[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the CDK inhibitor p21(Cip1) is tightly regulated by signals that control cell division. p21 is an unstable protein that is degraded by the proteasome; however, the pathway that leads to proteasomal degradation of p21 has proven to be enigmatic. An important issue is whether proteasomal degradation of p21 occurs independently of ubiquitylation or, alternatively, whether ubiquitylation on its N terminus is crucial. We resolve this uncertainty by showing that endogenous cellular p21 is completely acetylated at its amino terminus and is therefore not a substrate for N-ubiquitylation. We further show that inactivation of essential components of the ubiquitylation machinery does not directly impact endogenous p21 degradation. Our results underscore the importance of N-acetylation in restricting N-ubiquitylation and show, in particular, that ubiquitylation of endogenous p21 either at internal lysines or on the N terminus is unlikely to control its degradation by the proteasome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophosphorylation-triggered ubiquitination has been proposed to be the major pathway regulating cyclin E protein abundance: phosphorylation of cyclin E on T380 by its associated CDK allows binding to the receptor subunit, Fbw7, of the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. We have tested this model in vivo and found it to be an inadequate representation of the pathways that regulate cyclin E degradation. We show that assembly of cyclin E into cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes is required in vivo for turnover by the Fbw7 pathway; that Cdk2 activity is required for cyclin E turnover in vivo because it phosphorylates S384; that phosphorylation of T380 in vivo does not require Cdk2 and is mediated primarily by GSK3; and that two additional phosphorylation sites, T62 and S372, are also required for turnover. Thus, cyclin E turnover is controlled by multiple biological inputs and cannot be understood in terms of autophosphorylation alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bni4 is a scaffold protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that tethers chitin synthase III to the bud neck by interacting with septin neck filaments and with Chs4, a regulatory subunit of chitin synthase III. We show herein that Bni4 is also a limiting determinant for the targeting of the type 1 serine/threonine phosphatase (Glc7) to the bud neck. Yeast cells containing a Bni4 variant that fails to associate with Glc7 fail to tether Chs4 to the neck, due in part to the failure of Bni4(V831A/F833A) to localize properly. Conversely, the Glc7-129 mutant protein fails to bind Bni4 properly and glc7-129 mutants exhibit reduced levels of Bni4 at the bud neck. Bni4 is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner and Bni4(V831A/F833A) is both hyperphosphorylated and mislocalized in vivo. Yeast cells lacking the protein kinase Hsl1 exhibit increased levels of Bni4-GFP at the bud neck. GFP-Chs4 does not accumulate at the incipient bud site in either a bni4::TRP1 or a bni4(V831A/F833A) mutant but does mobilize to the neck at cytokinesis. Together, these results indicate that the formation of the Bni4-Glc7 complex is required for localization to the site of bud emergence and for subsequent targeting of chitin synthase.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 02/2003; 14(1):26-39. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E02-06-0373 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sds22p is a conserved, leucine-rich repeat protein that interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1(C)) and which has been proposed to regulate one or more functions of PP1(C) during mitosis. Here we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sds22p is a largely nuclear protein, most of which is present as a sTable 1:1 complex with yeast PP1(C) (Glc7p). Temperature-sensitive (Ts(-)) S. cerevisiae sds22 mutants show profound chromosome instability at elevated growth temperatures but do not confer a cell cycle stage-specific arrest. In the sds22-6 Ts(-) mutant, nuclear Glc7p is both reduced in level and aberrantly localized at 37 degrees C and the interaction between Glc7p and Sds22p in vitro is reduced at higher temperatures, consistent with the in vivo Ts(-) growth defect. Like some glc7 mutations, sds22-6 can suppress the Ts(-) growth defect associated with ipl1-2, a loss of function mutation in a protein kinase that is known to work in opposition to PP1 on at least two nuclear substrates. This, together with reciprocal genetic interactions between GLC7 and SDS22, suggests that Sds22p functions positively with Glc7p to promote dephosphorylation of nuclear substrates required for faithful transmission of chromosomes during mitosis, and this role is at least partly mediated by effects of Sds22p on the nuclear distribution of Glc7p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process in which a single cell is converted into four haploid spores. GIP1, encoding a developmentally regulated protein phosphatase 1 interacting protein, is required for spore formation. Here we show that GIP1 and the protein phosphatase 1 encoded by GLC7 play essential roles in spore development. The gip1Delta mutant undergoes meiosis and prospore membrane formation normally, but is specifically defective in spore wall synthesis. We demonstrate that in wild-type cells, distinct layers of the spore wall are deposited in a specific temporal order, and that gip1Delta cells display a discrete arrest at the onset of spore wall deposition. Localization studies revealed that Gip1p and Glc7p colocalize with the septins in structures underlying the growing prospore membranes. Interestingly, in the gip1Delta mutant, not only is Glc7p localization altered, but septins are also delocalized. Similar phenotypes were observed in a glc7-136 mutant, which expresses a Glc7p defective in interacting with Gip1p. These results indicate that a Gip1p-Glc7p phosphatase complex is required for proper septin organization and initiation of spore wall formation during sporulation.
