[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors have previously shown that acellular (AC) trachea-lung scaffolds can (1) be produced from natural rat lungs, (2) retain critical components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen-1 and elastin and (3) after recelluarization with murine embryonic stem cells, be used to produce lung tissue. The aim of this study was to produce large (porcine or human) acellular (AC) lung scaffolds in order to determine the feasibility of producing scaffolds with potential clinical applicability. We report here the first attempt to produce AC pig or human trachea-lung scaffold. Using a combination of freezing and SDS washes, pig trachea-lungs and human trachea-lungs were decellularized. Once decellularization was complete we evaluated the structural integrity of the AC lung scaffolds using bronchoscopy, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), assessment of the extracellular matrix utilizing immunocytochemistry and evaluation of mechanics through the use of pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Immunocytochemistry indicated that there was loss of collagen type IV and laminin in the AC lung scaffold, but retention of collagen-1, elastin and fibronectin in some regions. MPM scoring was also used to examine the AC lung scaffold ECM structure and to evaluate the amount of collagen I in normal and AC lung. MPM was used to examine the physical arrangement of collagen-1 and elastin in the pleura, distal lung, lung borders and trachea or bronchi. MPM and bronchoscopy of trachea and lung tissues showed that no cells or cell debris remained in the AC scaffolds. PFT measurements of the trachea-lungs showed no relevant differences in peak pressure, dynamic or static compliance and a nonrestricted flow pattern in AC compared to normal lungs. Although there were changes in content of collagen-I and elastin this did not affect the mechanics of lung function as evidenced by normal PFT values. When repopulated with a variety of stem or adult cells including human adult primary alveolar epithelial type II cells (HAEC) both pig and human AC scaffolds supported cell attachment and cell viability. Examination of scaffolds produced using a variety of detergents indicated that detergent choice influenced human immune response in terms of T cell activation and chemokine production.
Tissue Engineering Part A 05/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation is useful to facilitate
management of patients with severe or moderate traumatic brain injury
(TBI). Prompt recognition of low cerebral venous oxygenation is a key to
avoiding secondary brain injury associated with brain hypoxia. In
specialized clinical research centers, jugular venous bulb catheters
have been used for cerebral venous oxygenation monitoring and have
demonstrated that oxygen saturation < 50% (normal range is 55-75%)
correlates with poor clinical outcome. We developed an optoacoustic
technique for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation.
Recently, we designed and built a novel, medical grade optoacoustic
system operating in the near-infrared spectral range for continuous,
real-time oxygenation monitoring in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a
large central cerebral vein. In this work, we designed and built a novel
SSS optoacoustic probe and developed a new algorithm for SSS oxygenation
measurement. The SSS signals were measured in healthy volunteers during
voluntary hyperventilation, which induced changes in SSS oxygenation.
Simultaneously, we measured exhaled carbon dioxide concentration
(EtCO2) using capnography. Good temporal correlation between
decreases in optoacoustically measured SSS oxygenation and decreases in
EtCO2 was obtained. Decreases in EtCO2 from normal values
(35-45 mmHg) to 20-25 mmHg resulted in SSS oxygenation decreases by
3-10%. Intersubject variability of the responses may relate to
nonspecific brain activation associated with voluntary hyperventilation.
The obtained data demonstrate the capability of the optoacoustic system
to detect in real time minor changes in the SSS blood oxygenation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to investigate how L-Arginine pulmonary metabolism is altered in response Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) induced septic conditions using an ovine model.
Seven female sheep were infused with a primed-constant infusion of L-[(15)N2-guanidino, 5, 5, (2)H2] L-Arginine for 28 hs. After the initial 4 hs of the L-Arginine infusion, a continuous infusion of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria started for 24 hs. A NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(G)-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), infusion was added during the last 4 hs of the bacterial infusion. Blood samples were taken at specific time points for isotopic enrichment during control, septic and NOS blocking phases of the study.
