P Kugler

University of Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (84)132.83 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous data showed that cell surface expression of the glutamate transporters GLT1a and excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), localized in glia and neurons of the CNS, can be regulated by protein kinase C (PKC). Regulation and physiological importance of GLT1b, a splice variant of GLT1a, is not understood. In the present study we used cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) from mice to investigate PKC dependent trafficking of GLT1b in comparison to GLT1a and EAAC1 using immunohistochemistry and subcellular fractionation followed by Western blotting. In neurites of CGCs, GLT1b and EAAC1 were localized to different aggregates of vesicles that were different from vesicle aggregates containing vesicular glutamate transporters. In CGCs cultured with low-potassium medium, stimulation of PKC by phorbol ester enhanced the formation of large varicosities in neurites that exhibited immunoreactivity for GLT1a, GLT1b, and EAAC1. Stimulation of PKC leads to a significant increase of GLT1b and EAAC1 in the plasma membrane whereas GLT1a in the plasma membrane was decreased. Following PKC stimulation, also a significant increase of transporter-mediated glutamate uptake representing sodium dependent glutamate uptake, was observed. Similarly, the fraction of glutamate uptake, that was sensitive to the inhibitor WAY-213613 and represents uptake by GLT1a and GLT1b, was increased after stimulation by PKC. The findings suggest that PKC is similarly involved in regulation of surface trafficking of GLT1b and EAAC1 and that PKC stimulated increase in surface location of GLT1b and EAAC1 in glutamatergic CGCs.
    Neuroscience 05/2009; 161(3):794-805. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    Peter Kugler
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate and aspartate play important roles in the intermediary metabolism of the myocardium and have been shown to improve cardiac recovery after hypoxia or ischemia. Limited data are available about the expression of glutamate transporters that are involved in the uptake of glutamate and aspartate in cardiomyocytes. In this study, non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) using complementary RNA probes was applied to detect the glutamate transporters GLT1 variant (GLT1v) and EAAC1 mRNA in rat cardiomyocytes. The transporter proteins were demonstrated by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry using affinity-purified antibodies against transporter peptides. ISH and immunocytochemistry showed that both glutamate transporters are coexpressed in cardiomyocytes. The ISH labeling indicates the distribution of transporter mRNA throughout the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. GLT1v and EAAC1 proteins, which showed in Western blots a molecular mass of approximately 60 kD, are strongly enriched and colocalized in the transverse (T)-tubular system of cardiomyocytes. These results may indicate that glutamate/aspartate uptake into cardiomyocytes could be mediated by the high-affinity transporters GLT1v and EAAC1. A high efficiency of glutamate/aspartate transport into cardiomyocytes could be achieved by their localization in the T-tubular system, which consists of tubular invaginations of the sarcolemma extending deep into the cell.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 11/2004; 52(10):1385-92. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Peter Kugler, Verena Schleyer
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the CNS and plays distinct roles in a number of developmental events. Its extracellular concentration, which mediates these activities, is regulated by glutamate transporters in glial cells and neurons. In the present study, we have used nonradioactive in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblotting to show the cellular and regional expression of the high-affinity glutamate transporters GLAST (EAAT1) and generic GLT1 (EAAT2; glial form of GLT1) in the rat hippocampus during postnatal development (P1-60). The results of transporter expression were compared with the localization and activity pattern of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an important glutamate-metabolizing enzyme. The study showed that both transporters and GDH were demonstrable at P1 (day of birth). The expression of GLAST (detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry) in the early postnatal development was higher than GLT1. Thereafter, the expression of both transporters increased, showing adult levels at between P20 and P30 (detected by in situ hybridization and immunoblotting). At these time points, the expression of GLT1 appeared to be significantly higher than the GLAST expression. GLT1 and GLAST proteins were demonstrable only in astrocytes. The increase of GDH activities (steepest increase from P5-P8), which were localized preferentially in astrocytes, was in agreement with the increase of transporter expression, preferentially with that of GLT1. These observations suggest that the extent of glutamate transporter expression and of glutamate-metabolizing GDH activity in astrocytes is intimately correlated with the formation of glutamatergic synapses in the developing hippocampus.
