between 20,000 and 100,000 plates/m, which were much higher than those of HPLC. In addition, it was observed that the separation of some enantiomers benefited from the adoption of THF as mobile phase modifier.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulose tris (4-methylbenzoate) derivatives (CTMB) having methacryloyl groups were synthesized with regio-selective or nonselective procedures, and were immobilized on gamma-methacrylatepropylated silica (gamma-MAPS) through a polymerization reaction. The obtained chiral stationary phases ( CSPs) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) resolution of 9 racemates (3-butyl-phthalide, ketoprofen, trans-stilbene oxide, benzoin, benzoin analogue, Tröger' s base, warfarin, 4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-dimethylenedioxy-biphenyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate and 4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-dimethylenedioxy-biphenyl-2-methylcarboxylate-2'-ethylcarboxylate). For regio-nonselective procedure, increasing the content of vinyl group on CTMB would lead to higher immobilization efficiency and enantio-selectivity. CSPs prepared by regio-selective procedure possessed slightly higher enantioselectivities than those prepared by regio-nonselective procedure, while the latter showed some advantages for rapid and facile preparation. CSPs prepared with silica gel II (Fuji, 5 microm, 30 nm, ca. 150 m2/g) showed higher enantioselectivities than those prepared with silica gel I (Kromasil, 5 microm, 20 nm, ca. 240 m2/g). The prepared CSPs could keep stable under different eluents, even with 40% of tetrahydrofuran (THF) in mobile phases.
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 12/2004; 22(6):569-74.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dimethyl dicarboxy alpha-biphenyl (DDB) and its analogues represent atropisomers which have been resolved on the covalently bonded cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) CSP. Different kinds of alcohols, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and chloroform were employed as mobile phase modifiers (MPMs), and their influence on the retention and separation of the enantiomers was investigated. Ternary mobile phases (hexane/2-propanol/THF, hexane/2-propanol/chloroform) were employed to investigate the separation of the five enantiomers. The advantages of the broader choice of solvents offered by the covalently bonded CDMPC CSP were discussed. The effect of structural variation of the enantiomers on their retention and separation was investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A positively charged chiral stationary phase (CSP) was prepared by chemically immobilizing cellulose 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate onto methacryloyldiethylenetriaminopropylated silica (MCDEAPS) via a radical copolymerization reaction. The prepared CSP was evaluated for enantiomer separation in nonaqueous capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Electroosmotic flow (EOF) generated on the prepared CSP could be significantly improved with introduction of positive charges into the CSP, and separation of enantiomers in CEC has been achieved with mobile phases of ethanol and hexane-ethanol, respectively. In addition, we investigated the solvent versatility of the immobilized CSP on enantioseparations in CEC and capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) due to the elimination of dissolution of chiral selector in a number of solvents. Chiral resolution of some enantiomers was improved by adopting tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform as mobile-phase modifiers, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three molecularly imprinted monolithic columns with different length but almost identical column volume had been prepared. It was observed that the separation factors of diastereomers and enantiomers were almost unaffected by column length. However, the short column with dimension of 38 mm x 8 mm i.d. showed much lower resistance to flow rate so that it could be operated at much higher flow rates. By combining stepwise gradient elution with elevated flow rate, the diastereomers of cinchonine and cinchonidine and the enantiomers of Cbz-DL-Trp and Fmoc-DL-Trp were successfully separated within 3 min on the short column with dimension of 38 mm x 8 mm i.d. Based on the above results, a cinchonine imprinted monolithic disk with dimension of 10mm x 16 mm i.d. was further developed. The SEM image and the pore size distribution profile showed that large flow-through pores are present on the prepared monolith, which allowed mobile phase to flow through the disk with very low resistance. Chromatographic performances on the monolithic disk were almost unchanged compared with the long columns. A rapid separation of cinchonine and cinchonidine was achieved in 2.5 min at the flow rate of 9.0 ml/min. Furthermore, it was observed that there was almost no effect of the flow rate on the dynamic binding capacity at high flow rates. In addition, the effect of the loading concentration of analytes on the dynamic binding capacity, namely adsorption isotherm, was also investigated. A non-linear adsorption isotherm of cinchonine was observed on the molecularly imprinted monolith with cinchonine as template, which might be a main reason to result in the peak tailing of template molecule.