We observed that the level of total delivery of L-Arginine to the lungs was significantly decreased in septic phase after 24 hours of pseudomonas infusion. In contrast, the fractional uptake and metabolism of L-Arginine by the lungs was doubled during septic phase relative to the control phase (MARG-basal = 100% vs. MARG-septic = 220 ± 56%, P < 0.05). NO production in the lungs was also significantly increased. Infusion of L-NMA markedly blunted this elevated NO production and attenuated the total arginine metabolized in the septic lungs (Mnitrate-septic = 43.6 ± 5.7 vs. Mnitrate-septic + L-NMA = 13.4 ± 5.1 umol/kg/min; p < 0.05). We demonstrated sepsis induced by P. aeruginosa infusion caused an increase in the fractional uptake and metabolic rate of arginine in the lungs. Furthermore, our data suggests that arginine was mainly consumed via arginine - NO pathway, which might be responsible for this enhanced arginine metabolic activity in the septic lungs.
International journal of burns and trauma. 01/2013; 3(4):201-208.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 20,000 burn injury victims suffer from smoke inhalation injury in the United States annually. In an ovine model of acute lung injury, γ-tocopherol had a beneficial effect when nebulized into the airway. We hypothesize that γ-tocopherol scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species resulting from burn and smoke inhalation injury and that these ROS/reactive nitrogen species activate the arginase pathway, leading to increased collagen deposition and decreased pulmonary function. To test this hypothesis, ewes were operatively prepared for chronic study, then they were randomly divided into groups (n = 8): uninjured, injured, or injured with nebulization (γ-tocopherol [950 mg/g] and α-tocopherol [40 mg/g] from hours 3 to 48 after the injury). The injury, under deep anesthesia, consisted of a 20% total body surface burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke; all animals were killed after 3 weeks. Treatment increased lung γ-tocopherol at 3 weeks after γ-tocopherol nebulization compared with injured sheep (1.75 ± 0.62 nmol/g vs. 0.45 ± 0.06, P < 0.05). The expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2, which degrades asymmetrical dimethylarginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, significantly increases with γ-tocopherol treatment compared with injured sheep (P < 0.05). Arginase activity (0.15 ± 0.02 μM urea/μg protein vs. 0.24 ± 0.009, P < 0.05), ornithine aminotransferase (11,720 ± 888 vs. 13,170 ± 1,775), and collagen deposition (0.62 ± 0.12 μM hydroxyproline/μg protein vs. 1.02 ± 0.13, P < 0.05) significantly decrease with γ-tocopherol compared with injured animals without γ-tocopherol. The decreases in arginase and collagen with γ-tocopherol are associated with significantly increased diffusion capacity (P < 0.05) and decreased lung wet-to-dry ratio (P < 0.05). Smoke-induced chronic pulmonary dysfunction is mediated through the ROS/asymmetrical dimethylarginine/arginase pathway, and ROS scavengers such as γ-tocopherol may be a potential therapeutic management of burn patients with inhalation injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoke inhalation injury frequently increases the risk of pneumonia and mortality in burn patients. The pathophysiology of acute lung injury secondary to burn and smoke inhalation is well studied, but long-term pulmonary function, especially the process of lung tissue healing following burn and smoke inhalation, has not been fully investigated. By contrast, early burn excision has become the standard of care in the management of major burn injury. While many clinical studies and small-animal experiments support the concept of early burn wound excision, and show improved survival and infectious outcomes, we have developed a new chronic ovine model of burn and smoke inhalation injury with early excision and skin grafting that can be used to investigate lung pathophysiology over a period of 3 weeks.
Eighteen female sheep were surgically prepared for this study under isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were divided into three groups: an Early Excision group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke followed by early excision and skin autografting at 24h after injury, n=6), a Control group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke without early excision, n=6) and a Sham group (no injury, no early excision, n=6). After induced injury, all sheep were placed on a ventilator and fluid-resuscitated with Lactated Ringers solution (4 mL/% TBS/kg). At 24h post-injury, early excision was carried out to fascia, and skin grafting with meshed autografts (20/1000 in., 1:4 ratio) was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. At 48 h post-injury, weaning from ventilator was begun if PaO(2)/FiO(2) was above 250 and sheep were monitored for 3 weeks.