    Hippocampus 02/2004; 14(8):975-85. · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • Peter Kugler, Astrid Beyer
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    ABSTRACT: l-Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate retina and plays a central role in the transmission of the various retinal neurons. Glutamate is removed from the extracellular space by at least five different glutamate transporters. The cellular distribution of these has been studied so far mainly using immunocytochemistry. In the present study non-radioactive in situ hybridisation using complementary RNA probes was applied in order to identify the cell types of rat retina and optic nerve expressing generic GLT1, GLT1 variant (GLT1v or GLT1B), GLAST and EAAC1. The results were compared with immunocytochemical data achieved using affinity-purified antibodies against transporter peptides. In the immunohistochemical studies the human retina was included. The study showed that in the rat retina GLT1v and EAAC1 were coexpressed in various cell types, i.e. photoreceptor, bipolar, horizontal, amacrine, ganglion and Müller cells, whereas GLAST was only detected in Müller cells and astrocytes. In the rat optic nerve GLT1v and EAAC1 were preferentially expressed in oligodendrocytes, whereas GLAST was revealed to be present mainly in astrocytes. Generic GLT1 could not be detected in the retina or optic nerve. The cellular distribution of glutamate transporters (only immunocytochemistry) in the human retina was very similar to that of the rat retina. Remarkable results of our studies were that generic GLT1 was not detectable in the rat (and human) retina and that GLT1v and EAAC1 were demonstrable in most cell types of the retina (including photoreceptor cells and their terminals).
    Histochemie 10/2003; 120(3):199-212. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Peter Kugler, Angelika Schmitt
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    ABSTRACT: The glutamate transporter GLT1 is essential in limiting transmitter signaling and restricting harmful receptor overstimulation. It has been shown recently that GLT1 exists in two forms, the generic GLT1 and a 3'-end-spliced variant of GLT1 (GLT1v), both with similar transport characteristics. To differentiate clearly the cellular distribution of both GLT1 forms in the cortex, specific cRNA probes for non-radioactive in situ hybridization were generated and applied to adult rat brain sections. The results were complemented by western and northern blot analyses and by immunocytochemical investigations using specific peptide antibodies against both GLT1 forms. The study confirmed that generic GLT1 mRNA was expressed predominantly in astrocytes and, to a small extent, in neurons, whereas GLT1 protein was detected only in cell membranes of astrocytes. On the other hand, GLT1v mRNA and protein were demonstrated predominantly in neurons and in non-astrocytic glial cells irrespective of the cortical areas studied. A cytoplasmic granular staining of neurons and astrocytes predominated in the demonstration of GLT1v protein. It is concluded that the cellular expression of the two GLT1 forms is complementary. The cytoplasmic vesicular distribution of GLT1v may represent an endogenous protective mechanism to limit glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.
    Histochemie 07/2003; 119(6):425-35. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • A Schmitt, E Asan, K-P Lesch, Peter Kugler
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate via the high affinity glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1; EAAT2) is important for limiting transmitter signalling and prevents a harmful receptor overstimulation. So far, in the adult brain GLT1 protein has only been detected in astrocytes. Here, we describe the cDNA cloning of a variant of GLT1 from rat brain which is generated by alternative splicing at the 3'-end of the GLT1 cDNA. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the GLT1 variant message was present not only in brain, but also in peripheral organs. Northern blot analysis showed that in brain the mRNA of GLT1 (approximately 11 kb) is predominant while in the retina the mRNA of GLT1 variant (approximately 12.5 kb) prevails. In situ hybridization using cRNA and oligonucleotide probes, and immunocytochemistry using an antibody against a synthetic GLT1v peptide were applied in order to identify the cell types expressing GLT1 variant in the adult rat nervous system. GLT1 variant is preferentially expressed in neurons of the CNS and PNS, but is also detected in glial cells (oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, epithelial cells of the plexus choroideus, satellite cells, and Schwann cells). In contrast to GLT1, GLT1 variant was only occasionally detected in astrocytes. Immunolabelling revealed a preferentially cytoplasmic (frequently granular) staining of neurons and glial cells, suggesting a localization of GLT1 variant protein in vesicle membranes. The studies provide evidence that the cellular expression of the GLT1 variant in the CNS is almost complementary to that of GLT1 and that the GLT1 variant does not seem to be restricted to the CNS.
