D W Hay

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (95)418.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Activation of M3 muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChR) increases airway tone whereas its blockade improves lung function and quality of life in patients with pulmonary diseases. The present study evaluated the pharmacological properties of a novel mAChR antagonist, GSK573719, 4-[hydroxy(diphenyl)methyl]-1-{2-[(phenylmethyl)oxy]ethyl}-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (umeclidinium). The affinity (K(i)) of GSK573719 for the cloned human M1-M5 mAChRs ranged from 0.05-0.16 nM. Dissociation of [(3)H]-GSK573719 from the M3 mAChR was slower than that for the M2 mAChR; t(1/2) values = 82 and 9 min, respectively. In CHO cells transfected with recombinant human M3 mAChRs, GSK573719 demonstrated pM potency (-log pA(2) = 23.9 pM) in an acetylcholine (Ach)-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization assay. Concentration-response curves indicate competitive antagonism with partial reversibility after drug wash-out. Using isolated human bronchial strips, GSK573719 was also potent and showed competitive antagonism (-log pA(2) = 316 pM) vs carbachol and was slowly reversible in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100 nM). The time to 50% restoration of contraction at 10 nM was about 381 min (vs 413 min for tiotropium bromide). In mice, the ED(50) value was 0.02 μg/mouse intranasally. In conscious guinea pigs, intratracheal administration of GSK573719 dose-dependently blocked Ach-induced bronchoconstriction with long duration of action and was comparable to tiotropium; 2.5 μg elicited 50% bronchoprotection for >24h. Thus, GSK573719 is a potent anticholinergic agent that demonstrates slow functional reversibility at the human M3 mAChR and long duration of action in animal models. This pharmacological profile translated into 24h duration of bronchodilation in vivo which suggested umeclidinium will be a once-daily inhaled treatment for pulmonary diseases.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2013; · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been suggested to have a potential function as an inflammatory mediator. The study reported here assessed the putative inflammatory/nociceptive actions of the ET isopeptides using endothelin-B (ETB)-receptor knockout (KO) mice and ETA- (SB 234551) and ETB- (A192621) selective antagonists. Phenylbenzoquinone (PBQ)-induced algesia was evident in the wild-type (WT) ETB (+/+) mice, attenuated by 80% in the heterozygous ETB (+/-) mice, and absent in the ETB (-/-) homozygotes. This was reproduced pharmacologically in WT ETB (+/+) mice where the algesic effect of PBQ was inhibited 74% by A192621, but unaffected by SB 234551 (both at 25 mg/kg p.o.). Similar observations were made in a model of cutaneous inflammation: ETB (+/+) mice had a marked inflammatory response to topical arachidonic acid, ETB (+/-) and ETB (-/-) mice had significantly reduced edema responses (37% and 65% inhibition). Neutrophil infiltration was reduced in the ETB (+/-) and ETB (-/-) mice (51% and 65% reduction, respectively). Topical administration of A192621 (500 [mu]g/ear) inhibited arachidonic acid-induced swelling (39%) in WT ETB (+/+) mice. Collectively, these results support a role for the ETB-receptor in the mediation of inflammatory pain and cutaneous inflammatory responses. As such, the development of ETB-receptor-selective antagonists may be of therapeutic utility in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. (C) 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 08/2012; 36. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contractile profile of human urotensin-II (hU-II) was examined in primate airway and pulmonary vascular tissues. hU-II contracted tissues from different airway regions with similar potencies (pD2s from 8.6 to 9.2). However, there were regional differences in the efficacy of hU-II, with a progressive increase in the maximum contraction from trachea to smaller airway regions (from 9 to 41% of the contraction to 10 μM carbachol). hU-II potently contracted pulmonary artery tissues from different regions with similar potencies and efficacies: pD2s=8.7 to 9.3 and maximal contractions=79 to 86% of 60 mM KCl. hU-II potently contracted pulmonary vein preparations taken proximal to the atria, but had no effect in tissues from distal to the atria. This is the first report describing the contractile activity of hU-II in airways and suggests that the potential pathophysiological role of this peptide in lung diseases warrants investigation.British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 131, 10–12; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703533
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2009; 131(1):10 - 12. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel and highly convergent synthesis leading to 2‐phenyl‐quinolines has been developed. As demonstrated in the preparation of 6‐fluoro‐3‐(3‐oxo‐piperazin‐1‐ylmethyl)‐2‐phenyl‐quinoline‐4‐carboxylic acid [(S)‐1‐cyclohexyl‐ethyl]‐amide (8), the method provides fascile access to this class of analogues via the common intermediate 7.