At 96 h post-injury, all animals were weaned from ventilator. There are no significant differences in PaO(2)/FiO(2) between Early Excision and Control groups at any points. All animals were survived for 3 weeks without infectious complication in Early Excision and Sham groups, whereas two out of six animals in the Control group had abscess in lung. The percentage of the wound healed surviving area (mean ± SD) was 74.7 ± 7.8% on 17 days post-surgery in the Early Excision group. Lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (mean ± SD) was significantly increased in the Early Excision group vs. Sham group (p<0.05). The calculated net fluid balance significantly increased in the early excision compared to those seen in the Sham and Control groups. Plasma protein, oncotic pressure, hematocrit of % baseline, hemoglobin of % baseline, white blood cell and neutrophil were significantly decreased in the Early Excision group vs. Control group.
The early excision model closely resembles practice in a clinical setting and allows long-term observations of pulmonary function following burn and smoke inhalation injury. Further studies are warranted to assess lung tissue scarring and measuring collagen deposition, lung compliance and diffusion capacity.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 03/2012; 38(6):908-16. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring (currently invasive) of cerebral venous blood oxygenation is a key to avoiding hypoxia-induced brain injury resulting in death or severe disability. Noninvasive, optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation can potentially replace existing invasive methods. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation through intact scalp that was validated with invasive, "gold standard" measurements. We performed an in vivo study in the sheep superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large midline cerebral vein, using our novel, multi-wavelength optoacoustic system. The study results demonstrated that: 1) the optoacoustic signal from the sheep SSS is detectable through the thick, intact scalp and skull; 2) the SSS signal amplitude correlated well with wavelength and actual SSS blood oxygenation measured invasively using SSS catheterization, blood sampling, and measurement with "gold standard" CO-Oximeter; 3) the optoacoustically predicted oxygenation strongly correlated with that measured with the CO-Oximeter. Our results indicate that monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation may be performed in humans noninvasively and accurately through the intact scalp using optoacoustic systems because the sheep scalp and skull thickness is comparable to that of humans whereas the sheep SSS is much smaller than that of humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is strong clinical evidence that controlling cerebral venous oxygenation (oxyhemoglobin saturation) is critically important for patients with severe traumatic brain injury as well as for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, the only available method for cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring is invasive and requires catheterization of the internal jugular vein. We designed and built a novel optoacoustic monitor of cerebral venous oxygenation as measured in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), the large midline cerebral vein. To the best of our knowledge, optical monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation through overlying extracerebral blood is reported for the first time in this paper. The system was capable of detecting SSS signals in vivo at 700, 800, and 1064 nm through the thick (5-6 mm) sheep skull containing the circulating blood. The high (submillimeter) in-depth resolution of the system provided identification of the SSS peaks in the optoacoustic signals. The SSS peak amplitude closely followed the actual SSS blood oxygenation measured invasively using catheterization, blood sampling, and "gold standard" CO-Oximetry. Our data indicate the system may provide accurate measurement of the SSS blood oxygenation in patients with extracerebral blood over the SSS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently developed murine model of smoke inhalation and burn (SB) injury was used to study the effect of the substance-P antagonist CP96345. C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated with an i.v. dose of a specific NK-1 receptor antagonist, CP9635, or its inactive enantiomer, CP96344, (10 mg/Kg) 1 h prior to SB injury per protocol (n = 5). Mice were anesthetized and exposed to cooled cotton smoke, 2X 30 s, followed by a 40% total body surface area flame burn per protocol. At 48 h after SB injury Evans Blue (EB) dye and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in lung after vascular perfusion. Lungs were also analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and wet/dry weight ratio. In the current study, CP96345 pre-treatment caused a significant decrease in wet/dry weight ratio (23%, p = 0.048), EB (31%, p = 0.047), Hb (46%, p = 0.002), and MPO (54%, p = 0.037) levels following SB injury compared to animals with SB injury alone. CP-96344 pre-treatment caused an insignificant decrease in wet/dry weight ratio (14%, p = 0.18), EB (16%, p = 0.134), Hb (9%, p = 0.39), and an insignificant increase in MPO (4%, p = 0.79) as compared to mice that received SB injury alone. As expected, levels of EB, Hb, MPO, and wet/dry weight ratios were all significantly (p < 0.05) increased 48 h following SB injury alone compared to respective sham animals. In conclusion, the current study indicates that pre-treatment with a specific NK-1R antagonist CP-96345 attenuates the lung injury and inflammation induced by SB injury in mice.
