Luca Cimino

Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Maria Nuova di Reggio Emilia, Reggio nell'Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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Publications (31)104.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To assess the visualization of choroidal granulomas (CG) by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and to describe their EDI-OCT characteristics.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 08/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of colour duplex sonography (CDS)-guided temporal artery biopsy (TAB) for the diagnosis of GCA in patients with suspected GCA.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 06/2014; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in providing in vivo measurements of iris thickness in healthy and pathological subjects. 14 healthy volunteers and 14 patients with unilateral Fuchs' uveitis were enrolled in the study. The two groups were comparable for age, gender and race. Each subject underwent complete clinical examination and anterior segment SD-OCT imaging in both eyes. SD-OCT scans of the iris were performed following a cross-sectional pattern. Iris thickness values were obtained using a purposely developed software-based analysis of OCT images. Measurements were carried out twice by two trained independent operators to assess intraobserver and interobserver repeatability. Analysis of iris thickness was conducted in four main quadrants: superior, inferior, nasal and temporal. Iris thickness values from normal subjects were compared with the ones measured in the affected and fellow eyes of patients with Fuchs' uveitis. Iris thickness measurements showed good intraobserver and interobserver repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.971). Superior and temporal iris sectors showed respectively thickest and thinnest values in all groups. In healthy eyes, iris thickness ranged from 327.92±37.29 μm temporally to 405.25±48.49 μm superiorly. Iris thickness measurements in the affected eyes of Fuchs' uveitis patients ranged from 285.48±56.02 μm temporally to 376.12±60.97 μm superiorly. Multiple comparison analysis showed iris thickness values to be significantly lower in eyes affected by Fuchs' uveitis than both in fellow eyes (p<0.001) of the same patients and in healthy eyes (p=0.0074). SD-OCT is a suitable technique for iris thickness assessment. Thickness analysis must be carried out using a sectorial approach, taking into consideration anatomical variations existing between different iris regions. SD-OCT is a potentially useful tool for detecting iris thickness variations induced by pathological conditions such as Fuchs' uveitis.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 04/2014; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 62-year-old man with mild fever, headache and acute visual loss in his right eye due to anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION), followed a few days later by pain in the legs and left arm associated with numbness and weakness. Giant cell arteritis complicated by AION was suspected at the beginning and high-dose oral glucocorticoids were started. However, on the basis of the past medical history of nasal polyposis, asthma, and hypereosynophilia as well as of further investigations (biopsy of the nasal mucosa showing granulomatous inflammation with a rich eosinophilic infiltrate, electromyography demonstrating, mononeuritis multiplex and positive p-ANCA), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, was diagnosed. Because visual acuity in the right eye deteriorated despite glucocorticoid therapy, pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide was started, subsequently replaced by oral azathioprine, while prednisone was slowly tapered. This treatment led to gradual improvement of the neurological symptoms, whereas the right visual impairment remained unchanged. EGPA-related AION is an uncommon lesion that is probably due to vasculitic involvement of posterior ciliary and/or chorioretinal arteries. The prognosis of established AION is poor for the affected eye, even when glucocorticoid treatment is started immediately. However, early recognition of AION and prompt aggressive treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids plus cyclophosphamide can prevent visual loss in the unaffected eye.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 10/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To assess the findings of temporal artery colour duplex sonography (CDS) in GCA characterized by a histological pattern of periadventitial small vessel vasculitis (SVV) and/or vasa vasorum vasculitis (VVV) and compare it with those observed in classic GCA with transmural vasculitis.Methods. We studied 30 patients with SVV and/or VVV, 63 patients with classic GCA and 67 biopsy-negative patients identified over a 9-year period. CDS of the temporal arteries was performed in all patients by one ultrasonographer. Temporal artery biopsy was used as the reference standard. Sensitivities, specificities and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated.Results. The frequency of the halo sign on CDS was significantly lower in the patients with SVV and/or VVV compared with those with classic GCA (20% vs 82.5%, P = 0.0001). The halo sign had a sensitivity of only 20% (95% CI 8.4, 39.1%) and a specificity of 80.6% (95% CI 68.7, 88.9%) for the diagnosis of SVV and/or VVV. The negative LR was 0.992 (CI 0.824, 1.195), and the positive LR was 1.030 (CI 0.433, 2.451). The halo sign for the diagnosis of biopsy-proven classic GCA had a higher sensitivity of 82.5% (CI 70.5, 90.5%), the same specificity of 80.6% (CI 68.7, 88.9%) and a higher positive LR (4.253; CI 2.577, 7.021).Conclusion. The halo sign is infrequently found in GCA characterized by a histological pattern of SVV and/or VVV. This limits the sensitivity of CDS in correctly identifying patients with GCA.