    Neuroscience 02/2002; 109(1):45-61. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • C Hein, E Horváth, P Kugler
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    ABSTRACT: The glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST localized in astrocytes are essential in limiting transmitter signalling and restricting harmful receptor overstimulation. To show changes in the expression of both transporters following lesion of the entorhinal cortex (and degeneration of the glutamatergic tractus perforans), quantitative microscopic in situ hybridization (ISH) using alkaline-phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotide probes was applied to the outer molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats (termination field of the tractus perforans). Four groups of rats were studied: sham-operated controls, and animals 3, 14 and 60 days following unilateral electrolytic lesion of the entorhinal cortex. The postlesional shrinkage of the terminal field of the perforant path, ipsilateral to the lesion side, was determined and considered in the evaluation of quantitative ISH data. Statistical analysis revealed that ipsilateral to the lesion side there was a significant decrease of the GLT-1 mRNA at every postlesional time-point and of the GLAST mRNA at 14 and 60 days postlesion. The maximal decrease was approximately 45% for GLT-1 and approximately 35% for GLAST. In the terminal field of the perforant path contralateral to the lesion side, no significant changes of ISH labelling were measured. The results were complemented by immunocytochemical data achieved using antibodies against synthetic GLT-1 and GLAST peptides. In accordance with ISH results, there was an obvious decrease of GLT-1 and GLAST immunostaining in the terminal field of the perforant path ipsilateral to the lesion side. From these data we conclude that, following a lesioning of the entorhinal cortex, the loss of glutamatergic synapses in the terminal field of the perforant path resulted in a strong downregulation of glutamate transporters in astrocytes. The decrease of synaptically released glutamate or of other neuronal factors could be involved in this downregulation.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 06/2001; 13(10):1839-48. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • P Kugler, A Schmitt
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotide and cRNA probes were used for non-radioactive in situ hybridization, carried out to identify the cell types in the nervous system of rat expressing the glutamate transporter EAAC1 mRNA. The results were compared with immunocytochemical data obtained using an antibody against a synthetic EAAC1 peptide. The present data confirm that EAAC1 is expressed in neurons of the CNS. Additionally, our findings indicate the localization of EAAC1 mRNA and protein in peripheral neurons (spinal ganglia) and in glial cells, i.e., oligodendrocytes in various white matter regions of the CNS, ependymal cells, and epithelial cells of the plexus choroideus of the four ventricles, as well as in satellite cells of spinal ganglia. Immunolabeling revealed a preferentially cytoplasmic staining of neurons and glial cells. The cytoplasmic staining was frequently granular, suggesting a localization of EAAC1 protein in vesicle membranes. A membrane localization of EAAC1 was also indicated by Western blotting, which showed immunoreactivity only in the 100,000 x g pellet of brain homogenate. We conclude that the glutamate transporter EAAC1 is not restricted to neurons but may also play an important role in glial cells, particularly in oligodendrocytes.
    Glia 09/1999; 27(2):129-42. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • A Schmitt, P Kugler
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    ABSTRACT: In the central nervous system glutamate dehydrogenase appears to be strongly involved in the metabolism of transmitter glutamate and plays a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In order to identify unequivocally the neural cell types expressing this enzyme, non-radioactive in situ hybridization, using a complementary RNA probe and oligonucleotide probes, was applied to sections of the rat central nervous system and, for comparison with peripheral neural cells, to cervical spinal ganglia. The results were complemented by immunocytochemical studies using a polyclonal antibody against purified glutamate dehydrodenase. Glutamate dehydrogenase messenger RNA was detectable at varying amounts in neurons and glial cells (i.e. astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Bergmann glia, ependymal cells, epithelial cells of the plexus choroideus) throughout the central nervous system and in neurons and satellite cells of spinal ganglia. In some neuronal populations (e.g., pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, motoneurons of the spinal cord and spinal ganglia neurons) messenger RNA-labelling was higher than in other central nervous system neurons. This is remarkable because the immunostaining of neurons in the central nervous system regions studied was at best weak, whereas a predominantly high level of immunoreactivity was detected in astrocytes (and Bergmann glia). Thus, in neurons of the central nervous system, the detected levels of glutamate dehydrogenase messenger RNA and protein seem to be at variance whereas in peripheral neurons of spinal ganglia both in situ hybridization labelling and immunostaining are intense.