Toxicology mechanisms and methods 03/2010; 20(4):197-203. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous arteriovenous CO2 removal (AVCO2R) uses a simple arteriovenous (A-V) shunt for near-total CO2 removal that allows significant reductions in minute ventilation. We critically reviewed our algorithm-directed perioperative anesthesia management in our LD40 ovine smoke-burn injury model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with AVCO2R. General anesthesia is required for: (1) Vascular access followed by ARDS model development by smoke insufflation (36 breaths) plus 40% TBSA III degrees burn with mechanical ventilation. Induction: 12.5 mg/kg im ketamine and 4% halothane by mask, then intubation. Maintenance: 1.0-2.5% halothane in 100% O2; (2) When PaO2/FiO2 < 200 (48-52 h), sheep randomized to the AVCO2R (n = 8) or SHAM (n = 8) procedure. Induction: 66% N2O and 5% isoflurane in balance O2. Maintenance: 1.5-2.5% isoflurane in 100% O2 for AVCO2R, cannulation (10F carotid artery, 14F jugular vein); (3) Postop, both groups had algorithm-directed ventilator management, identical heparin (ACT > 300 s), fluid, and analgesia management. All sheep met criteria for ARDS, survived anesthesia, and were standing by 0.5-5 h. There were no complications attributable to anesthesia. The absence of anesthesia-related complications allows model development for outcomes studies for ARDS in general and AVCO2R specifically.
Journal of Investigative Surgery 07/2009; 15(1):15-21. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation with an optoacoustic technique offers advantages over current invasive and noninvasive methods. We report the results of in vivo studies in the sheep superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We changed blood oxygenation by increasing and decreasing the inspired fraction of oxygen (FiO(2)). Optoacoustic measurements from the SSS were performed at wavelengths of 700, 800, and 1064 nm using an optical parametric oscillator as a source of pulsed near-infrared light. Actual oxygenation of SSS blood was measured with a CO-Oximeter in blood samples drawn from the SSS through a small craniotomy. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal induced in the SSS blood at lambda = 1064 nm closely followed the changes in blood oxygenation, at lambda = 800 nm was almost constant, and at lambda = 700 nm was changing in the opposite direction, all in accordance with the absorption spectra of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. The optoacoustically predicted oxygenation correlated well with actual blood oxygenation in sheep SSS (R(2) = 0.965 to 0.990). The accuracy was excellent, with a mean difference of 4.8% to 9.3% and a standard deviation of 2.8% to 4.2%. To the best of our knowledge, this paper reports for the first time accurate measurements of cerebral venous blood oxygenation validated against the "gold standard" CO-Oximetry method.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in acute inflammation in the lung were studied using a newly developed murine model of smoke and burn (SB) injury. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with an i.v. dose of a specific NEP antagonist CGS-24592 (10 mg/Kg) 1 h prior to SB injury (n = 5-8/group). Mice were anesthetized with i.p. ketamine/xylazine, intubated, and exposed to cooled cotton smoke (2 x 30 s). After s.c. injection of 1 ml 0.9% saline, each received a 40% total body surface area (TBSA) flame burn. Buprenorphene (2 mg/kg) was given i.p. and resuscitated by saline. Evans Blue dye (EB) was injected i.v. 15 min before sacrifice. Lung wet/dry weight ratio was measured. After vascular perfusion, lungs were analyzed for their levels of EB dye and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In mice pretreated with CGS-24592 followed by SB injury the EB levels were significantly higher (61%, p = 0.043) than those with SB injury alone. There was a significant increase (144%, p = 0.035) in EB dye in animals with SB injury alone as compared to shams. In mice pretreated with CGS-24592 prior to SB injury wet/dry weight ratios were significantly (27%, p = 0.042) higher compared to animals with SB injury alone. CGS-24592 pretreatment also caused a significant increase in MPO (29%, p = 0.026) as compared to mice with SB injury alone. In conclusion the current study indicates that specific NEP inhibitor CGS 24592 exacerbates the SB-induced lung injury and inflammation in mice.
Toxicology mechanisms and methods 04/2009; 19(3):191-6. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morbidity and mortality of burn victims increase when burn injury is combined with smoke inhalation. The goal of the present study was to develop a murine model of burn and smoke inhalation injury to more precisely reveal the mechanistic aspects of these pathological changes. The burn injury mouse group received a 40% total body surface area third-degree burn alone, the smoke inhalation injury mouse group received two 30-s exposures of cotton smoke alone, and the combined burn and smoke inhalation injury mouse group received both the burn and the smoke inhalation injury. Animal survival was monitored for 120 h. Survival rates in the burn injury group, the smoke inhalation injury group, and the combined injury group were 70%, 60%, and 30%, respectively. Mice that received combined burn and smoke injury developed greater lung damage as evidenced by histological changes (septal thickening and interstitial edema) and higher lung water content. These mice also displayed more severely impaired pulmonary gas exchange [arterial PO2 (PaO2)/inspired O2 fraction (FiO2)<200]. Lung myeloperoxidase activity was significantly higher in burn and smoke-injured animals compared with the other three experimental groups. Plasma NO2-/NO3-, lung inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, and iNOS mRNA increased with injury; however, the burn and smoke injury group exhibited a higher response. Severity of burn and smoke inhalation injury was associated with more pronounced production of nitric oxide and accumulation of activated leukocytes in lung tissue. The murine model of burn and smoke inhalation injury allows us to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiopulmonary morbidity secondary to burn and smoke inhalation injury.
Journal of Applied Physiology 04/2008; 105(2):678-84. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT To test concepts developed in our ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome, specifically the roles of neuropeptides and other peptide mediators, a recently developed murine model of combined smoke inhalation and burn (SB) injury was extended by applying methods for quantitative assessment of acute inflammation in the lung. Mice received SB injury per protocol, n = 5 to 7 per group. Mice were anesthetized with i.p. ketamine/xylazine, endotracheally intubated, and exposed to cooled cotton smoke (4 x 30 sec for Balb/C, 2 x 30 sec for C57BL/6). After s.c. injection of 1 mL 0.9% saline, each received a 40% total body surface area (TBSA) flame burn. Buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg) was given i.p. for postoperative analgesia; 0.9% saline was given i.p. at 4 mL/kg per %TBSA burn. Evans Blue dye (EB) was injected i.v. 15 min before sacrifice. Lung wet/dry weight ratio was measured. In other animals, after vascular perfusion with buffered saline, lungs were sampled and analyzed for myeloperoxidase (MPO), using an EIA kit, and for their content of EB dye. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in EB dye content, wet/dry weight ratio, and MPO 24 h after injury in Balb/C mice. Similar increases were seen in C57BL/6 mice 48 h after SB injury, but not at 24 h. C57 mice tolerated less smoke inhalation than Balb/C mice, due to postexposure apnea, and required 48 h to show significant increases in these variables. Direct comparison between animals injured by 40% TBSA burn and 2 x 30 sec smoke exposure and sacrificed after 48 h showed significantly greater abnormality in the C57BL/6 mice. The mouse model can be used effectively to assess acute inflammation in the lung.
