Feng Gu

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

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Publications (4)13.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The DNA oxidation product 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) forms several mutagenic oxidation products, including a metastable oxaluric acid (Oa) derivative. We report here that a synthetic oligonucleotide containing Oa hydrolyzes under simulated "in vivo" conditions to form a mutagenic urea (Ua) lesion. Using the Oa 2'-deoxyribonucleoside as a model, the hydrolysis rate depended strongly upon the concentrations of bicarbonate and divalent magnesium. In buffered solutions containing physiologically relevant levels of these species, the half-life of Oa nucleoside was approximately 40 h at 37 degrees C. The mutagenic properties of Ua in DNA were investigated using a M13mp7L2 bacteriophage genome containing Ua at a specific site. Transfection of the lesion-containing genome into wild-type AB1157 Escherichia coli allowed determination of the mutation frequency and DNA polymerase bypass efficiency from the resulting progeny phage. Ua was bypassed with an efficiency of 11% as compared to a guanine control and caused a 99% G-->T mutation frequency, assuming the lesion originated from G, which is at least an order of magnitude higher than the mutation frequency of 8-oxoG under the same conditions. SOS induction of bypass DNA polymerase(s) in the bacteria prior to transfection caused the mutation frequency and type to shift to 43% G-->T, 46% G-->C, and 10% G-->A mutations. We suggest that Ua is instructional, meaning that the shape of the lesion and its interactions with DNA polymerases influence which nucleotide is inserted opposite the lesion during replication and that the instructional nature of the lesion is modulated by the size of the binding pocket of the DNA polymerase. Replication past Ua, when formed by hydrolysis of the 8-oxoG oxidation product Oa, denotes a pathway that nearly quantitatively generates point mutations in vivo.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 02/2005; 18(1):12-8. · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxynitrite is a strong oxidizing agent that is formed in the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide anion. It is capable of oxidizing and nitrating a variety of biological targets including DNA, and these modifications may be responsible for a number of pathological conditions and diseases. A recent study showed that peroxynitrite reacts with 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylguanosine to yield a novel compound, tri-O-acetyl-1-(beta-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)-5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole, and, unlike other peroxynitrite-mediated guanine oxidation products, it is a stable and significant component formed even at low peroxynitrite concentrations. In this work, we studied the in vitro formation of the guanine-derived product, 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole, in synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA treated with peroxynitrite. When calf thymus DNA or oligonucleotides were reacted with peroxynitrite at ambient temperature, the modified base 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole was generated along with several other products. The oligonucleotides containing the 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole modification were purified by reverse-phase and anion-exchange HPLC and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry. 5-Guanidino-4-nitroimidazole formation in peroxynitrite-treated DNA was characterized after enzymatic digestion of the reacted DNA to the nucleoside level. HPLC purification and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (with selected reaction monitoring) enabled the analysis of this modified nucleoside with high sensitivity. The yield of 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole formed in single-stranded DNA was approximately 10-fold higher than that found in duplex DNA. With calf thymus DNA, 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole was dose-dependently formed at low peroxynitrite concentrations. In stability tests, a synthetic oligonucleotide containing the 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole modification was only partially cleaved by hot piperidine and was a weak substrate for Fpg glycosylase repair enzyme; in addition, this site was not cleaved by endonuclease III. These results suggest that nuclear DNA containing 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole may not be quickly repaired by DNA repair enzyme systems. Finally, primer extension experiments revealed that this lesion is a potential DNA replication blocker when polymerization is catalyzed by polymerase alpha and polymerase I (Klenow fragment, lack of exonuclease activity) but not with human polymerase beta. Replication fidelity experiments further showed that 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole may cause G-->T and G-->C transversions in calf thymus polymerase alpha and E. coli polymerase I.
    Biochemistry 06/2002; 41(23):7508-18. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Biochemistry 06/2002; 41(23):7508-7518. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three single-stranded DNA genomes have been constructed that contain the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) oxidation products oxaluric acid, oxazalone, and cyanuric acid. Oligonucleotides containing each lesion were synthesized by treating an oligonucleotide containing a single 8-oxodG with peroxynitrite, and the desired products were isolated by HPLC. The modified oligonucleotides were ligated into M13mp7L2 bacteriophage DNA in such a way that the lesion was situated at a known site in the lacZ gene fragment of the viral genome. The circular genomes were transfected into wild-type AB1157 Escherichia coli. The relative efficiency of lesion bypass by DNA polymerase was determined by counting the number of initial independent infections produced by each genome relative to that of an unmodified DNA control. Viral progeny were analyzed for mutation frequency and type by PCR amplification of the insert region followed by a recently developed post-labeling assay. All three secondary lesions were readily bypassed, causing G --> T transversions at frequencies at least an order of magnitude higher than 8-oxodG. These data establish a model whereby the modestly mutagenic primary lesion 8-oxodG is oxidized in vivo to much more highly mutagenic secondary lesions.
    Biochemistry 01/2002; 41(3):914-21. · 3.19 Impact Factor