    Neuroscience 02/1999; 92(1):293-308. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotide and cRNA probes were used for nonradioactive in situ hybridizations carried out to identify the neural cell types expressing the glutamate transporter GLAST mRNA in the rat CNS. Additionally, the regional distribution of GLAST mRNA-expressing cells was studied, and the results were complemented by immunocytochemical investigations using an antibody against a synthetic GLAST peptide. The findings documented that GLAST is expressed by Bergmann glia and by astrocytes throughout the CNS. The glial localization of GLAST mRNA was verified unequivocally by double-labeling with an astrocytic marker protein. Additionally, GLAST mRNA reactivity and GLAST immunoreactivity were found in ependymal cells. In other neural cell types of the CNS, GLAST expression was not detectable. A high level of astrocytic immunolabeling was observed in the entire gray matter of the brain, with variations in intensity in different regions. Those brain areas that are known to possess high glutamatergic activity and astrocytic glutamate metabolism stained intensely for both GLAST mRNA and GLAST protein. The latter observation suggests that the GLAST glutamate transporter participates in the regulation of extracellular glutamate concentrations, especially in brain areas receiving an intense glutamatergic innervation.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/1997; 17(1):1-10. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-radioactive in situ hybridization using complementary RNA and oligonucleotide probes was applied in order to clearly identify the cell types expressing GLT1 and to show their regional distribution in the central nervous system of the rat. The results were compared with immunocytochemical data achieved using an antibody against a synthetic GLT1 peptide. The study showed that GLT1 was expressed in astrocytes and Bergmann glia which were identified by the detection of an astrocytic marker protein. Additionally, subsets of neurons in different brain regions (e.g., CA3/4 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, endopiriform nucleus) were labelled by in situ hybridization. In other cell types of the central nervous system (oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, epithelal cells of the choroid plexus, tanycytes), GLT1 expression was not detectable. The generally dense astrocytic immunolabelling of the gray matter of the brain showed an even higher intensity in regions reported to show high glutamatergic activity and astrocytic glutamate metabolism (e.g., the termination field of the glutamatergic perforant path in the hippocampus). On the basis of the cellular regional distribution of the GLT1 messenger RNA and protein demonstrated in the present study, it is reasonable to assume that this high affinity transporter is of importance for the maintenance of adequate extraneuronal glutamate levels.
    Neuroscience 05/1996; 71(4):989-1004. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-radioactive in situ hybridization using complementary RNA and oligonucleotide probes was applied in order to clearly identify the cell types expressing GLT1 and to show their regional distribution in the central nervous system of the rat. The results were compared with immunocytochemical data achieved using an antibody against a synthetic GLT1 peptide. The study showed that GLT1 was expressed in astrocytes and Bergmann glia which were identified by the detection of an astrocytic marker protein. Additionally, subsets of neurons in different brain regions (e.g., CA3/4 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, endopiriform nucleus) were labelled by in situ hybridization. In other cell types of the central nervous system (oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, tanycytes), GLT1 expression was not detectable. The generally dense astrocytic immunolabelling of the gray matter of the brain showed an even higher intensity in regions reported to show high glutamatergic activity and astrocytic glutamate metabolism (e.g., the termination field of the glutamatergic perforant path in the hippocampus).On the basis of the cellular regional distribution of the GLT1 messenger RNA and protein demonstrated in the present study, it is reasonable to assume that this high affinity transporter is of importance for the maintenance of adequate extraneuronal glutamate levels.
    Neuroscience 04/1996; 71(4):989–1004. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • P Kugler, D Drenckhahn
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    ABSTRACT: In the central nervous system nitric oxide appears to be critically involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Although there is convincing evidence for expression of nitric oxide synthase in cultured glial cells, demonstration of this enzyme in glial cells in situ remained largely unsatisfactory. In the present study we applied immunostaining to freeze-dried sections of snap-frozen hippocampi and cerebella of rats and to sections of freeze-dried brain tissue in order to minimize diffusion artefacts and thus to obtain more precise information about the true in situ localization of nitric oxide synthase. Here we show that astrocytes and Bergmann glia react strongly with antibodies raised against cerebellar nitric oxide synthase and against a type I nitric oxide synthase-specific C-terminal peptide, respectively. This finding was further substantiated by histochemical localization of NADPH-diaphorase activity in astrocytes and Bergmann glia as well as by immunoreactivity of both types of glia cells with antibodies to the NADPH-delivering enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. We conclude, that astrocytes are important sites of nitric oxide synthase I in brain, suggesting that these cells might use nitric oxide as gaseous messenger molecule for various aspects of glia-neuron signalling.