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 09/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To characterise the polyspecific intraocular antibody synthesis in aqueous humor of patients with Fuchs uveitis and other types of non-infectious uveitis. METHODS: Aqueous and serum samples collected from 24 patients with Fuchs uveitis, 21 patients with non-infectious uveitis, and 27 healthy subjects undergoing elective cataract surgery (control group) were analysed. In addition, vitreous samples, collected from seven uveitis patients (five Fuchs and two panuveitis) during retinal surgery, were examined. Specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) were investigated, and Goldmann-Witmer coefficients (GWCs) were calculated. Real-time PCR was performed to detect viral genome for HSV, VZV, and CMV, while nested PCR was conducted to detect rubella RNA. RESULTS: None of the control samples tested positive for any of the viral antibodies investigated. Intraocular antibody production was found in eight samples of patients affected by Fuchs uveitis (6/8 positive for rubella virus and 2/8 positive for herpes virus). Among patients with non-infectious uveitis, three tested positive for intraocular antibody production (one RV, one HSV and one for VZV). PCR was positive for RV in two patients with Fuchs uveitis, in three patients with non-infectious uveitis (one for RV and two for HSV), and in three control subjects (one for CMV and one for HSV). CONCLUSIONS: Our series confirmed the presence of specific viral antibodies, especially against rubella virus, in the subgroup of patients affected by Fuchs uveitis, suggesting that this virus may be responsible for this chronic inflammatory condition. Rubella virus is probably the main causative agent of Fuchs uveitis, but other viruses may also be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 03/2013; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the frequency and clinical characteristics of periadventitial small-vessel vasculitis (SVV) and isolated vasa vasorum vasculitis (VVV). We identified 455 temporal artery biopsies performed in residents of Reggio Emilia, Italy between 1986 and 2003. Slides of temporal artery biopsy specimens were reviewed by a pathologist who was blinded with regard to clinical data. SVV was defined as inflammation of the small vessels external to the temporal artery adventitia, and VVV was defined as isolated inflammation of temporal artery vasa vasorum. Medical records of patients with SVV and/or VVV were reviewed, and demographic, clinical, laboratory, and followup data were collected. For comparison purposes, we collected the same data from an equal number of randomly selected patients with evidence of classic giant cell arteritis (GCA). Sixteen patients had SVV, 18 had isolated VVV, and 5 had both SVV and VVV. Compared with patients with classic GCA, the frequencies of headache, scalp tenderness, abnormalities of temporal arteries, jaw claudication, anorexia, and weight loss, the levels of acute-phase reactant at diagnosis, and the initial and cumulative doses prednisone were significantly lower and the frequency of peripheral synovitis was higher in the patients with SVV, and the frequency of cranial ischemic events was similar in the 2 groups. In contrast, the clinical characteristics and erythrocyte sedimentation rate at diagnosis of patients with isolated VVV were similar to those of patients with classic GCA. Our findings indicate that isolated VVV and SVV should be considered part of the histopathologic spectrum of GCA.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 09/2011; 64(2):549-56. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To relate patterns of progression and role of tuberculosis (TB) infection in serpiginous choroiditis (SC) by reviewing a series of cases of SC seen at Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care (COS), Lausanne, Switzerland and at the Ophthalmology Department of Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy.Methods Retrospective review of clinical data, visual field (VF), fluorescein angiographic (FA), indocyanine green angiographic (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features and TB infectious status in cases of SC.Results In the time span of 9 years 16 SC cases were seen in the two centres. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) revealed positivity for latent tubercular infection in 11 out of 16 patients. Patterns of evolution under immunosuppressive therapy differed between the TB positive and TB negative casesConclusion Even in non endemic areas TB infection, as a cause of SC has to be excluded. Typical behaviour of TB related SC is relentless progression despite immunosuppressive therapy.