Journal of Chromatography B 06/2004; 804(1):13-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2004.01.015 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulose phenylcarbamate derivatives having methacrylate groups were synthesized with regioselective and non-regioselective procedures. These derivatives were chemically immobilized onto a vinylized silica gel, respectively, via a radical co-polymerization reaction. The immobilization was efficiently attained using a small amount of AIBN. The chiral recognition abilities of the prepared chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were evaluated by HPLC resolution of test enantiomers. It was observed that most of the enantiomers were completely resolved with markedly high column efficiency of 30,000-40,000 plates per metre for the eluted peaks. The effect of the amount of methacrylolyl chloride used for preparation on resolution was investigated. A direct comparison of the chiral recognition ability was made on the regioselectively and non-regioselectively prepared CSPs. In addition, the chemically bonded-type of CSPs were found to be relatively stable with addition of solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform into the mobile phase, which can lead to the dissolution of cellulose derivatives on the coated CSPs. Thus the choice of solvents used as the mobile phase is greatly extended and better resolution of several test enantiomers was observed on the prepared CSPs with THF and chloroform as a composition in the mobile phase. The batch-to-batch and run-to-run reproducibility was also discussed on the newly prepared CSPs.
Journal of Chromatography A 05/2004; 1034(1-2):109-16. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2004.02.007 · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A bifunctional reagent of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate (TEPI) was initially adopted as a spacer reagent to prepare the bonded types of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) with cellulose derivatives. The silica-based CSPs were chemically prepared with non-regioselective and regioselective approaches and their chiral resolving capabilities were evaluated in terms of HPLC resolution of test enantiomers. It was observed that the chiral recognition capabilities of the non-regioselectively prepared CSPs were influenced by the amount of TEPI used. And also, the regioselectively prepared CSP generally showed a slightly higher resolution power than the non-regioselectively prepared CSP, while the non-regioselective procedures were highly advantageous to rapid preparation. In addition, chiral recognition of the prepared CSPs was affected by the properties of the used silica matrices.
Journal of Chromatography A 09/2003; 1010(2):185-94. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01104-X · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positively charged chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were prepared for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) separation of enantiomers by chemically immobilizing cellulose derivatives onto diethylenetriaminopropylated silica (DEAPS) with tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) as a spacer reagent. Anodic electroosmotic mobility was observed in both nonaqueous and aqueous mobile phases due to the positively charged amines on the surface of the prepared CSPs. For comparison, the traditionally used 3-aminopropyl silica (APS) was also adopted as the base material instead of DEAPS to prepare CSP. It was observed that the EOF on the DEAPS-based CSP was 18%-60% higher than that on the APS-based CSP under nonaqueous mobile phase conditions. Separation of enantiomers in CEC was performed on the positively charged CSPs with the nonaqueous mobile phases of pure ethanol or mixture of hexane-alcohol and the aqueous phases of acetonitrile-water or 95% ethanol. Fast separation of enantiomers was achieved on the newly prepared CSPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The method for preparation of molecularly imprinted monolithic stationary phase has been improved to achieve liquid chromatographic separation of enantiomers and diastereomers. By adopting low polar porogenic solvents of toluene and dodecanol and optimal polymerization conditions, the molecularly imprinted monolithic stationary phases with good flow-through properties and high resolution were prepared. Enantiomers of amino acid derivatives and diastereomers of cinchona alkaloids were completely resolved using the monolithic stationary phases. The influence of porogenic composition, monomer-template ratio and polymerization conditions on the chromatographic performance was investigated. Some chromatographic conditions such as the composition of the mobile phase and the temperature were characterized. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the molecularly imprinted monolithic stationary phase has a large through-pore structure to allow the mobile phase to flow through the column at very low backpressure. Accelerated separations of enantiomers and diastereomers were therefore achieved at elevated flow rates. Finally, the chiral recognition performance of the prepared stationary phase in aqueous media was investigated. Hydrophobic interaction, and ionic and/or hydrogen bonding interactions were proposed to be responsible for the recognition mechanism.
