[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Major peri-operative complications for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery remain common. However, risk factors have not been clearly defined. Our objective was to identify patient and surgical parameters that correlate with the development of major peri-operative complications with ASD surgery. METHODS: This is a multi-center, retrospective, consecutive, case-control series of surgically treated ASD patients. All patients undergoing surgical treatment for ASD at eight centers were retrospectively reviewed. Each center identified 10 patients with major peri-operative complications. Randomization tables were used to select a comparably sized control group of patients operated during the same time period that they did not suffer major complications. The two groups were analyzed for differences in clinical and surgical factors. Analysis was restricted to non-instrumentation related complications. RESULTS: At least one major complication occurred in 80 of 953 patients (8.4 %), including 72 patients with non-instrumentation related complications. There were no significant differences between the complications and control groups based on the demographics, ASA grade, co-morbidities, body mass index, prior surgeries, pre-operative anemia, smoking, operative time or ICU stay (p > 0.05). Hospital stay was significantly longer for the complications group (14.4 vs. 7.9 days, p = 0.001). The complications group had higher percentages of staged procedures (46 vs. 37 %, p = 0.011) and combined anterior-posterior approaches (56 vs. 32 %, p = 0.011) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The major peri-operative complication rate was 8.4 % for 953 surgically treated ASD patients. Significantly higher rates of complications were associated with staged and combined anterior-posterior surgeries. None of the patient factors assessed were significantly associated with the occurrence of major peri-operative complications. Improved understanding of risk profiles and procedure-related parameters may be useful for patient counseling and efforts to reduce complication rates.
European Spine Journal 05/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is a surgical procedure that is frequently performed on patients with sagittal spinopelvic malalignment. Although it allows for substantial spinopelvic realignment, suboptimal realignment outcomes have been reported in up to 33% of patients. The authors' objective in the present study was to identify differences in radiographic profiles and surgical procedures between patients achieving successful versus failed spinopelvic realignment following PSO.
This study is a multicenter retrospective consecutive PSO case series. The authors evaluated 99 cases involving patients who underwent PSO for sagittal spinopelvic malalignment. Because precise cutoffs of acceptable residual postoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) values have not been well defined, comparisons were focused between patient groups with a postoperative SVA that could be clearly considered either a success or a failure. Only cases in which the patients had a postoperative SVA of less than 50 mm (successful PSO realignment) or more than 100 mm (failed PSO realignment) were included in the analysis. Radiographic measures and PSO parameters were compared between successful and failed PSO realignments.
Seventy-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Successful realignment was achieved in 61 patients (77%), while realignment failed in 18 (23%). Patients with failed realignment had larger preoperative SVA (mean 217.9 vs 106.7 mm, p < 0.01), larger pelvic tilt (mean 36.9° vs 30.7°, p < 0.01), larger pelvic incidence (mean 64.2° vs 53.7°, p < 0.01), and greater lumbar lordosis-pelvic incidence mismatch (-47.1° vs -30.9°, p < 0.01) compared with those in whom realignment was successful. Failed and successful realignments were similar regarding the vertebral level of the PSO, the median size of wedge resection 22.0° (interquartile range 16.5°-28.5°), and the numerical changes in pre- and postoperative spinopelvic parameters (p > 0.05).
Patients with failed PSO realignments had significantly larger preoperative spinopelvic deformity than patients in whom realignment was successful. Despite their apparent need for greater correction, the patients in the failed realignment group only received the same amount of correction as those in the successfully realigned patients. A single-level standard PSO may not achieve optimal outcome in patients with high preoperative spinopelvic sagittal malalignment. Patients with large spinopelvic deformities should receive larger osteotomies or additional corrective procedures beyond PSOs to avoid undercorrection.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 03/2012; 16(6):539-46. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A human cadaveric biomechanical proof-of-concept study.
To test whether adding a locking plate to the anterior surface of C2 attaching directly to the interfragmentary screw may reduce potential for anterior screw cutout and improve construct strength.
The most common mode of failure for screw fixation of dens fractures is via cutout at the anterior body of C2.
A human, cadaveric model of type II dens fractures was created and fixed using either a headless, fully threaded variable pitch screw (FTVPS) or a screw with an attachable locking plate construct (LPC). Following quasistatic loading to failure, stiffness and load to failure were compared using t tests. Mode of failure was determined from radiographical and gross inspection.