The Journal of Cell Biology 12/2001; 155(5):797-808. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200107008 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GLC7 encodes an essential serine/threonine protein type I phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three other phosphatases (Ppz1p, Ppz2p, and Sal6p) share >59% identity in their catalytic region with Glc7p. ppz1 ppz2 null mutants have no apparent growth defect on rich media. However, null alleles of PPZ1 and PPZ2, in combination with mutant alleles of GLC7, confer a range of growth defects varying from slow growth to lethality. These results indicate that Glc7p, Ppz1p, and Ppz2p may have overlapping functions. To determine if this overlap extends to interaction with targeting subunits, Glc7p-binding proteins were tested for interaction in the two-hybrid system with the functional catalytic domain of Ppz1p. Ppz1p interacts strongly with a number of Glc7p regulatory subunits, including Glc8p, a protein that shares homology with mammalian PP1 inhibitor I2. Genetic data suggest that Glc8p positively affects both Glc7p and Ppz1p functions. Together our data suggest that Ppz1p and Ppz2p may have overlapping functions with Glc7p and that all three phosphatases may act through common regulatory proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphatase type I (PP1), encoded by the single essential gene GLC7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, functions in diverse cellular processes. To identify in vivo subcellular location(s) where these processes take place, we used a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Glc7p fusion protein. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy revealed GFP-Glc7p localizes predominantly in the nucleus throughout the mitotic cell cycle, with the highest concentrations in the nucleolus. GFP-Glc7p was also observed in a ring at the bud neck, which was dependent upon functional septins. Supporting a role for Glc7p in bud site selection, a glc7-129 mutant displayed a random budding pattern. In alpha-factor treated cells, GFP-Glc7p was located at the base of mating projections, again in a septin-dependent manner. At the start of anaphase, GFP-Glc7p accumulated at the spindle pole bodies and remained there until cytokinesis. After anaphase, GFP-Glc7p became concentrated in a ring that colocalized with the actomyosin ring. A GFP-Glc7-129 fusion was defective in localizing to the bud neck and SPBs. Together, these results identify sites of Glc7p function and suggest Glc7p activity is regulated through dynamic changes in its location.
The Journal of Cell Biology 05/2000; 149(1):125-40. DOI:10.1083/jcb.149.1.125 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A conditional allele of type 1 protein phosphatase (glc7-129) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes first cycle arrest in G2/M, characterized by cells with a short spindle and high H1 kinase activity. Point-of-execution experiments indicate Glc7p function is required in G2/M just before anaphase for the completion of mitosis. Loss of the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint in glc7-129 cells abolishes the G2/M cell cycle arrest with a concomitant increase in chromosome loss and reduced viability. These results support a role for Glc7p in regulating kinetochore attachment to the spindle, an event monitored by the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint.
Genes & Development 04/1999; 13(5):517-22. DOI:10.1101/gad.13.5.517 · 10.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphatase type 1, encoded by GLC7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an essential serine/threonine phosphatase implicated in the regulation of a diverse array of physiological functions. We constructed and examined 20 mutant alleles of GLC7 in which codons encoding clusters of charged residues were changed to alanine codons. Three of 20 mutant alleles alter residues in the active site of the phosphatase and are unable to rescue the lethality of a glc7::LEU2 disruption. The 17 alleles that support growth confer a range of mutant traits including cell cycle arrest, 2-deoxyglucose resistance, altered levels of glycogen, sensitivity to high salt, and sporulation defects. For some traits, such as 2-deoxyglucose resistance and cell cycle arrest, the mutated residues map to specific regions of the protein whereas the mutated residues in glycogen-deficient mutants and sporulation-defective mutants are more widely distributed over the protein surface. Many mutants have complex phenotypes, each displaying a diverse range of defects. The wide range of phenotypes identified from the collection of mutant alleles is consistent with the hypothesis that Glc7p-binding proteins, which are thought to regulate the specificity of Glc7p, have overlapping binding sites on the surface of Glc7p. This could account for the high level of sequence conservation found among type 1 protein phosphatases from different species.