Journal of Chromatography A 02/2003; 984(2):273-82. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9673(02)01768-5 · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Composite chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were prepared on the basis of cellulose derivatives coated or bonded onto silica. “Molecular exterior” type CSPs were prepared by mixing together two different cellulose tris-derivatives before or after being coated or bonded onto silica, and the “molecular interior” type was obtained by synthesizing non-regioselectively heterosubstituted cellulose derivatives coated or bonded onto silica. For the sake of comparison, the individual phases were also prepared with corresponding cellulose derivatives by coating or bonding approaches, respectively. All of the prepared CSPs were characterized and their chiral recognition properties were evaluated by HPLC with several test racemates. The experimental results demonstrated that the “molecular exterior” CSPs generally exhibit chiral recognition capacities intermediate between those of the two individual phases. However, in the separation of some racemates higher enantioselectivity may be achieved on the “molecular interior” phases than on individual phases, thus broadening the application range of a single cellulose-based CSP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulose trisphenylcarbamate is regioselectively bonded to 3-aminopropyl silica gel and underivatized silica gel, respectively, at the 6-position of the primary hydroxyl group on the glucose unit of cellulose with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (DPDI) as a spacer. Enantioseparations are evaluated on these prepared chiral stationary phases (CSPs) with several organic acids as the modifiers in the mobile phase by high-performance liquid chromatography. The influence of the amount of DPDI used on chiral resolution is investigated. Also, the corresponding coated-type phase is also prepared for the aim of comparison. It is observed that the bonded-type phase shows a lower chiral recognition power but a better column efficiency than the coated-type phase under the liquid chromatographic mobile phase with hexane-alcohol. However, the bonded-type CSPs are compatible with a wider number of solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) or chloroform, which generally result in the solubility or swelling of the cellulose derivatives on the coated-type CSPs. The results obtained from this study indicate that the bonded-type CSP may provide complementary enantioselectivity over the coated-type phase by adopting THF as a component in the mobile phase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cellulose trisphenylcarbamate-bonded chiral stationary phase was applied to nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with nonaqueous and aqueous solutions as the mobile phases. Several chiral compounds were successfully resolved on the prepared phase by nano-LC. The applicability of nonaqueous CEC on a cellulose derivative stationary phase was investigated with the organic solvents methanol, hexane, 2-propanol, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) containing acetic acid, as well as triethylamine as the mobile phases. Enantiomers of warfarin and praziquantel were baseline-resolved with plate numbers of 82,300 and 38,800 plates/m, respectively, for the first eluting enantiomer. The influence of applied voltage, concentration of nonpolar solvent, apparent pH, and buffer concentration in the mobile phase on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) and the mobility of the enantiomers was evaluated. Enantioseparations of trans-stilbene oxide and praziquantel were also achieved in aqueous CEC with plate numbers of 111,100 and 107,400 plates/m, respectively, for the first eluting enantiomer. A comparison between nonaqueous CEC and aqueous CEC based on a cellulose trisphenylcarbamate stationary phase was discussed. Pressure-assisted CEC was examined for the chiral separation of praziquantel and faster analysis with high enantioselectivity was acquired with the proper pressurization of the inlet vial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simple and versatile: In a new assay for screening binding partners of proteins (see schematic representation), the target protein is first immobilized on a porous silicon probe, which is then incubated with a mixture of the possible binding partners. The captured binding partners are identified on-probe by means of laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been combined with immobilized enzyme microreactor
for the rapid, sensitive, and accurate tryptic mapping of protein and polypeptides. The technique utilizes the trypsin microreactor
by immobilized enzyme on the glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-modified cellulose membrane. The membrane microreactor was used for
the tryptic mapping of cytochrome C and the results were compared with those obtained by using free trypsin. A significant
increase in the overall sensitivity of the process was observed using the membrane microreactor, as well as the elimination
of background signals due to the autolysis of the trypsin. Further, membrane microreactor digestions were found to be rapid
Science in China Series B Chemistry 11/2000; 43(6):625-633. DOI:10.1007/BF02969510 · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microcrystalline celluloses from two sources were used to prepare cellulose triacetate chiral stationary phases (CSPs) coated on underivatized silica gel, which shows discriminating chiral recognition for enantiomers. The chiral separation of four alpha-alkyl phenyl acetonitriles was investigated on the prepared CSPs. It was observed that the concentration of the coating solvent of phenol in dichloromethane plays an important role in the resolution of the solutes. A series of primary alcohols, including secondary and tertiary alcohols, were used as mobile phase modifiers to investigate the effect of the structures of these modifiers on the capacity factors (k') and the separation factors (alpha). Also, the effect of the concentration of alcohol on the capacity factors and separation factors was examined. The chiral recognition mechanism of alpha-alkyl phenyl acetonitriles on the prepared CSPs is discussed. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.