Load to failure was greater for the LPC than for the FTVPS alone (498 N vs. 362 N, P = 0.04). The LPC consistently failed via compression of cancellous bone posterior to the lag screw, whereas the FTVPS constructs failed via cutout of the screw from the anterior C2 body.
Locking plate supplementation of anterior screw fixation of type II odontoid fractures improves construct strength and changes the failure mechanism from anterior screw cutout to posterior displacement of the screw. An attachable locking plate/interfragmentary screw construct may improve clinical outcomes for these fractures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective, radiographical analysis of mathe-matical formulas used to predict sagittal vertical axis (SVA) after pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO).
Evaluate the ability of different formulas to predict SVA after PSO.
Failure to achieve optimal spinal alignment after spinal fusion correlates with poor outcomes. Numerous mathematical models have been proposed to aid preoperative PSO planning and predict postoperative SVA. Pelvic parameters have been shown to impact spinal alignment; however, many preoperative planning models fail to evaluate these. Compensatory changes within unfused spinal segments have also been shown to impact SVA. Predictive formulas that do not evaluate pelvic parameters and unfused spinal segments may erroneously guide PSO surgery. A formula that integrates pelvic tilt (PT) and spinal compensatory changes to predict optimal SVA has been previously proposed.
Comparative analysis of 5 mathematical models used to predict optimal postoperative SVA (<5 cm) after PSO was performed using a multicenter PSO database.
Radiographs of 147 patients, mean age 52 years (SD = 15 yr), who received 147 PSOs (42 thoracic and 105 lumbar) were evaluated. Mean preoperative and postoperative SVA was 108 mm (SD = 95 mm) and 30 mm (SD = 60 mm; P < 0.001), respectively. Each mathematical formula provided unique prediction for postoperative SA (Pearson R < 0.15). Formulas that neglected pelvic alignment poorly predicted final SVA and poorly correlated with optimal SVA. Formulas that evaluated pelvic morphology (pelvic incidence) had improved SVA prediction. The Lafage formulas, which incorporate PT and spinal compensatory changes, had the best SVA prediction (P < 0.05) and best correlation with optimal SVA (R = 0.75).
Preoperative planning for PSO is essential to optimize postoperative spinal alignment. Mathematical models that do not consider pelvic parameters and changes in unfused spinal segments poorly predict optimal postoperative alignment and may predispose to poor clinical outcomes. The Lafage formulas, which incorporated PT and spinal compensatory changes, best predicted optimal SVA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sagittal spinopelvic imbalance is a major contributor to pain and disability for patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD). Preoperative planning is essential for pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) candidates; however, current methods are often inaccurate because no formula to date predicts both postoperative sagittal balance and pelvic alignment. The authors of this study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 2 novel formulas in predicting postoperative spinopelvic alignment after PSO.
This study is a multicenter retrospective consecutive PSO case series. Adults with spinal deformity (> 21 years old) who were treated with a single-level lumbar PSO for sagittal imbalance were evaluated. All patients underwent preoperative and a minimum of 6-month postoperative radiography. Two novel formulas were used to predict the postoperative spinopelvic alignment. The results predicted by the formulas were then compared with the actual postoperative radiographic values, and the formulas' ability to identify successful (sagittal vertical axis [SVA] ≤ 50 mm and pelvic tilt [PT] ≤ 25°) and unsuccessful (SVA > 50 mm or PT > 25°) outcomes was evaluated.
Ninety-nine patients met inclusion criteria. The median absolute error between the predicted and actual PT was 4.1° (interquartile range 2.0°-6.4°). The median absolute error between the predicted and actual SVA was 27 mm (interquartile range 11-47 mm). Forty-one of 54 patients with a formula that predicted a successful outcome had a successful outcome as shown by radiography (positive predictive value = 0.76). Forty-four of 45 patients with a formula that predicted an unsuccessful outcome had an unsuccessful outcome as shown by radiography (negative predictive value = 0.98).
The spinopelvic alignment formulas were accurate when predicting unsuccessful outcomes but less reliable when predicting successful outcomes. The preoperative surgical plan should be altered if an unsuccessful result is predicted. However, even after obtaining a predicted successful outcome, surgeons should ensure that the predicted values are not too close to unsuccessful values and should identify other variables that may affect alignment. In the near future, it is anticipated that the use of these formulas will lead to better surgical planning and improved outcomes for patients with complex ASD.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 09/2011; 16(1):15-21. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consecutive, multicenter retrospective review.
