[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes an automatic algorithm that uses a geometry-driven optimization approach to restore the shape of three-dimensional (3D) left ventricular (LV) models created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The basic premise is to restore the LV shape such that the LV epicardial surface is smooth after the restoration and that the general shape characteristic of the LV is not altered. The Maximum Principle Curvature ([Formula: see text]) and the Minimum Principle Curvature ([Formula: see text]) of the LV epicardial surface are used to construct a shape-based optimization objective function to restore the shape of a motion-affected LV via a dual-resolution semi-rigid deformation process and a free-form geometric deformation process. A limited memory quasi-Newton algorithm, L-BFGS-B, is then used to solve the optimization problem. The goal of the optimization is to achieve a smooth epicardial shape by iterative in-plane and through-plane translation of vertices in the LV model. We tested our algorithm on 30 sets of LV models with simulated motion artifact generated from a very smooth patient sample, and 20 in vivo patient-specific models which contain significant motion artifacts. In the 30 simulated samples, the Hausdorff distances with respect to the Ground Truth are significantly reduced after restoration, signifying that the algorithm can restore geometrical accuracy of motion-affected LV models. In the 20 in vivo patient-specific models, the results show that our method is able to restore the shape of LV models without altering the general shape of the model. The magnitudes of in-plane translations are also consistent with existing registration techniques and experimental findings.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68615. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A quantitative understanding of right ventricular (RV) remodeling in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) is crucial for patient management. The objective of this study is to quantify the regional curvatures and area strain based on three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the RV using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen (14) rTOF patients and nine (9) normal subjects underwent cardiac MRI scan. 3-D RV endocardial surface models were reconstructed from manually delineated contours and correspondence between end-diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) was determined. Regional curvedness (C) and surface area at ED and ES were calculated as well as the area strain. The RV shape and deformation in rTOF patients differed from normal subjects in several respects. Firstly, the curvedness at ED (mean for 13 segments, 0.030 ± 0.0076 vs. 0.029 ± 0.0065 mm(-1); P < 0.05) and ES (mean for 13 segments, 0.040 ± 0.012 vs. 0.034 ± 0.0072 mm(-1); P < 0.001) was decreased by chronic pulmonary regurgitation. Secondly, the surface area increased significantly at ED (mean for 13 segments, 982 ± 192 vs. 1,397 ± 387 mm(2); P < 0.001) and ES (mean for 13 segments, 576 ± 130 vs. 1,012 ± 302 mm(2); P < 0.001). In particular, rTOF patients had significantly larger surface area than that in normal subjects in the free wall but not for the septal wall. Thirdly, area strain was significantly decreased (mean for 13 segments, 56 ± 6 vs. 34 ± 7%; P < 0.0001) in rTOF patients. Fourthly, there were increases in surface area at ED (5,726 ± 969 vs. 6,605 ± 1,122 mm(2); P < 0.05) and ES (4,280 ± 758 vs. 5,569 ± 1,112 mm(2); P < 0.01) and decrease in area strain (29 ± 8 vs. 18 ± 8%; P < 0.001) for RV outflow tract. These findings suggest significant geometric and strain differences between rTOF and normal subjects that may help guide therapeutic treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A computational method for quantifying left ventricle (LV) remodeling using 3D mesh models reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging is proposed. The underlying geometry of the LV mesh is obtained by using a quadric fitting method, and its quantification is performed by using a curvedness shape descriptor. To achieve robustness, we have performed detailed studies of the effects of n-ring parameter selection on the accuracy of this method with in vitro and in vivo LV models. We have found that curvedness calculations based on a 5-ring selection can accurately depict anomalies in LV shape despite the presence of noise due to manual image segmentation. Our studies show that patients after myocardial infarction exhibit significant LV shape alteration in terms of curvedness, in particular at the apex. The diastole-to-systole change in regional curvedness was significantly lower suggesting regional differences in hypokinesis due to infarcted myocardium. This approach may add new insights into ventricular deformation and enable better discrimination between normal and pathologic conditions.
Computer methods and programs in biomedicine 04/2011; 108(2):500-10. · 1.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geometric remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) after myocardial infarction is associated with changes in myocardial wall stress. The objective of this study was to determine the regional curvatures and wall stress based on three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the LV using MRI. Ten patients with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) and 10 normal subjects underwent MRI scan. The IDCM patients also underwent delayed gadolinium-enhancement imaging to delineate the extent of myocardial infarct. Regional curvedness, local radii of curvature, and wall thickness were calculated. The percent curvedness change between end diastole and end systole was also calculated. In normal heart, a short- and long-axis two-dimensional analysis showed a 41 +/- 11% and 45 +/- 12% increase of the mean of peak systolic wall stress between basal and apical sections, respectively. However, 3-D analysis showed no significant difference in peak systolic wall stress from basal and apical sections (P = 0.298, ANOVA). LV shape differed between IDCM patients and normal subjects in several ways: LV shape was more spherical (sphericity index = 0.62 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05), curvedness at end diastole (mean for 16 segments = 0.034 +/- 0.0056 vs. 0.040 +/- 0.0071 mm(-1), P < 0.001) and end systole (mean for 16 segments = 0.037 +/- 0.0068 vs. 0.067 +/- 0.020 mm(-1), P < 0.001) was affected by infarction, and peak systolic wall stress was significantly increased at each segment in IDCM patients. The 3-D quantification of regional wall stress by cardiac MRI provides more precise evaluation of cardiac mechanics. Identification of regional curvedness and wall stresses helps delineate the mechanisms of LV remodeling in IDCM and may help guide therapeutic LV restoration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is believed that left ventricular (LV) regional shape is indicative of LV regional function, and cardiac pathologies are often associated with regional alterations in ventricular shape. In this article, we present a set of procedures for evaluating regional LV surface shape from anatomically accurate models reconstructed from cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. LV surface curvatures are computed using local surface fitting method, which enables us to assess regional LV shape and its variation. Comparisons are made between normal and diseased hearts. It is illustrated that LV surface curvatures at different regions of the normal heart are higher than those of the diseased heart. Also, the normal heart experiences a larger change in regional curvedness during contraction than the diseased heart. It is believed that with a wide range of dataset being evaluated, this approach will provide a new and efficient way of quantifying LV regional function.
Medical & Biological Engineering 11/2008; 47(3):313-22. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid pressure built-up in the left ventricular (LV) cavity is mainly due to the contraction of the helically oriented myocardial fibers, and its associated wall deformation. In this paper, we recover and elucidate the left ventricular wall motion during isovolumic contraction using a shape-based tracking approach. In particular, the LV surface properties are derived by means of local surface fitting, and the point-correspondences between successive time frames are determined using a thin plate bending model. Results show that the LV motion during isovolumic contraction is largely contributed by the twisting action of the LV.
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2007; 2007:787-90.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular functional abnormalities are postulated to be associated with regional modification of surface curvature. This study describes the computation of the differential properties of the LV surface via an analytic approach using local surface fitting. Quantification was implemented with cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was used as the source to derive 3D wire-frame models and the related shape descriptors. Based on these shape descriptors, the shape of LV could be represented in both static and dynamic manners. These may have implications for diverse cardiac diseases.
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2007; 2007:884-7.