    Acta ophthalmologica 09/2010; 88(s246). · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate potential associations of the ICAM-1 gene polymorphisms and Fuchs uveitis in a cohort of Italian patients. Seventy-one consecutive Italian patients affected by Fuchs uveitis were observed at the Ocular Immunology Unit, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova (Reggio Emilia, Italy) from 2002 to 2008. Two hundred twenty-six healthy Italian blood donors from the same geographic area were selected as the control group. All Fuchs uveitis patients and control subjects were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and allele-specific oligonucleotide techniques for ICAM-1 polymorphisms at codon 241 (exon 4). The frequency of the ICAM-1 G/R 241 polymorphism was significantly higher in Fuchs uveitis than in the control subjects (16.9% vs. 5.8%; P=0.006, Pcorr=0.012; odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-7.7). No significant association between clinical features and ICAM-1 polymorphisms was found. This study demonstrates for the first time that the ICAM-1 G/R 241 polymorphism may represent a candidate gene for Fuchs uveitis susceptibility.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 05/2010; 51(9):4447-50. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uveitis is a complex intraocular inflammatory disease resulting from several aetiological entities that are linked to geographical, genetic and socioeconomic variables. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the distribution patterns of uveitis as seen in a nationwide referral centre at a community hospital in Reggio Emilia, northern Italy, and to compare our data with those reported in previously published international series. The records of 1064 patients of Italian origin with uveitis referred to the Immunology Ocular Unit of the Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova Hospital in Reggio Emilia from 2002 to 2008 were classified and analysed. Data regarding sex, race, residence, age at presentation and at onset of uveitis, ocular involvement, clinical characteristics, ocular condition, and systemic disease associations were collected. The mean age at onset of uveitis was 41 years (range: 1-94), and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.2. Anterior uveitis was the most common location (51.2%), followed by posterior uveitis (23.4%), panuveitis (19.6%), and intermediate uveitis (5.8%). The most frequent entities included Fuchs uveitis (22.7%), herpetic anterior uveitis (9.9%), toxoplasmosis (6.9%), HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis (5.3%), and Behçet's disease (5.3%). The distribution we observed of the most common disease entities conformed to previous international series. In our series, Fuchs uveitis represented the most common diagnosis (22.7%, 45% of anterior uveitis). The high percentage of specific diagnosis (74%) can be explained by the establishment of new disease categories over time as well as by a systematic multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach.
    International Ophthalmology 03/2010; 30(5):521-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-related uveitis refractory or intolerant to immunosuppressive and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) agents. Patients with JIA-related uveitis refractory to immunosuppressive and anti-TNFalpha agents were treated with intravenous abatacept (10 mg/kg monthly). Side effects, frequency of uveitis flares, and ocular complications before and after treatment were reported. Seven patients (6 females and 1 male) with a mean uveitis duration of 11.6 years entered the study. All patients had failed previous immunosuppressive therapy and >or=2 anti-TNFalpha treatments. All patients responded to abatacept and 6 maintained a clinical remission after a mean of 9.2 months of treatment. One patient withdrew from the study with oral mycosis and arthritis flare; no other patients had side effects. The mean frequency of uveitis flares during the 6 months before and after treatment decreased from 3.7 to 0.7 episodes. No new ocular complications or worsening of preexisting ones were reported. Abatacept treatment led to sustained improvement in severe anti-TNFalpha-resistant JIA-related uveitis and was well tolerated in all but 1 patient. These results provide new insights into a possible indication of abatacept for the treatment of uveitis.