To evaluate if change in thoracic kyphosis (TK) has a positive or negative impact on spinopelvic alignment after lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) with short fusions.
In the setting of sagittal malalignment, the effect of large vertebral resections can now be anticipated in long fusions, but their impact on unfused segments (reciprocal changes [RC]) remains poorly understood.
A total of 34 adult patients (mean age = 54 years; SD = 12) who underwent lumbar PSO with upper instrumented vertebra below T10 were included. Radiographic analysis included pre- and postassessment of TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T1 spinopelvic inclination (T1SPI), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence (PI). Final SVA and PT were analyzed to determine successful realignment. RC in the thoracic spine was designated favorable or unfavorable on the basis of impact on final SVA and PT.
Mean PSO resection was 26°. LL increased from 20° to 49° (P < 0.001). SVA improved from 14 to 4 cm (P < 0.001), and PT improved from 33° to 25° (P < 0.001). Mean increase in TK was 13° (P = 0.002) but was unchanged in 11 patients. Five patients had a favorable RC, and 18 patients had an unfavorable RC. Unfavorable RC was attributed to junctional failure in 6 of 18 patients. Significant differences in the unfavorable RC group included age and greater preoperative PT, PI, SVA, and T1SPI.
Significant postoperative alignment changes can occur through unfused thoracic spinal segments after lumbar PSO. Unfavorable RC may limit optimal correction and lead to clinical failures. Risk factors for unfavorable thoracic RC include older patients, larger preoperative PI and PT, and worse preoperative T1SPI and are not simply due to junctional failure. Care should be taken with selective lumbar fusion and PSO in older patients and in those with severe preoperative spinopelvic parameters.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural femoral ring allograft is commonly used in interbody spinal arthrodesis. Fractures of implanted femoral ring allograft have been reported. Data to guide donor screening and tissue processing by allograft tissue banks for factors that affect graft strength are incomplete. Fresh frozen human femora from 34 cadaveric donors were sectioned into ten 20-mm thick specimens. Bone mineral density (BMD), donor age, and graft dimensions were recorded for each specimen. Three hundred twenty-seven specimens were tested in quasi-static axial compression. Linear regression models compared load to failure with BMD, sex-specific donor age, minimum/maximum cortical wall thickness, and minimum/maximum outer ring diameter. Correlations between minimum and maximum cortical wall thickness and load to failure were significant (r = 0.73, p < 0.001 and r = 0.74, p < 0.001, respectively). BMD showed a weaker negative correlation with load to failure (r = -0.11, p = 0.05). Correlations between load to failure and minimum and maximum outer ring diameter and age (r = 0.06, p = 0.31) were not significant. We found that the minimum and maximum cortical wall thicknesses of femoral ring allograft are strongly correlated with the axial compressive load to failure of the graft. Other tested parameters did not prove to be effective predictors of resistance to axial loading.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 05/2011; 29(12):1840-5. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database.
To analyze the rate of complications, including neurologic deficits, associated with operative treatment of pediatric isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis.
Pediatric isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are relatively uncommon dis-orders. Several prior studies have suggested a high rate of complication associated with operative intervention. How-ever, most of these studies were performed with sufficiently small sample sizes such that the presence of one complication could significantly affect the overall rate. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) prospectively collects morbidity and mortality (M&M) data from its members. This multicentered, multisurgeon database permits analysis of the surgical treatment of this relatively rare condition on an aggregate scale and provides surgeons with useful information for preoperative counseling.
Patients who underwent surgical treatment for isthmic or dysplastic spondylolisthesis from 2004 to 2007 were identified from the SRS M&M database. Inclusion criteria for analysis included age ≤ 21 and a primary diagnosis of isthmic or dysplastic spondylolisthesis.
Of 25,432 pediatric cases reported, there were a total of 605 (2.4%) cases of pediatric dysplastic (n ∇ 62, 10%) and isthmic (n ∇ 543, 90%) spondylolisthesis, with a mean age of 15 years (range, 4-21). Approximately 50% presented with neural element compression, and less than 1% of cases were revisions. Surgical procedures included fusions in 92%, osteotomies in 39%, and reductions in 38%. The overall complication rate was 10.4%. The most common complications included postoperative neurologic deficit (n ∇ 31, 5%), dural tear (n ∇ 8, 1.3%), and wound infection (n ∇ 12, 2%). Perioperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus were reported in 2 (0.3%) and 1 (0.2%) patients, respectively. There were no deaths in this series.