    Glia 03/1996; 16(2):165-73. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • E Asan, P Kugler
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    ABSTRACT: In situ hybridization (ISH) of somatostatin (SOM) mRNA was carried out on sections of rat brain using an alkaline phosphatase (AP) coupled oligonucleotide probe. Different hybridization and AP development conditions were tested for qualitative and quantitative detection of target mRNA on sections of unfixed tissue. Hybridization signal intensities after 24 h of hybridization were high. Comparison with adjacent formaldehyde-fixed tissue sections and hybridization for various lengths of time (2-42 h) indicated that in unfixed tissue retention of SOM mRNA was at least as high as after fixation, and that the mRNA was not degraded during hybridization. The use of tetranitroblue instead of nitroblue tetrazolium chloride in the AP detection medium provided a superior signal-to-noise ratio, and medium stability was improved for quantitative studies on unfixed sections by adding 10% polyvinyl alcohol at pH 8.5. Microphotometric measurements of mean optical densities (MOD) of the formazan reaction product in a defined area within individual neurons of the lateral central amygdaloid nucleus showed a linear increase over the first 23 h of AP reaction time. The mean MOD values per neuron were comparably high in various equally thick sections of the nucleus and increased with section thickness in a linear manner. The findings indicate that the ISH and detection reagents penetrate the entire section and that there is a linear relationship between the amount of AP reaction product measured and the amount of mRNA present in the measured area. Thus, ISH using an AP-coupled oligonucleotide on sections of unfixed tissue appears suitable for quantitative mRNA detection.
    Histochemie 07/1995; 103(6):463-71. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • P Kugler, T Weeger, E Horváth
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    ABSTRACT: Applying quantitative microscopic histochemistry, the activity of the mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase which is localized in astrocytes was determined in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. This hippocampal region contains the important terminations of the glutamatergic perforant path. For comparison, determinations of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase were performed, which is localized preferentially in terminals and dendrites. Two age groups of animals were examined: young adults (three months old) and aged subjects (24 months old). Both age groups were divided into controls, and animals killed three, 21 and 90 days following unilateral electrolytic lesion of the entorhinal cortex. The post-lesional shrinkage of the terminal field of the perforant path, ipsilateral to the lesion side, was determined and considered in the evaluation of enzymatic data. Statistic analysis revealed that ipsilateral to the lesion side there was a significant decrease of glutamate and succinate dehydrogenase activities in the terminal field of the perforant path three, 21 and 90 days following lesion. It is reasonable to assume that the decrease of succinate dehydrogenase activity (50-60%) was caused by the loss of mitochondria localized in degenerating terminals, whereas the decrease of glutamate dehydrogenase activity (20-30%) was related to the decrease of glutamatergic transmission following lesion. In the terminal field of the perforant path contralateral to the lesion side both significant increases and decreases of enzyme activities were measured following lesion. From these results it is concluded that the hippocampus contralateral to the lesion side cannot be considered as an appropriate intraindividual control. The comparison between young and aged animals showed no differences in the demonstration of glutamate dehydrogenase and only restricted differences in the activity level of succinate dehydrogenase post-lesion. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the post-lesional reactivity of the enzymes studied was very similar in both age groups.