    Arthritis care & research. 01/2010; 62(6):821-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, carotid atherosclerosis and the effect of anti-platelet/anti-coagulant therapy on the occurrence of severe cranial ischaemic events (CIEs) in GCA. We identified 180 Reggio Emilia (Italy) residents with biopsy-proven GCA diagnosed between 1986 and 2005. We evaluated data on demographics, clinical features, laboratory investigations, cardiovascular risk factors, anti-platelet/anti-coagulant use and carotid atherosclerosis. Systemic signs/symptoms were significantly less frequent (P = 0.004) and ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP) values at diagnosis were significantly lower (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) in patients with CIEs. The prevalence of hypertension and ischaemic heart disease was significantly higher in patients with CIEs than in those without (P = 0.01 and P = 0.006, respectively). Patients treated with anti-platelet/anti-coagulant therapy were significantly more likely to suffer CIEs than those without (P = 0.03), while CIEs were significantly associated with ischaemic heart disease in this subset of patients (P = 0.02). By multivariate logistic regression, we found that the best predictors for the development of severe CIEs included the absence of high (>5.38 mg/dl) CRP levels at diagnosis (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.08, 1.20), the absence of systemic manifestations (OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.08, 1.08), the presence of hypertension (OR = 7.77, 95% CI 0.83, 72.76), and a past history of ischaemic heart disease (OR = 8.65, 95% CI 0.92, 80.95). In GCA, hypertension, a past history of ischaemic heart disease and a low inflammatory response are associated with a higher risk of developing severe CIEs.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 12/2008; 48(3):250-3. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate potential associations between-463 G/A myeloperoxidase (MPO) promoter polymorphism and susceptibility to, and clinical features of giant cell arteritis (GCA). A total of 156 patients with biopsy-proven GCA who were residents of Reggio Emilia, Italy, and 235 population-based controls from the same geographic area were genotyped for-463 G/A promoter polymorphism of the MPO gene by molecular methods. The patients were subgrouped according to the presence or absence of polymyalgia rheumatica and severe ischaemic complications (visual loss and/or cerebrovascular accidents). The distribution of the MPO-G/A genotype differed significantly between patients with GCA and the controls (p(corr) = 0.003). Allele G was significantly more frequent in patients with GCA than in the controls (p(corr) = 0.0002, OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.9). Homozygosity for the G allele was significantly more frequent in patients with GCA than in controls (p(corr) = 0.0002, OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4). No significant associations were found when patients with GCA with and without polymyalgia rheumatica or with and without severe ischaemic complications were compared. Our findings show that the-463 G/A promoter polymorphism of the MPO gene is associated with GCA susceptibility and support a role for MPO in the pathophysiology of GCA.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 05/2008; 67(4):485-8. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of a case of paranasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) with ocular involvement. In March 2005 the patient presented with a maxillary sinusitis and upper nasal obstruction. In July she underwent a nasal computed tomography (CT) scan and multiple biopsies of the granulomatous tissue in the nasal fossae. The diagnosis was NK/T non-Hodgkin's lymphoma nasal type, stage IV A. Afterwards she presented anterior uveitis. In September after the diagnosis of lymphoma the patient underwent a bone marrow biopsy and thoracic and abdominal CT scan. An ophthalmic examination including visual acuity assessment and fundoscopic examination was made. In October she started chemotherapy cycles. Maxillary CT scan and ophthalmic examinations were performed during the cycles. In January 2006 after severe recurrences of panuveitis a diagnostic vitrectomy was performed. A diagnosis of T-lymphoma cells in the vitreous was made; the tumor was most likely originating from her paranasal NKTL. The condition of the patient deteriorated rapidly and she expired on February 2006. Nasal and paranasal sinus lymphomas are rare, but aggressive diseases with a tendency to invade tissues and spread to CNS, including the eye. Ocular manifestations prior to systemic ones may be useful to monitor the response to therapy.