Pediatric isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are relatively uncommon disorders, representing only 2.4% of pediatric spine procedures in the present study. Even among experienced spine surgeons, surgical treatment of these spinal conditions is associated with a relatively high morbidity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is a spinal realignment technique that may be used to correct sagittal spinal imbalance. Theoretically, the level and degree of resection via a PSO should impact the degree of sagittal plane correction in the setting of deformity. However, the quantitative effect of PSO level and focal angular change on postoperative spinopelvic parameters has not been well described. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the level/degree of PSO and changes in global sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters.
In this multicenter retrospective study, 70 patients (54 women and 16 men) underwent lumbar PSO surgery for spinal imbalance. Preoperative and postoperative free-standing sagittal radiographs were obtained and analyzed by regional curves (lumbar, thoracic, and thoracolumbar), pelvic parameters (pelvic incidence and pelvic tilt [PT]) and global balance (sagittal vertical axis [SVA] and T-1 spinopelvic inclination). Correlations between PSO parameters (level and degree of change in angle between the 2 adjacent vertebrae) and spinopelvic measurements were analyzed.
Pedicle subtraction osteotomy distribution by level and degree of correction was as follows: L-1 (6 patients, 24°), L-2 (15 patients, 24°), L-3 (29 patients, 25°), and L-4 (20 patients, 22°). There was no significant difference in the focal correction achieved by PSO by level. All patients demonstrated changes in preoperative to postoperative parameters including increased lumbar lordosis (from 20° to 49°, p < 0.001), increased thoracic kyphosis (from 30° to 38°, p < 0.001), decreased SVA and T-1 spinopelvic inclination (from 122 to 34 mm, p < 0.001 and from +3° to -4°, p < 0.001, respectively), and decreased PT (from 31° to 23°, p < 0.001). More caudal PSO was correlated with greater PT reduction (r = -0.410, p < 0.05). No correlation was found between SVA correction and PSO location. The PSO degree was correlated with change in thoracic kyphosis (r = -0.474, p < 0.001), lumbar lordosis (r = 0.667, p < 0.001), sacral slope (r = 0.426, p < 0.001), and PT (r = -0.358, p < 0.005).
The degree of PSO resection correlates more with spinopelvic parameters (lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, PT, and sacral slope) than PSO level. More importantly, PSO level impacts postoperative PT correction but not SVA.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 02/2011; 14(2):184-91. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unintended durotomy is a common complication of spinal surgery. However, the incidences reported in the literature vary widely and are based primarily on relatively small case numbers from a single surgeon or institution.
To provide spine surgeons with a reliable incidence of unintended durotomy in spinal surgery and to assess various factors that may influence the risk of durotomy.
We assessed 108,478 surgical cases prospectively submitted by members of the Scoliosis Research Society to a deidentified database from 2004 to 2007.
Unintended durotomy occurred in 1.6% (1745 of 108 478) of all cases. The incidence of unintended durotomy ranged from 1.1% to 1.9% on the basis of preoperative diagnosis, with the highest incidence among patients treated for kyphosis (1.9%) or spondylolisthesis (1.9%) and the lowest incidence among patients treated for scoliosis (1.1%). The most common indication for spine surgery was degenerative spinal disorder, and among these patients, there was a lower incidence of durotomy for cervical (1.0%) vs thoracic (2.2%; P = .01) or lumbar (2.1%, P < .001) cases. Scoliosis procedures were further characterized by etiology, with the highest incidence of durotomy in the degenerative subgroup (2.2% vs 1.1%; P < .001). Durotomy was more common in revision compared with primary surgery (2.2% vs 1.5%; P < .001) and was significantly more common among elderly (> 80 years of age) patients (2.2% vs 1.6%; P = .006). There was a significant association between unintended durotomy and development of a new neurological deficit (P < .001).
