[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association of cognitive impairment, depressive mood and sarcopenia among older men living in the veterans retirement community in southern Taiwan
This cross-sectional study recruited 353 men aged 65 years and older. In addition to demographic characteristics, all participants were measured for gait speed, handgrip strength and muscle mass by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The diagnosis of sarcopenia was made according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. Slow walking speed was defined as ≤0.8 meter/second. Low muscle strength was defined as the handgrip strength less than 22.5 kg which was adjusted according to Taiwanese norms. A height-adjusted muscle mass of 8.87 kg/m2 from a previous Taiwanese study was defined as low muscle mass. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) was used for screening of depressive symptoms.
Among the 353 participants (mean age 82.7 ± 5.3 years), 30.9% (109/353) were classified as sarcopenic. Multivariate logistic regression showed that sarcopenia was independently associated with cognitive impairment (adjusted OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.63-5.65, P < 0.001) and depressive symptoms (adjusted OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.03-4.89, P = 0.04).
Sarcopenia was significantly associated with cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms among otherwise healthy older men living in the veterans retirement community. Further outcome study is required to explore the interrelationship of cognition, depressive symptoms and sarcopenia in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014; 14 (Suppl. 1): 102-108.
Geriatrics & Gerontology International 02/2014; 14 Suppl 1:102-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although the clinical effectiveness of community hospital-based postacute care (PAC) services has been shown, little was known regarding the impact of depression on the clinical outcomes of older patients receiving PAC services in Taiwan.
From January 2009 to August 2010, patients aged 65 years and older referred from tertiary medical centers or acute wards of community hospitals to PAC units were invited for study. All patients received the 4-week Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment-based intervention program in the PAC units. The functional assessment was composed of Geriatric Depression Scale–Short Form (GDS), Mini-Mental Status Examination, Barthel Index, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, and Braden Score.
Among the 401 participants (mean age, 82.0 years; 95.5% males), 66 (16.5%) patients were depressed at PAC unit admission. Depressed patients had significantly lower Barthel Index (38.1 ± 2.4 vs. 47.6 ± 1.2, p = 0.002) and Braden Score (17.7 ± 0.3 vs. 18.8 ± 0.2, p = 0.004) than nondepressed patients. Improvement was noted on all measures of functional outcome among patients receiving PAC services. Furthermore, GDS was significantly improved in depressed patients (from 6.4 ± 0.2 to 2.8 ± 0.2 in depressed patients vs. from 1.6 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.1 in nondepressed patients, p < 0.001).
Depression was common when patients were newly admitted to PAC services, which was highly associated with poorer physical function. Improvement in physical function and depressive symptoms among all patients after PAC service was found, and the presence of depressive symptoms at PAC admission did not predict any adverse outcome of PAC services.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 01/2013; · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeTo evaluate the postacute care (PAC) needs of elderly patients in a tertiary teaching hospital.Methods
All elderly veterans admitted to a tertiary medical center were screened for their needs for PAC services from May 1 to October 31, 2009. Case managers evaluated the inclusion/non-inclusion criteria while visiting patients before their discharge. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) was performed before their transfer, if they agreed to receive the PAC service in addition to the complete medical history review.ResultsOverall, 409 elderly patients (96.8% male; mean age = 80.4 ± 5.4 years) meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria were screened, and 103 (25.2%) had PAC service needs. All patients diagnosed with central nervous system and musculoskeletal conditions displayed a significant decrease (93.1 ± 10.8 to 43.6 ± 33.3, p < 0.001; 90.9 ± 14.6 to 40.4 ± 23.1, p < 0.001) in Barthel Index (BI), and were more likely to require PAC (41.1%, p = 0.001 and 55.3%, p < 0.001). Most patients with PAC needs had multiple complex needs, including mobility problems (97.7%), risk of malnutrition (90.7%), polypharmacy (74.4%), cognitive impairment (53.5%), pain problems (41.9%), sleep problems (39.5%), urinary incontinence (32.6%), and depression (14.0%).Conclusion
One-quarter of the elderly veterans admitted to the tertiary medical center, especially patients with central nervous system and musculoskeletal conditions, required PAC. Furthermore, the presence of multiple complex care needs among these patients strongly supported the suggestion that PAC services should be provided through a multidisciplinary approach.
Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics. 12/2012; 3(4):132–135.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To emphasize the importance of early recognition and emergent surgery for spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH). Case Report: A 61-year-old female presented with sudden onset of severe neck and back pain after finishing worshiping Buddha followed by quadriparesis, sensory deficits below C4 level and sphincter dysfunction. MR imaging demonstrated acute extensive epidural hematoma of cervico-thoracic spinal segments (C2-T7). Idiopathic SSEH was diagnosed and emergent decompressive laminectomy with hematoma evacuation was performed within 12 hours of symptoms onset. Good functional and neurological outcomes were obtained. Conclusion: SSEH is a rare but disabling or even fatal entity. Early diagnosis and prompt surgery improve the neurological and functional outcome but still remain a clinical challenge. Relevant physicians should pay attention to the typical symptoms of the rare entity and SSEH should be one of differential diagnoses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elderly people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and intervention trials to prevent falls have failed to demonstrate clinical effectiveness in this population. This study evaluates the role of urinary incontinence as a fall risk factor in older patients with dementia, with the aim of developing relevant intervention strategies.
Elderly patients with dementia visiting our center were recruited. All subjects underwent a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), and patients were divided into two groups (fall and non-fall) according to their history of falls in the past year. Components of the CGA, including physical function, mental function, depressive symptoms, incontinence, and nutritional status, were evaluated according to fall history.
Overall, 159 patients with dementia (mean age 77.3 ± 9.0 years, 59.1% male) participated. Fifty-four patients (34.0%) had experienced falls in the past year. Among all subjects, 50.3% were diagnosed with mild dementia, 37.7% with moderate dementia, and 12.0% with severe dementia according to an established Clinical Dementia Rating scale. Subjects in the fall group displayed poorer physical function, balance, depressive mood, nutritional status, urinary incontinence, and had an increased prevalence of polypharmacy. However, multivariate analysis revealed urinary incontinence as the only independent risk factor for falls (OR = 4.9 ± 2.2, 95% CI: 2.0-12.0, P < 0.001).
Urinary incontinence is a previously unidentified risk factor for falls among elderly dementia patients. An interventional study with the focus of urinary incontinence could improve the effectiveness of fall prevention among these patients.
Neurourology and Urodynamics 05/2011; 30(7):1286-90. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional status is important in stroke care, but little is known regarding to the prognostic role of nutritional status on long-term functional outcomes among stroke survivors. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate to the prognostic role of nutritional status on long-term functional outcomes among stroke survivors. Data of acute stroke registry in Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital were retrieved for analysis. Overall, 483 patients (mean age = 70.7 ± 10.3 years) with first-ever stroke were found. Among them, 95 patients (19.7%) were malnourished at admission, 310 (mean age = 70.4 ± 10.1 years, 63.5% males) survived for 6 months, and 244 (78.7%) had good functional outcomes. Subjects with poor functional outcomes were older (74.7 ± 8.9 vs. 69.0 ± 10.1 years, p < 0.001), more likely to be malnourished (56.2% vs. 26.6%, p < 0.001), to develop pneumonia upon admission (23.3% vs. 12.7%, p = 0.027), had a longer hospital stay (23.5 ± 13.9 vs. 12.5 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), had a higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (12.9 ± 9.3 vs. 4.9 ± 4.3, p < 0.001), poorer stroke recovery (NIHSS improvement: 6.9% vs. 27.4%, p = 0.005), and poorer functional improvement (Barthel index = BI improvement in the first month: 31.4% vs. 138%, p < 0.001). Older age (odds ratio = OR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.03-1.11, p<0.001), baseline NIHSS score (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.15-1.31, p < 0.001) and malnutrition at acute stroke (OR = 2.57, 95%CI: 1.29-5.13, p<0.001) were all independent risk factors for poorer functional outcomes. In conclusion, as a potentially modifiable factor, more attentions should be paid to malnutrition to promote quality of stroke care since the acute stage.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 01/2011; 53(2):e149-52. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the need for tools for early and accurate diagnosis, prediction of disease progression, and monitoring efficacy of therapeutic agents for AD, the study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers has become a rapidly growing field of research. Several studies have reported conflicting data regarding the relationships between CSF biomarkers and dementia severity. In this study, we have focused on the identification of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with the impairment of different cognitive domains measured using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). Patients with AD (n=28), non-AD dementia (n=16), other neurological disorders (OND, n=14), and healthy controls (HC, n=21) were enrolled. Our results revealed significantly higher CSF total tau (t-tau) and lower amyloid-beta(42) levels in AD patients compared with those in HC and OND groups. Moreover, our data show that CSF t-tau levels, but not Abeta(42) levels, have an inverse correlation with the score of short-term memory in CASI for patients with AD (Spearman: r=-0.444; p=0.018). This data might indicate that the higher CSF t-tau level is associated with more NFT pathology and more severe impairment of short-term memory in AD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness of the Minimum Data Set-based Depression Rating Scale (MDS-DRS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in screening depression among older institutionalized Chinese men living in Taiwan.