    International Ophthalmology 05/2008; 29(4):275-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for the control of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) secondary to noninfectious uveitis (NU). The medical records of 19 consecutive patients with inflammatory CMO treated with MMF were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were evaluated. There were eight females and 11 males with a mean age of 32.9 +/- 8.9 years. After a 1-year follow-up, 18/19 patients (31 eyes, 96.9%, P < 0.05) no longer had signs of CMO, as per their FA and OCT findings; the mean central foveal thickness (CFT) was 167.2 +/- 12.8 microm. At the last follow-up, only 3/19 patients, all affected by Behçet panuveitis, had recurrences of CMO. Mean BCVA improved from 0.34 +/- 0.14 SD at baseline to 0.65 +/- 0.2 SD at last follow-up. MMF was safe and effective in controlling CMO and in reducing the uveitis relapse rate in patients not responding to traditional immunosuppressants. Further case-controlled studies are mandatory to validate those preliminary results.
    International Ophthalmology 03/2008; 29(3):127-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Fuchs uveitis is a chronic low grade intraocular inflammation of unknown etiology that is usually painless and characterized by the presence of persistent infiltrating cells in the anterior chamber and vitreous. One commonly occurring Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in the human TLR4 gene (Asp299Gly) has been shown to be associated with increased risk of Gram-negative bacteremia in sepsis patients and with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease.Methods 75 Italian patients with Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis and 210 healthy age and sex matched blood donors were genotyped for the Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms Asp299Gly gene by molecular methods.Results The distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms Asp299Gly did not differ significantly between the patients with Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis and the healthy controls.Conclusion Our data suggest that the Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms Asp299Gly in Italian patients with Fuchs uveitis is not associated with susceptibility of Fuchs uveitis Italian patients.
    Acta ophthalmologica 01/2008; 86:0-0. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the introduction of new T-cell based blood tests for tuberculosis infection in order to improve the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis.Methods Patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis from the Ocular Immunology Unit of the hospital of Reggio Emilia underwent both Mantoux skin tests and Gamma Interferon assays to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis.Results 8 patients (7/8 male; mean age 58 yrs) were diagnosed with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Three patients presented with serpiginous retinochoroiditis and five with bilateral panuveitis. Four patients had undergone immunosuppressive therapy before the correct diagnosis was made. All the patients were positive both with Mantoux skin test and Gamma Interferon assays (ELISpot and QuantiFERON TB-Gold). They started the specific anti-tuberculous tritherapy, improving significantly in visual acuity and decreasing intraocular inflammation.Conclusion These results confirm the feasibility of these new blood tests in routine clinical work-up. These new methods are important for the ophthalmologist in order to follow and evaluate developments in every method of detection of tuberculosis for the containment of this global public health epidemic.
    Acta ophthalmologica 01/2008; 86:0-0. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate potential associations of the PlA1/A2 polymorphism of the platelet glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) gene with susceptibility to, and clinical expression of, giant cell arteritis (GCA). One hundred forty patients with biopsy-proven GCA who were residents of Reggio Emilia, Italy, and 241 population-based healthy controls from the same geographic area were genotyped for the PlA1/A2 polymorphism of the platelet GPIIIa gene by molecular methods. The patients were divided into subgroups according to the presence or absence of polymyalgia rheumatica and cranial ischemic complications. The distribution of the PlA1/A2 genotype was investigated, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The distribution of the PlA1/A2 genotype differed significantly between GCA patients with and those without visual loss caused by anterior ischemic optic neuritis (P = 0.016, corrected P [P(corr)] = 0.048). The PlA2 allele was found significantly more frequently in GCA patients with anterior ischemic optic neuritis than in those without anterior ischemic optic neuritis (P = 0.023, P(corr) = 0.046, OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.2-4.8]). Homozygosity for the PlA2 allele was significantly more frequent among GCA patients with anterior ischemic optic neuritis than among those without (P = 0.019, P(corr) = 0.038, OR 7.1 [95% CI 1.64-30.6]). Cranial ischemic complications occurred in 8 of 19 patients (42.1%) receiving antiplatelet therapy, compared with 22 of 118 patients (18.6%) not receiving such therapy (P = 0.03, OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.1-8.8]). Our findings show that A2/A2 homozygosity is associated with an increased risk of visual loss due to anterior ischemic optic neuritis in GCA patients. Antiplatelet therapy, however, was not effective in reducing the risk of ischemic events in this population of GCA patients.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 11/2007; 56(10):3502-8. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) and refractory bilateral posterior uveitis, and to assess the proportion of relapse-free subjects through months 12 and 24. Open-label, multicentre, 24-month, prospective, follow up study on 12 consecutive patients with BD and refractory posterior uveitis who had failed at least one immunosuppressive drug. At baseline patients received prednisolone 1 mg/Kg/day with rapid tapering and nine infliximab infusions (5 mg/kg) over a 12-month period. Non-responders after the third infusion withdrew from the study. Patients were evaluated for ocular inflammation degree, visual acuity (VA), number of ocular attacks and incidence of adverse events (AEs). At 12-month visit, 9/12 (75%) patients achieved a complete remission with no relapse during the treatment period. All had a dramatic improvement of ocular inflammation after the first infusion, six were in complete remission after three infusions, and three after four. All these patients suspended corticosteroids at week 22. At 24-month visit, seven out of nine (78%) were still in remission. Mean VA improved from 0.2 +/- 0.6 to 0.5 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.001), and ocular attacks dropped from 40 in the year before therapy to 5 after infliximab cessation (P < 0.001). One patient had a partial remission with two relapses during treatment, and 2/12 (17%) patients showed no improvement. Infliximab was well tolerated with no serious AEs. Infliximab is rapidly effective and safe in a high proportion BD patients with refractory posterior uveitis, and may be helpful to prevent recurrences.
    Rheumatology 08/2007; 46(7):1161-4. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade ocular involvement due to tuberculosis has re-emerged. In non-endemic areas the low frequency of active tuberculosis is at the origin of an underestimation of the disease. The purpose of this study is to report a group of patients with presumed tuberculous uveitis and to analyse the pre-diagnostic course, the diagnostic delay and the evolution of ocular inflammation after diagnosis and anti-tuberculous treatment. Criteria for presumed tuberculous uveitis included the presence of a hyperpositive tuberculin skin test with compatible uveitis and the exclusion of other possible etiologies. Thirty-five patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for presumed tuberculous uveitis and were included in the study. The diagnosis was performed at presentation in only seven patients, while the correct diagnosis was delayed in the other 30 patients. The mean diagnostic delay was 5.7 +/- 4 years. Anti-tuberculous therapy was given for a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 24 months. Post-diagnostic mean follow-up was 30.4 +/- 13.4 months. Anti-tuberculous therapy resulted in a highly significant increase in visual acuity, from 0.53 to 0.78 (P < 0.001), a highly significant decrease of recurrences, from 100 to 10% (P < 0.001), with only three recurrences observed during the follow-up, and a highly significant decrease in intra-ocular pressure, from 18.3 to 13.7 (P < 0.001). Our study tends to confirm the existence of tuberculous uveitis and supports the validity of the proposed diagnostic criteria. Recognition of the correct diagnosis and specific therapy, even with substantial delay, avoids recurrences, improves visual acuity and intra-ocular inflammation and decreases intra-ocular pressure.
    International Ophthalmology 06/2007; 29(2):67-74.