Unintended durotomy occurred in at least 1.6% of spinal surgeries, even among experienced surgeons. Our data provide general benchmarks of durotomy rates and serve as a basis for ongoing efforts to improve safety of care.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Three-column vertebral resections are frequently applied to correct sagittal malalignment; their effects on distant unfused levels need to be understood. Methods. 134 consecutive adult PSO patients were included (29 thoracic, 105 lumbar). Radiographic analysis included pre- and postoperative regional curvatures and pelvic parameters, with paired independent t-tests to evaluate changes. Results. A thoracic osteotomy with limited fusion leads to a correction of the kyphosis and to a spontaneous decrease of the unfused lumbar lordosis (-8°). When the fusion was extended, the lumbar lordosis increased (+8°). A lumbar osteotomy with limited fusion leads to a correction of the lumbar lordosis and to a spontaneous increase of the unfused thoracic kyphosis (+13°). When the fusion was extended, the thoracic kyphosis increased by 6°. Conclusion. Data from this study suggest that lumbar and thoracic resection leads to reciprocal changes in unfused segments and requires consideration beyond focal corrections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Degenerative disease in the cervical spine is a common source of axial neck pain and neurologic disturbances. In addition to pain, upper extremity radiculopathy and myelopathy, advanced cervical degenerative disease can result in altered biomechanics, most commonly manifested as a kyphotic deformity. As the disk spaces narrow, the weight-bearing axis of the spine is translated anteriorly, placing the posterior structures under an abnormal tensile load. This in turn leads to attenuation of the posterior ligamentous structures, allowing further progression of the deformity.
Treatment of cervical kyphotic deformities is generally multimodal, often beginning with conservative measures. In cases in which conservative measures have failed or in cases of incapacitating pain or progressive neurologic decline, operative measures might be indicated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alignment plays a critical role in cervical spine function. In the thoracic and lumbar spines, degenerative disease often manifests as complex deformities involving coronal and sagittal plane decompensation, but in the cervical spine, degenerative disease often presents with isolated sagittal plane deformity. Multiple etiologies of cervical kyphosis have been described including traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes; all share a common pathway of anterior column shortening, failure of the posterior tension band, or, most commonly, both. The focus of this article will be on the degenerative etiology of cervical kyphosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database.
Our objective was to assess the rates of postoperative wound infection associated with spine surgery.
Although wound infection after spine surgery remains a common source of morbidity, estimates of its rates of occurrence remain relatively limited. The Scoliosis Research Society prospectively collects morbidity and mortality data from its members, including the occurrence of wound infection.
The Scoliosis Research Society morbidity and mortality database was queried for all reported spine surgery cases from 2004 to 2007. Cases were stratified based on factors including diagnosis, adult (≥ 21 years) versus pediatric (<21 years), primary versus revision, use of implants, and whether a minimally invasive approach was used. Superficial, deep, and total infection rates were calculated. RESULTS.: In total, 108,419 cases were identified, with an overall total infection rate of 2.1% (superficial = 0.8%, deep = 1.3%). Based on primary diagnosis, total postoperative wound infection rate for adults ranged from 1.4% for degenerative disease to 4.2% for kyphosis. Postoperative wound infection rates for pediatric patients ranged from 0.9% for degenerative disease to 5.4% for kyphosis. Rate of infection was further stratified based on subtype of degenerative disease, type of scoliosis, and type of kyphosis for both adult and pediatric patients. Factors associated with increased rate of infection included revision surgery (P < 0.001), performance of spinal fusion (P < 0.001), and use of implants (P < 0.001). Compared with a traditional open approach, use of a minimally invasive approach was associated with a lower rate of infection for lumbar discectomy (0.4% vs. 1.1%; P < 0.001) and for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (1.3% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.005).
Our data suggest that postsurgical infection, even among skilled spine surgeons, is an inherent potential complication. These data provide general benchmarks of infection rates as a basis for ongoing efforts to improve safety of care.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database.
The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) collects morbidity and mortality (M and M) data from its members. Our objectives were to assess complication rates for 3 common spine procedures, compare these results with prior literature as a means of validating the database, and to assess rates of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in all cases reported to the SRS over 4 years.
Few modern series document complication rates of spinal surgery as routinely practiced across academic and community settings. Those available are typically based on relatively low numbers of procedures or confined to single-surgeon experiences.
The SRS M and M database was queried for lumbar microdiscectomy (LD), anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), and lumbar stenosis decompression (LSD) cases from 2004 to 2007. Revisions were excluded. The database was also queried for occurrence of clinically evident PE and DVT in all cases from 2004 to 2007.