MDS Nursing Home 2.1 Chinese version, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and short form Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used among elderly residents in Banciao Veterans Home. Screening results of MDS-DRS and GDS-15, and relationship between 16 MDS Mood and Anxiety symptoms and depression were evaluated.
The prevalence of depression defined by MDS-DRS and GDS were 0.2% and 8.7%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression disclosed that E1a (OR: 12.9, 95% CI: 2.8-58.8, p = 0.001), E1k (OR: 15.6, 95% CI: 5.6-43.5, p < 0.001), and E1l (OR: 22.2, 95% CI: 6.1-83.3, p < 0.001) were all independent associative factors for GDS-defined depression but only explained 51.9% of all depressive subjects.
The effectiveness of MDS-DRS is limited, and a new MDS-based depression screening instrument is needed.
Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 06/2009; 24(4):179-83. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe a patient with lithium intoxication presenting as acute parkinsonism, adverse metabolic effects and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI).
We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with a bipolar affective disorder who was treated with lithium for 10 years. Under concomitant renal insufficiency and urinary tract infarction, she experienced progressive hand tremor, bradykinesia, and unsteady gait. Laboratory results revealed hypercalcemia and hypermagnesiemia. A high serum lithium level (3.6 mEq/L) was found; thus lithium was discontinued. She was found to have a high serum level of intact parathyroid hormone: 135.0 pg/ml and a suspicious parathyroid adenoma. Polyuria with hypernatremia was also noted. A water deprivation test confirmed nephrogenic diabetes insipitces. After correction of electrolyte imbalance and reduction of lithium level, her consciousness recovered. Her parkinsonian features were responsive to levodopa 400 mg/day in 2 divided doses. One month later, apart from the residual extrapyramidal symptoms and mania, her condition was otherwise stationary.
Tremor is the most frequent movement disorder associated with lithium therapy, while severe parkinsonism has been rarely reported. It should be kept in mind in differential diagnosis of acute parkinsonism especially in elder patients who receive a chronic lithium carbonate therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of right tentorium subdural hematoma (SDH) in a 72-year-old man a few days after he visited a sanitas per aqua (SPA) facility. He had directed high-pressure water onto his head and neck. The patient was admitted to the emergency room during his 3rd day of severe throbbing and generalized headache. Cerebral computed tomography revealed a high-density SDH over the right tentorium. This is the first reported case of SPA-related SDH. Neurologists might consider the possibility that SPA use may be a factor in SDH or unexplained neurologic events in otherwise healthy persons.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 11/2007; 70(10):451-2. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary lesions. The neurofibrillary lesions mainly consist of the hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein Tau predominantly expressed in the axon of CNS neurons. Hyperphosphorylation of Tau negatively affects its binding to tubulin and decreases the capacity to promote microtubule assembly. Among a number of proline-directed kinases capable of phosphorylating paired helical filament-Tau, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) was first identified as a Tau protein kinase I and has been demonstrated to phosphorylate Tau both in vivo and in vitro. However, the phosphorylation mechanism of Tau by GSK3beta remained unclear. In this study, we show that the T231 is the primary phosphorylation site for GSK3beta and the Tau227-237 (AVVRTPPKSPS) derived from Tau containing T231P232 motif is identified as the GSK3beta binding site with high affinity of a Kd value 0.82 +/- 0.16 mumol/L. Our results suggest that direct binding and phosphorylation of T231P232 motif by GSK3beta induces conformational change of Tau and consequentially alters the inhibitory activity of its N-terminus that allows the phosphorylation of C-terminus of Tau by GSK3beta. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylation reduces Tau's ability to promote tubulin assembly and to form bundles in N18 cells. T231A mutant completely abolishes Tau phosphorylation by GSK3beta and retains the ability to promote tubulin polymerization and bundle formation. Taken together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of T231 by GSK3beta may play an important role in Tau's hyperphosphorylation and functional regulation.
Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2007; 103(2):802-13. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome is often associated with A3243G point mutation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We previously described a MELAS family characterized by harboring an additional approximately 260 bp tandem duplication in the D-loop and a novel C3093G point mutation in the 16S rRNA gene of mtDNA in the proband. We studied the clinical progression and fluctuation of mtDNA mutations in this Taiwanese MELAS family. We followed up the clinical course in all members of this family (1 proband, her mother and 3 sons) for 12 years. Mutations of mtDNA in serial muscle biopsies of the proband and blood samples and hair follicles taken at different time points from the members of this family were analyzed. The proband developed repeated stroke-like episodes, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, polyneuropathy, progressive renal failure and dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure. During the follow-up period, the mother and one of the siblings of the proband developed stroke-like episodes at age 62 and 12, respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportions of mtDNA with A3243G mutation among five serial muscle biopsies of the proband. In one carrier (I-2), the proportion of A3243G mutated mtDNA in blood cells was slightly increased with disease progression. This study underlines the importance of early detection of extraneuromuscular symptoms in the members of a family with MELAS syndrome by adequate follow-up. The age of onset of stroke-like episode in MELAS syndrome may be as late as 62 years. We suggest that the manifestations of MELAS syndrome in this family might be associated with the additional approximately 260 bp tandem duplication in the D-loop region and the coexistence of C3093G mutation in the 16S rRNA gene with the A3243G mutation of mtDNA.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 08/2007; 106(7):528-536. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. Herein we report a case of familial hyperhomocysteinemia-related cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a 21-year-old man who presented with severe headache over bilateral frontal areas. Neurological examination revealed no evidence of focal neurological deficit. Chest CT showed pulmonary thromboembolism in bilateral basal lung fields and brain MRI disclosed right transverse and sigmoid venous sinus thrombosis. Routine immunological tests, coagulation factors and occult tumor screening were normal, as were vitamin B12 and folate levels. The DIC profile was negative, The only risk factor we were able to identify was an elevated serum homocysteine level, namely 46.23 microM/L. Hyperhomocysteinemia was also noted in the patient's asymptomatic elder brother (68.0 microM/L) and, to a lesser extent, in his parents (father 12.5 microM/L; mother 11.7 microM/L). In conclusion, the cause of cerebral venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in this young patient was most likely related to familial hyperhomocysteinemia, with the thromboembolic events precipitated by a preceding systemic infection. After anticoagulation therapy; the patient recovered completely without any residual neurological deficit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs more commonly in Taiwan than in other western countries. Recurrence of primary ICH after a first episode is not rare. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of recurrent primary ICH.
From the stroke registration data of Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital (KSVGH), all patients admitted between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2003 with the discharge diagnosis of ICH were identified. The hospital records and images of each ICH patient were carefully reviewed and the diagnosis was confirmed by one of the investigators. For those patients admitted in this study period with the diagnosis of acute primary ICH who also had past medical history of ICH, the record and image of the past admission were also obtained for review, either from KSVGH or other hospitals. Patients with ICH due to secondary causes were excluded.
585 patients with primary ICH were reviewed. Among them, 34 (5.8%) patients were found to have recurrent primary ICH. The medical records of these 34 patients were obtained for further analysis. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy was diagnosed in 4 (11.7%) patients. Mean ages at the onset of the first and second hemorrhages were 64 +/- 13 and 66 +/- 13 years, respectively. The mean interval between first and second hemorrhages was 33 months (from 1 month to 10 years). The most common location of first-second bleeding was basal ganglion-basal ganglion. The mortality rate in this group was 23.5%. Fifteen (38.2%) patients became totally dependent or vegetative after the second ICH.