    Neuroscience 02/1995; 64(1):173-82. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and their appendages contain a distinct population of disseminated epithelial cells called brush cells or caveolated cells. On the basis of their structure, it was suggested that brush cells might serve as chemo- or volume receptors that play a role in certain aspects of gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary secretion or motility. In the present study we provide first clues to a possible function of this widespread epithelial cell type. Brush cells of the rat gastric cardia and major pancreatic duct display strong immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and also exhibit high activity of NADPH-diaphorase. This NADPH-oxidizing activity was previously shown to be mediated by a specific domain of the sequence of the NOS. NADPH, in turn, appears to be delivered by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which we found in brush cells at particularly high levels. We conclude that brush cells of the stomach and pancreas may represent a specialized population of paracrine cells that use nitric oxide as a messenger molecule to control certain gastrointestinal functions.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 11/1994; 42(10):1317-21. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • P Kugler, D Drenckhahn
    Nature 08/1994; 370(6484):25-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
  • P Kugler
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was localized in rat spinal cord by catalytic enzyme histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. G6PD detected by either method was shown to be strongly enriched in cell bodies and processes of oligodendrocytes, whereas in the compact myelin G6PD was not detected. The enzyme histochemical procedure for the demonstration of G6PD was also adapted for microphotometric measurements of G6PD activity in the spinal cord white matter. There was a linear relationship between G6PD activity and section thickness up to 14 microns and between G6PD activity and reaction time up to 5-6 min as demonstrated by kinetic and end-point measurements. Significantly lower activities were measured in end-point measurements than in kinetic measurements because of formazan loss during rinsing. Methoxyphenazine methosulphate as an exogenous electron carrier and sodium azide as a blocker of the respiratory chain significantly increased the demonstrable G6PD activity. The Km was 0.62 mM and the Vmax 3 mumol glucose-6-phosphate/cm3 wet tissue and per min at 25 degrees C. It is concluded that G6PD in oligodendrocytes may be important for the generation of NADPH required for lipid biosynthesis related to myelogenesis, and reduction of glutathione required for protection of membrane sulphydryl groups.
    Histochemistry 03/1994; 101(2):143-53.
  • P. Kugler
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was localized in rat spinal cord by catalytic enzyme histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. G6PD detected by either method was shown to be strongly enriched in cell bodies and processes of oligodendrocytes, whereas in the compact myelin G6PD was not detected. The enzyme histochemical procedure for the demonstration of G6PD was also adapted for microphotometric measurements of G6PD activity in the spinal cord white matter. There was a linear relationship between G6PD activity and section thickness up to 14 m and between G6PD activity and reaction time up to 5–6 min as demonstrated by kinetic and end-point measurements. Significantly lower activities were measured in endpoint measurements than in kinetic measurements because of formazan loss during rinsing. Methoxyphenazine methosulphate as an exogenous electron carrier and sodium azide as a blocker of the respiratory chain significantly increased the demonstrable G6PD activity. The K m was 0.62 mM and the V max 3 mol glucose-6-phosphate/cm3 wet tissue and per min at 25C. It is concluded that G6PD in oligodendrocytes may be important for the generation of NADPH required for lipid biosynthesis related to myelogenesis, and reduction of glutathione required for protection of membrane sulphydryl groups.
    Histochemie 01/1994; 101(2):143-153. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Applying quantitative microscopic histochemistry, the activity of acetylcholinesterase was determined in the various layers of the rat hippocampus at three different levels along the rostrocaudal extent. Two age groups of animals were examined: young adults (two to three months old) and aged subjects (26 months old). Young adults were divided into controls, and animals killed eight and 35 days following bilateral ibotenate lesioning of the medial septum-diagonal band complex. Aged rats were divided into controls and animals 35 days post-lesion. Analysis of variance revealed that the mean acetylcholinesterase activities of the entire hippocampus of individuals were not significantly different between young and aged rats when averaged across controls and 35 days post-lesion. There was a significant decrease of acetylcholinesterase activity (-52%) in young adults eight days post-lesion as compared to controls, but a significant increase (+63%) took place until 35 days post-lesion as compared to eight days post-lesion. Significantly lower activities existed, however, in young (-22%) and aged rats (-18%) 35 days post-lesion as compared to controls. This decrease in mean activity was not age dependent. As acetylcholinesterase is considered to be a good cholinergic indicator in the hippocampus, the results suggest a homotypic collateral sprouting from spared cholinergic afferents following ibotenate lesion of the medial septum-diagonal band complex in young and aged rats. Based on the data obtained, it is reasonable to assume that there was no difference in the post-lesional plasticity of neuronal acetylcholinesterase between young adult and aged rats.
    Neuroscience 08/1993; 55(1):91-103. · 3.12 Impact Factor