A total of 9692 LDs, 6735 ACDFs, and 10,329 LSDs were identified, with overall complication rates of 3.6%, 2.4%, and 7.0%, respectively. These rates are comparable to previously published smaller series. For assessment of PE and DVT, 108,419 cases were identified and rates were calculated per 1000 cases based on diagnosis, age group, and implant use. Overall rates of PE, death due to PE, and DVT were 1.38, 0.34, and 1.18, respectively. Among 82,082 adults, the rate of PE ranged from 0.47 for LD to 12.4 for metastatic tumor. Similar variations were noted for DVT and deaths due to PE.
Overall major complication rates for LD, ACDF, and LSD based on the SRS M and M database are comparable to those in previously reported smaller series, supporting the validity of this database for study of other less common spinal disorders. In addition, our data provide general benchmarks of clinically evident PE and DVT rates as a basis for ongoing efforts to improve care.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertebral cement augmentation, including kyphoplasty, has been shown to be a successful treatment for pain relief for vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Patients can sustain additional symptomatic VCFs that may require additional surgical intervention.
To examine the prevalence and predictors of patients who sustain additional symptomatic VCFs that were treated with kyphoplasty.
A retrospective review of patients who previously underwent kyphoplasty for VCFs and had additional VCFs that were treated with kyphoplasty.
A total of 256 patients underwent kyphoplasty for VCFs from 2000 to 2007 at a single medical center.
The outcome measure of interest was the need for an additional kyphoplasty procedure for a symptomatic VCF.
Risk factors such as age, sex, smoking status, and steroid use were assessed, as well as bisphosphonate use. Sagittal spinal alignment via Cobb angles for thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar regions was assessed.
About 22.2% of the patients had an additional symptomatic VCF that was treated with a kyphoplasty procedure. Steroid use was the only significant risk factor for predicting patients with additional symptomatic VCFs who underwent additional kyphoplasty. The average time to the second VCF was 33 days. Adjacent-level VCFs were most common in the thoracic and thoracolumbar spine. Bisphosphonate use was not shown to be protective of preventing additional VCFs during this follow-up period.
This is the first single-center review of a large cohort of patients who underwent additional-level kyphoplasty for symptomatic VCFs after an index kyphoplasty procedure. Our results suggest that patients with a VCF who use chronic oral steroids should be carefully monitored for the presence of additional symptomatic VCFs that may need surgical intervention. Patients with prior thoracic VCFs who have additional back pain should be reevaluated for a possible adjacent-level fracture.
The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 11/2010; 10(11):979-86. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a retrospective review of 10,242 adults with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) from the morbidity and mortality (M&M) index of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS). This database was reviewed to assess complication incidence, and to identify factors that were associated with increased complication rates.
The SRS M&M database was queried to identify cases of DS and IS treated between 2004 and 2007. Complications were identified and analyzed based on age, surgical approach, spondylolisthesis type/grade, and history of previous surgery. Age was stratified into 2 categories: > 65 years and ≤ 65 years. Surgical approach was stratified into the following categories: decompression without fusion, anterior, anterior/posterior, posterior without instrumentation, posterior with instrumentation, and interbody fusion. Spondylolisthesis grades were divided into low-grade (Meyerding I and II) versus high-grade (Meyerding III, IV, and V) groups. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
In the 10,242 cases of DS and IS reported, there were 945 complications (9.2%) in 813 patients (7.9%). The most common complications were dural tears, wound infections, implant complications, and neurological complications (range 0.7%-2.1%). The mortality rate was 0.1%. Diagnosis of DS had a significantly higher complication rate (8.5%) when compared with IS (6.6%; p = 0.002). High-grade spondylolisthesis correlated strongly with a higher complication rate (22.9% vs 8.3%, p < 0.0001). Age > 65 years was associated with a significantly higher complication rate (p = 0.02). History of previous surgery and surgical approach were not significantly associated with higher complication rates. On multivariate analysis, only the grade of spondylolisthesis (low vs high) was in the final best-fit model of factors associated with the occurrence of complications (p < 0.0001).
The rate of total complications for treatment of DS and IS in this series was 9.2%. The total percentage of patients with complications was 7.9%. On univariate analysis, the complication rate was significantly higher in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis, a diagnosis of DS, and in older patients. Surgical approach and history of previous surgery were not significantly correlated with increased complication rates. On multivariate analysis, only the grade of spondylolisthesis was significantly associated with the occurrence of complications.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 11/2010; 13(5):589-93. · 1.61 Impact Factor