    Synthetic Communications 01/2005; 35(24):3105-3112. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much evidence implicates IL-8 as a major mediator of inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. The effects of IL-8 and its related ligands are mediated via two receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. In the present study, we demonstrate that a potent and selective nonpeptide antagonist of human CXCR2 potently inhibits (125)I-labeled human IL-8 binding to, and human IL-8-induced calcium mobilization mediated by, rabbit CXCR2 (IC(50) = 40.5 and 7.7 nM, respectively), but not rabbit CXCR1 (IC(50) = >1000 and 2200 nM, respectively). These data suggest that the rabbit is an appropriate species in which to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of a human CXCR2-selective antagonist. In two acute models of arthritis in the rabbit induced by knee joint injection of human IL-8 or LPS, and a chronic Ag (OVA)-induced arthritis model, administration of the antagonist at 25 mg/kg by mouth twice a day significantly reduced synovial fluid neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. In addition, in the more robust LPS- and OVA-induced arthritis models, which were characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory mediators in the synovial fluid, TNF-alpha, IL-8, PGE(2), leukotriene B(4), and leukotriene C(4) levels were significantly reduced, as was erythrocyte sedimentation rate, possibly as a result of the observed decreases in serum TNF-alpha and IL-8 levels. In vitro, the antagonist potently inhibited human IL-8-induced chemotaxis of rabbit neutrophils (IC(50) = 0.75 nM), suggesting that inhibition of leukocyte migration into the knee joint is a likely mechanism by which the CXCR2 antagonist modulates disease.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2002; 169(11):6435-44. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this report the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile of (-)-(S)-N-(alpha-ethylbenzyl)-3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxamide (SB 235375), a low central nervous system (CNS)-penetrant, human neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptor (hNK-3R) antagonist, is described. SB 235375 inhibited (125)I-[MePhe(7)]-neurokinin B (NKB) binding to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the hNK-3R (CHO-hNK-3R) with a K(i) = 2.2 nM and antagonized competitively NKB-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing the hNK-3R (HEK 293-hNK-3R) with a K(b) = 12 nM. SB 235375 antagonized senktide (NK-3R)-induced contractions in rabbit isolated iris sphincter (pA(2) = 8.1) and guinea pig ileal circular smooth muscles (pA(2) = 8.3). SB 235375 was selective for the hNK-3R compared with hNK-1 (K(i) > 100,000 nM) and hNK-2 receptors (K(i) = 209 nM), and was without effect, at 1 microM, in 68 other receptor, enzyme, and ion channel assays. Intravenous SB 235375 produced a dose-related inhibition of miosis induced by i.v. senktide in the rabbit (ED(50) of 0.56 mg/kg). Intraperitoneal SB 235375 (10-30 mg/kg) inhibited citric acid-induced cough and airways hyper-reactivity in guinea pigs. In mice oral SB 235375 (3-30 mg/kg) was without significant effect on the behavioral responses induced by intracerebral ventricular administration of senktide. Pharmacokinetic evaluation in the mouse and rat revealed that oral SB 235375 was well absorbed systemically but did not effectively cross the blood-brain barrier. The preclinical profile of SB 235375, encompassing high affinity, selectivity, oral activity, and low CNS penetration, suggests that it is an appropriate tool compound to define the pathophysiological roles of the NK-3Rs in the peripheral nervous system.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2002; 300(1):314-23. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • D W Hay, H M Sarau
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory cells are thought to be instrumental in the pathophysiology of pulmonary diseases, and control of their recruitment and activation in the lung would appear to be an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. Interleukin-8 and related CXC chemokines are involved in the function of neutrophils and T cells, and have been implicated in several lung diseases. Small-molecule antagonists of the interleukin-8 receptors have been identified, which may help elucidate the role of interleukin-8 and related chemokines in the pathophysiology of lung diseases.
    Current Opinion in Pharmacology 07/2001; 1(3):242-7. · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, lipid products derived from arachidonic acid metabolism, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory diseases, in particular, asthma. This unit describes techniques and applications for the measurement of contractile responses to the CysLTs in isolated smooth muscle preparations. The contractions are assessed by standard methods for the isometric measurement of responses (contractile or relaxant) of isolated tissues to exogenous agonists, and a detailed description of the methods employed to assess CysLT-induced contractions in guinea-pig trachea is outlined. However, the same general methodology (other than parameters such as dissection for non-airway tissues) are appropriate for measuring CysLT-induced contractions in airway preparations from other animals, and in non-airways tissues (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract) from different species, and also in exploring the relaxant responses to the CysLTs that have been demonstrated in some tissues (e.g., pulmonary vein or artery).