Toxicology mechanisms and methods 01/2008; 18(7):551-9. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A noninvasive optoacoustic technique could be a clinically useful alternative to existing, invasive methods for cerebral oxygenation monitoring. Recently we proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for monitoring cerebral blood oxygenation by probing large cerebral and neck veins including the superior sagittal sinus and the internal jugular vein. In these studies we used a multi-wavelength optoacoustic system with a nanosecond optical parametric oscillator as a light source and a custom-made optoacoustic probe for the measurement of the optoacoustic signals in vivo from the area of the sheep neck overlying the external jugular vein, which is similar in diameter and depth to the human internal jugular vein. Optoacoustic signals induced in venous blood were measured with high resolution despite the presence of a thick layer of tissues (up to 10 mm) between the external jugular vein and the optoacoustic probe. Three wavelengths were chosen to provide accurate and stable measurements of blood oxygenation: signals at 700 nm and 1064 nm demonstrated high correlation with actual oxygenation measured invasively with CO-Oximeter ("gold standard"), while the signal at 800 nm (isosbestic point) was independent of blood oxygenation and was used for calibration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our group has developed a paracorporeal artificial lung (PAL) attached in a pulmonary artery (PA) to PA in series configuration to address profound respiratory failure and serve as a bridge to transplant and/or recovery. We recently designed, developed and converted our passive pre-PAL compliance chamber to an active, synchronized, counterpulsating assist device to relieve right heart strain and offset increased work placed on the right ventricle when the PAL is attached. In this study, we evaluated the safety and performance of both a valved and non-valved optional active compliance chamber (OACC) in a PA-PA PAL for right heart assistance in normal adult sheep.
Eleven sheep (30-50 kg) were divided into non-valved OACC (n = 6) and valved (n = 5) OACC groups. To mimic pulmonary hypertension, a C-clamp was placed distal to the OACC-PAL and occluded until a 20% decrease in cardiac output (CO) was achieved. The OACC was activated, and right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CO were recorded.
All eleven animals tolerated the implantation of the OACC PAL. Activation of the OACC resulted in a significant increase in CO. Systolic and diastolic right ventricular pressure decreased in both groups. Lastly, counterpulsation increased the mean PAP in all animals and peak PAP reached 89 mmHg. Despite providing right heart assistance, synchronizing the counterpulsation was technically difficult, and the high peak PA pressures resulted in anastomotic bleeding in all animals and anastomotic breakdown in 4/11 animals.
An OACC PAL perfused by the right ventricle applied in series with the pulmonary circulation reduces ventricular load and improves cardiac efficiency. These preliminary data suggest the potential of an artificial lung in unloading the strained right ventricle and acting as a bridge to transplantation. The augmented peak PA pressures, resulting in bleeding and anastomotic breakdown, and complexity in synchronizing the cardiac cycle with the pulsations of the augmented OACC, compromise this configuration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NaCl solutions (7.5%) have been reported to be effective for resuscitation in animals and trauma patients, but these solutions are not approved for use in the United States. We hypothesized that infusion of Food and Drug Administration-approved 3% NaCl provides superior cardiovascular and metabolic function while reducing the overall fluid requirement for resuscitation of hemorrhage. Our objective was to compare four groups, hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation of hemorrhage using 3% NaCl (HS) or lactated Ringer's (LR).
Sheep were hemorrhaged in three separate bleeds, 25 mL/kg at T0 mins and 5 mL/kg at both T50 and T70 mins.
Instrumented conscious sheep.
Resuscitation was started at T30 mins and continued until T180. Normotensive and hypotensive resuscitation to mean arterial pressures of 90 mm Hg and 65 mm Hg, respectively, was performed with LR or HS using a closed-loop resuscitation system.
All four groups were successfully resuscitated to near target levels. Two animals in the hypotensive treatment protocols died during the second and third bleeding, one with the LR65 group and one with the HS65 group. Mean infused volumes were 59.9 +/- 7.0 and 18.0 +/- 5.9 in the LR90 and LR65 groups, respectively, and were 19.6 +/- 2.2 mL/kg and 13.3 +/- 5.7 mL/kg in the HS90 and HS65 treatments (p < .05; LR90 vs. each of the groups). Cardiac indexes were significantly higher with normotensive vs. hypotensive treatment. However, there was no hemodynamic advantage apparent with HS vs. LR when compared with the normotensive or hypotensive treatments. Some animals had high lactate levels (>10 mmol) with both of the hypotensive treatments and also with the HS90 treatment, while not one of the 11 LR90 treatment animals had lactate levels >8 mmol.
Volume sparing was apparent with HS, but no hemodynamic or metabolic advantage was apparent when used for either normotensive or hypotensive resuscitation. Trends toward lower base excess values and higher occurrences of deaths only in the hypotensive treatment protocols suggest that resuscitation to a target mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg may be too low.
Critical Care Medicine 04/2006; 34(4):1185-92. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We undertook an assessment of high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) and systemic heparin on survival in our LD100 sheep model of smoke/burn-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This was a prospective controlled outcomes study in a large animal critical care laboratory. ARDS was induced in 13 sheep by a combination of 48 cotton smoke breaths and 40% full-thickness cutaneous burn (LD100) followed by mechanical ventilation (15 ml/kg tidal volume). After meeting ARDS criteria (PaO2/FiO2 < 200), the sheep were divided into high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV; n = 7) or volume-controlled mechanical ventilation (VCMV; n = 6) groups. Both groups received systemic heparin to achieve an ACT 180-300 seconds. HFPV was managed with the Volumetric Diffusive Respiration Ventilator (Percussionaire Corp., Sandpoint, ID). The VCMV group was managed with up to 10 ml/kg tidal volume. Arterial blood gases and ventilator settings were monitored every 6 hours after onset of ARDS. HFPV did not affect sheep hemodynamics. Survival 84 hours after smoke and burn injury was significantly greater in the HFPV (7/7, 100%) compared with the VCMV group (3/6, 50%, P < .05). PaCO2 was significantly greater in VCMV group at 36, 48, and 72 hours after smoke and burn injury. PaO2/FiO2 after 36 hours of smoke and burn injury in the HFPV group was improved compared with the VCMV group, but no statistical difference was found. In the VCMV group, peak airway pressure was decreased to 19.7 +/- 2.2 cm H2O at 36 hours from 29 +/- 2.8 at 24 hours as the tidal volume changed from 15 ml/kg to 10 ml/kg and then gradually increased to 39 +/- 5.6 cm H2O at 72 hours. In the HFPV group, peak inspiratory pressure kept constant at a level of 30 cmH2O. In our smoke/burn-induced LD100 sheep model of ARDS, volume-controlled mechanical ventilation with systemic heparin achieved a 50% survival whereas HFPV with systemic heparin achieved 100% survival at 60 hours after the onset of ARDS.
Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 01/2006; 27(4):463-71. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optoacoustic technique is noninvasive, has high spatial resolution, and potentially can be used to measure the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) continuously and accurately. We performed in vitro measurements in blood and in vivo tests in healthy volunteers. Our clinical protocol included rapid infusion of intravenous saline to simulate rapid change in the [THb] during fluid therapy or surgery. Optoacoustic measurements were made from the wrist area overlying the radial artery for more than 1 h. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal generated in the radial artery closely followed the [THb] measured directly in concurrently collected blood samples.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current, invasive cerebral oxygenation monitors require either retrograde jugular venous bulb cannulation or intraparenchymal probe insertion. There is no accurate, noninvasive, continuous monitor of cerebral blood oxygenation.
The authors designed, built, and tested novel optoacoustic instrumentation that continuously measures blood oxygenation in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in vivo in 12 anesthetized sheep. In this technique, laser pulses generate acoustic signals, the amplitudes and slopes of which are proportional to oxyhemoglobin saturation in the SSS. Optoacoustic signals from the SSS measured through the scalp and cranium were compared with directly measured oxyhemoglobin saturation in blood withdrawn from the cannulated SSS.
In the first experiments (feasibility), FIO2 changes produced rapid corresponding changes in optoacoustic signals and arterial oxygen saturation. In the second experiments (validation), the authors correlated oxyhemoglobin saturation in the SSS with optoacoustic signals and developed quantifying algorithms. In eight of nine validation experiments, the authors quantified optoacoustic signals by subtracting the temporal profile at low FIO2 (0.08-0.1) from profiles at higher FIO2 and integrating those signals in the range from 3 to 5 micros. In each validation experiment, optoacoustic signals showed tight temporal association and good linear correlation with measured oxyhemoglobin saturation (r2 0.75 to 0.99 for eight individual experiments).
The optoacoustic system detects signals induced in the SSS and optoacoustic signals from the SSS linearly correlate with oxyhemoglobin saturation. The data suggest that the optoacoustic technique merits clinical evaluation.