Recurrent primary ICH is not uncommon. The main location of recurrent bleeding was basal ganglion. This may implicate hypertension as the main cause of ICH. Hypertension is an important risk factor of recurrent primary ICH. Amyloid angiopathy is another cause of recurrent primary ICH. The prognosis after the second hemorrhage is worse, while the mortality and morbidity after first ever primary ICH were 15.6% and 17.9%, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from hiccup, dysphagia and unsteady gait for three months. He was diagnosed with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula in medulla with retrograde perimedullary vein drainage. He developed quadriplegia, persistent shock status and symptomatic bradycardia immediately after a conventional cerebral angiography study. After excluding cardiogenic, hypovolemic, anaphylactic and septic shock, central vasomotor failure caused by venous thrombosis of the lesion was considered. The patient's central vasomotor failure recovered after continuous dopamine infusion treatment for 42 days. We concluded that venous hypertension with venous thrombosis in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a major vasomotor center in the brainstem, was the lesion site. In our case, vasomotor dysfunction caused by an RVLM lesion related to venous thrombosis is considered as causative.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) often present major problems for patients and their caregivers. In the past, neurologists paid less attention to such symptoms than to the cognitive symptoms of dementia. This prospective study investigated the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in a neurology-based memory clinic and the stress of caregivers. Our patients with dementia were found to have a high prevalence of BPSD. The most frequent were anxiety, apathy, and delusion; the most distressing to caregivers were agitation, anxiety, delusion, and sleep disturbance. Using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), we compared BPSD between patients with mild dementia and those with moderate dementia. Only hallucinations and agitation were different significantly. Moderate dementia patients experienced these symptoms more frequently. The high prevalence of these symptoms might be explained by the fact that the cognitive symptoms were neglected or no enough information were received by many family members of patients with dementia until their own life quality was interfered and then they began to seek medical help. These symptoms and their effect of caregiver distress can be effectively reduced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacoloic managements, caregiver-focused training and education. They can be better approached by assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms regularly, educating the general population better, and treating these patients earlier.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differences in the intracellular Ca(2+) responses to hormones in platelets from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared to normal humans have not been explored. This study examined the Ca(2+) signaling and density of platelets in normal, inactive and active SLE patients. The platelet number per mul in inactive and normal groups did not differ, whereas the number in active SLE patients was smaller than the other two groups by 60%. The intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)](i)) in response to stimulation of four endogenous Ca(2+) mobilizing hormones, 100 microM arachidonic acid (AA), 10 microM ADP, 10 nM platelet activation factor (PAF) and 1 microM thrombin, were investigated using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye, fura-2. The AA-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises in normal and inactive groups were similar. In contrast, the AA-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises in the active SLE group were significantly smaller than in the normal and inactive groups. The defect in the AA-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises in active SLE groups appears to be caused by defective Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+) releasing pathways because the AA-induced responses were not altered by removal of extracellular Ca(2+), whereas the AA-induced responses in normal and inactive SLE groups were reduced by removal of extracellular Ca(2+), and the AA-induced Ca(2+) release was smaller in the active SLE group. PAF, ADP and thrombin all induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises in the three groups, but no significant differences were found among the three groups. Together, the results indicate that cell density and Ca(2+) signaling in platelets from active SLE patients are altered in response to particular stimulators. In these regards, platelets from inactive SLE patients appear to be similar to those from normal humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assessment of brachial-artery FMD is a reliable, reproducible and noninvasive tool for evaluating endothelial dysfunction, which, together with endothelial inflammation, causes carotid atherosclerosis. Atorvastatin therapy can reverse endothelial dysfunction after 4 months, and may have significant anti-inflammatory effects if continued for more than 4 months. Importantly, statin therapy can be used to treat carotid atherosclerosis.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 03/2005; 68(2):49-50. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 69-year-old woman developed deep coma and brain stem areflexia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Due to unstable vital signs, she was not a candidate for an apnea test. Computed tomographic angiography revealed absence of intracranial circulation, and brain death was diagnosed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information concerning acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) after heroin injection is limited. Only one report has described the association between heroin injections and AMI in a young woman. AMI after heroin injection in a patient with a normal coronary angiogram has not been reported. We report a 38-year-old man who developed AMI after heroin injection. He is probably the first case of AMI with normal coronary artery angiograms associated with heroin abuse. The heroin-induced toxic effect and/or coronary spasm are highly suspected to be the causes of the infarction episode.
Japanese Heart Journal 12/2004; 45(6):1021-8. · 0.40 Impact Factor