    Current protocols in pharmacology 05/2001; Chapter 4:Unit 4.16.
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    ABSTRACT: A stepwise chemical modification from human neurokinin-3 receptor (hNK-3R)-selective antagonists to potent and combined hNK-3R and hNK-2R antagonists using the same 2-phenylquinoline template is described. Docking studies with 3-D models of the hNK-3 and hNK-2 receptors were used to drive the chemical design and speed up the identification of potent and combined antagonsits at both receptors. (S)-(+)-N-(1-Cyclohexylethyl)-3-[(4-morpholin-4-yl)piperidin-1-yl]methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxamide (compound 25, SB-400238: hNK-3R binding affinity, Ki = 0.8 nM; hNK-2R binding affinity, Ki = 0.8 nM) emerged as the best example in this approach. Further studies led to the identification of (S)-(+)-N-(1,2,2-trimethylpropyl)-3-[(4-piperidin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxamide (compound 28, SB-414240: hNK-3R binding affinity, Ki = 193 nM; hNK-2R binding affinity, Ki = 1.0 nM) as the first hNK-2R-selective antagonist belonging to the 2-phenylquinoline chemical class. Since some members of this chemical series showed a significant binding affinity for the human μ-opioid receptor (hMOR), docking studies were also conducted on a 3-D model of the hMOR, resulting in the identification of a viable chemical strategy to avoid any significant μ-opioid component. Compounds 25 and 28 are therefore suitable pharmacological tools in the tachykinin area to elucidate further the pathophysiological role of NK-3 and NK-2 receptors and the therapeutic potential of selective NK-2 (28) or combined NK-3 and NK-2 (25) receptor antagonists.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2001; 44(11):1675-1689. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of endothelin B (ET(B)) receptors in mediating ET ligand-induced contractions in mouse trachea was examined in ET(B) receptor knockout animals. Autoradiographic binding studies, using [(125)I]-ET-1, confirmed the presence of ET(A) receptors in tracheal and bronchial airway smooth muscle from wild-type (+/+) and homozygous recessive (-/-) ET(B) receptor knockout mice. In contrast, ET(B) receptors were not detected in airway tissues from (-/-) mice. In tracheae from (+/+) mice, the rank order of potencies of the ET ligands was sarafotoxin (Stx) S6c>ET-1>ET-3; Stx S6c had a lower efficacy than ET-1 or ET-3. In tissues from (-/-) mice there was no response to Stx S6c (up to 0.1 microM), whereas the maximum responses and potencies of ET-1 and ET-3 were similar to those in (+/+) tracheae. ET-3 concentration-response curve was biphasic in (+/+) tissues (via ET(A) and ET(B) receptor activation), and monophasic in (-/-) preparations (via stimulation of only ET(A) receptors). In (+/+) preparations SB 234551 (1 nM), an ET(A) receptor-selective antagonist, inhibited the secondary phase, but not the first phase, of the ET-3 concentration-response curve, whereas A192621 (100 nM), an ET(B) receptor-selective antagonist, had the opposite effect. In (-/-) tissues SB 234551 (1 nM), but not A192621 (100 nM), produced a rightward shift in ET-3 concentration-response curves. The results confirm the significant influence of both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in mediating ET-1-induced contractions in mouse trachea. Furthermore, the data do not support the hypothesis of atypical ET(B) receptors. In this preparation ET-3 is not an ET(B) receptor-selective ligand, producing contractions via activation of both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2001; 132(8):1905-15. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Starting with a partial sequence from Genbank, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to isolate the full-length cDNA for NK(3) receptor from mouse brain. The murine NK(3) receptor has a predicted sequence of 452 amino acids, sharing 96% and 86% identity to the rat and human NK(3) receptors, respectively. Binding affinities and functional potencies of tachykinin receptor agonists were similar in HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 cells expressing murine NK(3) receptor and human NK(3) receptor, although substance P and neurokinin A were more potent stimulators of Ca(2+) mobilization in murine NK(3) receptor cells. NK(3) receptor-selective antagonists from two structural classes, had 10- to 100-fold lower binding affinities for murine NK(3) receptor compared to human NK(3) receptor, and about 5- to 10-fold reduced potency in the murine NK(3) receptor functional assay. The results demonstrate species differences in the potencies of tachykinin receptor antagonists in murine and human NK(3) receptors, and the lower potencies in the former should be taken into consideration when using murine disease models.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 03/2001; 413(2-3):143-50. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 3':5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is known to modulate cytokine production in a number of cell types, little information exists regarding cAMP-mediated effects on this synthetic function of human airway smooth-muscle (HASM) cells. We examined the effect of increasing intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP](i)) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from cultured HASM cells. Pretreatment of HASM with prostaglandin (PG) E(2), forskolin, or dibutyryl cAMP inhibited TNF-alpha-induced RANTES secretion but increased TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 secretion. Moreover, stimulation with PGE(2), forskolin, or dibutyryl cAMP alone increased basal IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. SB 207499, a specific phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, augmented the inhibitory effects of PGE(2) and forskolin on TNF-alpha-induced RANTES. Collectively, these data demonstrate that increasing [cAMP](i) in HASM effectively increases IL-6 secretion but reduces RANTES secretion promoted by TNF-alpha. Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction and ribonuclease protection assays suggested that these opposite effects of increased [cAMP](i) on TNF-alpha- induced IL-6 and RANTES secretion may occur at the transcriptional level. Accordingly, we examined the effects of TNF- alpha and cAMP on the regulation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, a transcription factor known to modulate cytokine synthesis in numerous cell types. Stimulation of HASM cells with TNF-alpha increased NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. However, increased [cAMP](i) in HASM neither activated NF-kappaB nor altered TNF-alpha- induced NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. These results were confirmed using a NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter assay. Together, our data suggest that TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and RANTES secretion may be associated with NF-kappaB activation, and that inhibition of TNF-alpha-stimulated RANTES secretion and augmentation of IL-6 secretion by increased [cAMP](i) in HASM cells occurs via an NF-kappaB-independent mechanism.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/2001; 23(6):794-802. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of a second generation p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB 239063 [trans-1-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxypyridim idi n-4-yl)imidazole; IC(50) = 44 nM vs. p38 alpha], were assessed in models that represent different pathological aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [airway neutrophilia, enhanced cytokine formation and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity] and in a model of lung fibrosis. Airway neutrophil infiltration and interleukin (IL)-6 levels, assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage 48 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, were inhibited dose dependently by 3-30 mg/kg of SB 239063 given orally twice a day. In addition, SB 239063 (30 mg/kg orally) attenuated IL-6 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations (>90% inhibition) and MMP-9 activity (64% inhibition) assessed 6 h after LPS exposure. In guinea pig cultured alveolar macrophages, SB 239063 inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 production (IC(50) of 362 nM). In a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in rats, treatment with SB 239063 (2.4 or 4.8 mg/day via osmotic pump) significantly inhibited bleomycin-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (indicative of secondary pulmonary hypertension) and increases in lung hydroxyproline synthesis (indicative of collagen synthesis and fibrosis). Therefore, SB 239063 demonstrates activity against a range of sequelae commonly associated with COPD and fibrosis, supporting the therapeutic potential of p38 MAPK inhibitors such as SB 239063 in chronic airway disease.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 12/2000; 279(5):L895-902. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile of SB-222200 [(S)-(-)-N-(alpha-ethylbenzyl)-3-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-car boxami de], a human NK-3 receptor (hNK-3R) antagonist, was determined. SB-222200 inhibited (125)I-[MePhe(7)]neurokinin B (NKB) binding to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes stably expressing the hNK-3 receptor (CHO-hNK-3R) with a K(i) = 4.4 nM and antagonized NKB-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in HEK 293 cells stably expressing the hNK-3 receptor (HEK 293-hNK-3R) with an IC(50) = 18.4 nM. SB-222200 was selective for hNK-3 receptors compared with hNK-1 (K(i) > 100,000 nM) and hNK-2 receptors (K(i) = 250 nM). In HEK 293 cells transiently expressing murine NK-3 receptors (HEK 293-mNK-3R), SB-222200 inhibited binding of (125)I-[MePhe(7)]NKB (K(i) = 174 nM) and antagonized NKB (1 nM)-induced calcium mobilization (IC(50) = 265 nM). In mice oral administration of SB-222200 produced dose-dependent inhibition of behavioral responses induced by i.p. or intracerebral ventricular administration of the NK-3 receptor-selective agonist, senktide, with ED(50) values of approximately 5 mg/kg. SB-222200 effectively crossed the blood-brain barrier in the mouse and rat. The inhibitory effect of SB-222200 against senktide-induced behavioral responses in the mouse correlated significantly with brain, but not plasma, concentrations of the compound. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of SB-222200 in rat after oral administration (8 mg/kg) indicated sustained plasma concentrations (C(max) = about 400 ng/ml) and bioavailability of 46%. The preclinical profile of SB-222200, demonstrating high affinity, selectivity, reversibility, oral activity, and central nervous system penetration, suggests that it will be a useful tool compound to define the physiological and pathophysiological roles of NK-3 receptors, in particular in the central nervous system.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2000; 295(1):373-81. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been proposals that the tachykinin receptor classification should be extended to include a novel receptor, the "neurokinin-4" receptor (NK-4R), which has a close homology with the human NK-3 receptor (hNK-3R). We compared the pharmacological and molecular biological characteristics of the hNK-3R and NK-4R. Binding experiments, with (125)I-[MePhe(7)]-NKB binding to HEK 293 cell membranes transiently expressing the hNK-3R (HEK 293-hNK-3R) or NK-4R (HEK 293-NK-4R), and functional studies (Ca(2+) mobilization in the same cells) revealed a similar profile of sensitivity to tachykinin agonists and antagonists for both receptors; i.e., in binding studies with the hNK-3R, MePhe(7)-NKB > NKB > senktide > NKA = Substance P; with the NK-4R, MePhe(7)-NKB > NKB = senktide > Substance P = NKA; and with antagonists, SB 223412 = SR 142801 > SB 222200 > SR 48968 > CP 99994 for both hNK-3R and NK-4R. Thus, the pharmacology of the two receptors was nearly identical. However, attempts to isolate or identify the NK-4R gene by using various molecular biological techniques were unsuccessful. Procedures, including nested polymerase chain reaction studies, that used products with restriction endonuclease sites specific for either hNK-3R or NK-4R, failed to demonstrate the presence of NK-4R in genomic DNA from human, monkey, mouse, rat, hamster, or guinea pig, and in cDNA libraries from human lung, brain, or heart, whereas the hNK-3R was detectable in the latter libraries. In view of the failure to demonstrate the presence of the putative NK-4R it is thought to be premature to extend the current tachykinin receptor classification.
    Molecular Pharmacology 09/2000; 58(3):552-9. · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • D W Hay
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the high prevalence of and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, extensive research on the underlying pathophysiology and specific therapeutics for this disease is, relatively, in its infancy. Several novel molecular targets are being investigated as potential treatments for the disease. The most exciting new class of compounds is the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors; Ariflo (SB 207499)-a member of this class, and the most advanced in development (Phase III)-was reported recently to have significant clinical efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, such as Ariflo, possibly represent the most important advance in pulmonary medicine in recent years.
    Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 09/2000; 4(4):412-9. · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cardiopulmonary profile of three rat strains (Sprague-Dawley, Wistar and High altitude-sensitive) was compared upon exposure to hypoxia (9% O2) for 0, 7 or 14 days. No differences were observed among the in vitro contractile (ET-1) and relaxant (carbachol) responses of pulmonary artery isolated from the three strains during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia decreased ET-1 contractile responses and diminished relaxant responses to carbachol similarly in all strains. In Sprague-Dawley, Wistar and High altitude-sensitive rats, pulmonary arterial pressure rose time-dependently and was elevated by 108%, 116% and 167%, respectively, after 14 days of hypoxia compared to normoxic controls. Right ventricular hypertrophy was increased by 51%, 93% and 55%, respectively, at 14 days. Hypoxia-induced hypertrophy and medial thickening in the pulmonary vasculature were more pronounced in High altitude-sensitive rats. Sprague-Dawley exhibited hypoxia-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to intravenous methacholine, but there were no hypoxia- or strain-related differences in in vitro tracheal contractility. Although each strain exhibited greater sensitivity for a particular hypoxia-induced parameter, pulmonary vascular functional and structural changes suggest that High altitude-sensitive rats represent a choice model of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.
    Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 08/2000; 22(5):471-92. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-inflammatory/antiallergic activity of a novel second-generation p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB 239063[trans-1-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl) -4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxypyridimidin-4-yl)imidazole], was investigated in vivo and in vitro. SB 239063 had an IC(50) of 44 nM for inhibition of recombinant purified human p38alpha. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes, SB 239063 inhibited interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production (IC(50) values = 0.12 and 0.35 microM, respectively). A role for p38 kinase in cytokine-associated inflammation in the mouse was shown by p38 activation in the lung and inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by SB 239063 (ED(50) = 5.8 mg/kg p.o.). Antiallergic activity was demonstrated by essential abolition (approximately 93% inhibition) of inhaled ovalbumin (OA)-induced airway eosinophilia by SB 239063 (12 mg/kg p.o.), measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in OA-sensitized mice. In addition, p38 kinase was found by Western analysis to be activated in guinea pig lung. Administration of SB 239063 (10 or 30 mg/kg p.o.) in conscious guinea pigs markedly reduced ( approximately 50% inhibition) OA-induced pulmonary eosinophil influx, measured by BAL 24 h after antigen. SB 239063 (10 mg/kg b.i.d. p.o.) administered after leukotriene D(4) inhalation, reduced by 60% the persistent airway eosinophilia seen at 4 days. Apoptosis of cultured eosinophils isolated from guinea pig BAL was increased by SB 239063 (1-10 microM) in the presence of interleukin-5. These results indicate that SB 239063 is a potent inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine production, inhibits eosinophil recruitment, in addition to enhancing apoptosis of these cells. Collectively, the results support the potential utility of p38 kinase inhibitors, such as SB 239063, for the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory disorders.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2000; 293(1):281-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the activity of the delta-opioid receptor subtype-selective agonist, SB 227122, was investigated in a guinea pig model of citric acid-induced cough. Parenteral administration of selective agonists of the delta-opioid receptor (SB 227122), mu-opioid receptor (codeine and hydrocodone), and kappa-opioid receptor (BRL 52974) produced dose-related inhibition of citric acid-induced cough with ED(50) values of 7.3, 5.2, 5.1, and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (3 mg/kg, i.m.), attenuated the antitussive effects of codeine or SB 227122, indicating that the antitussive activity of both compounds is opioid receptor-mediated. The delta-receptor antagonist, SB 244525 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), inhibited the antitussive effect of SB 227122 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast, combined pretreatment with beta-funaltrexamine (mu-receptor antagonist; 20 mg/kg, s.c.) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa-receptor antagonist; 20 mg/kg, s.c.), at doses that inhibited the antitussive activity of mu- and kappa-receptor agonists, respectively, was without effect on the antitussive response of SB 227122 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). The sigma-receptor antagonist rimcazole (3 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the antitussive effect of dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg, i.p.), a sigma-receptor agonist, but not that of SB 227122. These studies provide compelling evidence that the antitussive effects of SB 227122 in this guinea pig cough model are mediated by agonist activity at the delta-opioid receptor.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2000; 292(2):803-9. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of endothelin B (ET(B)) receptors in inflammation and nociception was examined using ET(B) receptor knockout mice. Genotyping studies were used with tissues from ET(B)((+/+)), ET(B)((+/-)), and ET(B)((-/-)) mice to confirm the loss of ET(B) receptors. Algesia induced by phenylbenzoquinone was evident in the (+/+) mice, reduced by approximately 80% in the (+/-) mice, and absent in the (-/-) mice. Phenylbenzoquinone-induced algesia in (+/+) mice was inhibited 74% by the ET(B) receptor-selective antagonist A192621 (25 mg/kg p.o.), but unaffected by the ET(A) receptor-selective antagonist SB 234551 (25 mg/kg p.o.). Noninflammatory pain, induced by hotplate, was equivalent between (+/+) and (-/-) mice. The cutaneous inflammatory response to topical arachidonic acid (AA) also was evaluated. Whereas (+/+) mice had a marked inflammatory response to AA, the (+/-), and (-/-) mice had significantly reduced fluid phase responses (37 and 65% inhibition, respectively). Neutrophil infiltration also was reduced in the (+/-) and (-/-) mice (51 and 65% reduction, respectively). Topical administration of A192621 (500 microg/ear) in (+/+) mice inhibited AA-induced swelling (39%), whereas SB 234551 (500 microg/ear) was without effect. Collectively, these results implicate the ET(B) receptor in mediation of inflammatory pain and cutaneous inflammatory responses in mice.
    Molecular Pharmacology 11/1999; 56(4):807-12. · 4.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
418.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–1998
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1990–1995
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Medicine and Pharmacology
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1992
    • King's College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1988
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 1986
    • University of Strathclyde
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom