[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interactions between cancer cells and surrounding stroma play a critical role in tumor progression, but their molecular basis is largely unknown. Global gene expression profiling was performed using oligonucleotide microarrays to determine changes in the gene expression of pancreatic cancer cells (CFPAC1) and stromal fibroblasts induced by coculture. This analysis identified multiple genes as differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer cells and in fibroblasts as a consequence of their mutual interactions, including those that encode for proteins associated with tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Among the genes identified, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/PTGS2 gene was of particular interest because COX-2 expression was markedly augmented in both cell types (cancer cells and fibroblasts) in response to coculture. Coculture with fibroblasts also induced COX-2 expression in additional pancreatic cancer cells with an unmethylated COX-2 promoter, but not in those with a methylated COX-2 promoter. Using an in vitro invasion assay, we found an increase in the invasive potential of CFPAC1 cells when they were cocultured with fibroblasts, an effect blocked partially by the addition of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, or by COX-2 knockdown with small interfering RNA. Thus, COX-2 inhibitors can decrease the invasive properties of pancreatic cancer cells acquired through tumor-stromal interactions.
Cancer Research 11/2004; 64(19):6950-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFI16 is a member of the PYRIN superfamily that has been implicated in BRCA1-mediated apoptosis and inflammation signaling pathways. Here we report that most breast cancer cell lines examined expressed decreased mRNA and protein levels of IFI16, although IFI16 is expressed in human primary normal mammary epithelial cells. Significantly, immunohistochemical analysis of tissues from 25 breast cancer patients demonstrated that carcinoma cells showed negative or weaker staining of IFI16 compared with positive nuclear staining in normal mammary duct epithelium. si-RNA-mediated reduction of IFI16 resulted in perturbation of p53 activation when treated with ionizing radiation (IR). Expression of IFI16 enhanced p53 transcriptional activity in cells exposed to IR. Adenovirus expression of IFI16 in IFI16-deficient MCF7 induced apoptosis, which was enhanced by radiomimetic neocarcinostatin treatment. Tetracycline-regulated IFI16 also induced apoptosis when coexpressed with p53 in p53-deficient EJ cells subjected to IR, suggesting that IFI16 is involved in p53-mediated transmission of apoptosis signaling. Consistent with these results, expression of IFI16 enhanced activation of the known p53 target genes, including p21, Hdm2, and bax in MCF7 cells. These results suggest that loss of IFI16 results in deregulation of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to cancer development.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2004; 279(19):20339-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microangiography with spatial resolution in the micrometer range was carried out for depicting angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer using a high-resolution detector and a third generation synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. The long source-to-object distance and small source spot of synchrotron radiation radiography are able to produce high-resolution images. The imaging system was composed of an X-ray direct-conversion type detector incorporating an X-ray SATlCON pickup tube. Microangiographic images were obtained with no geometric blur and were stored in a digital frame memory system with a 1024 × 1024-pixel, 10-bit format. A VX2 carcinoma was transplanted into a rabbit auricle. At seven days after transplantation, small tumor blood vessels with diameters of 10-30 μm in an immature vascular network produced by angiogenesis were observed using monochromatic X-rays after contrast agent injection to the auricular artery.
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2003. Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE; 10/2003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deregulated expression of SPARC/osteonectin, a secreted glycoprotein with multiple biological functions, has been associated with the progression of various cancers. Using microarrays, we previously identified SPARC as one of the genes induced by treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor in pancreatic cancer cells. We therefore analysed the expression pattern and methylation status of the SPARC gene in pancreatic cancer. Gene expression profiling by oligonucleotide microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses demonstrated that SPARC mRNA was expressed in non-neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, but was not expressed in a majority of pancreatic cancer cell lines. The loss of SPARC expression was associated with aberrant hypermethylation of its CpG island. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that the SPARC protein was overexpressed in the stromal fibroblasts immediately adjacent to the neoplastic epithelium in primary pancreatic cancers, but rarely expressed in the cancers themselves. Primary fibroblasts derived from pancreatic cancer strongly expressed SPARC mRNA and secreted SPARC protein into the conditioned media, and treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with exogenous SPARC resulted in growth suppression. SPARC expression in fibroblasts from noncancerous pancreatic tissue was augmented by coculture with pancreatic cancer cells. These findings suggest that SPARC is a frequent target for aberrant methylation in pancreatic cancer and that SPARC expression in fibroblasts adjacent to pancreatic cancer cells is regulated through tumor-stromal interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have documented previously somatic mutations of STK11/LKB11, the gene responsible for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), in a small proportion of sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and biliary adenocarcinomas. In this report, we characterize the expression of Stk11, the protein product of the STK11 gene, in a larger series of pancreatic and biliary neoplasms. First, the specificity of the Stk11 antibody was established in 23 neoplasms (22 IPMNs and 1 biliary adenocarcinoma) with known STK11 gene status. Complete absence of labeling was seen in the neoplastic cells of 3 of the 3 (100%) cases with previously documented biallelic inactivation of the STK11 gene, whereas 16 of the 20 (80%) IPMNs, presumably with at least one wild-type STK11 gene, retained Stk11 expression in the neoplastic cells. The marked decrease or absence of Stk11 expression in four neoplasms with wild-type STK11 suggests that additional mechanisms may account for the lack of Stk11 expression. Subsequently, to further evaluate Stk11 expression in pancreatic and biliary neoplasms, tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from a series of nearly 100 ductal adenocarcinomas and biliary neoplasms. Stk11 expression was lost in 4 of the 56 (7%) pancreatic adenocarcinomas and 1 of the 38 (2.6%) biliary cancers by immunohistochemistry; the absence of labeling was confirmed by repeated immunohistochemical labeling of complete tissue sections for the same cases. Thus, Stk11 expression is abrogated in a small proportion of pancreatic and biliary neoplasms. The inactivation of Stk11 in 27% (6/22) of IPMNs versus 7% (4/56) of pancreatic adenocarcinomas suggests genetic disparities in the pathogenesis of these closely related neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis for Stk11 expression may be a valid surrogate for genetic analysis of STK11 gene mutations in cancers.
Modern Pathology 08/2003; 16(7):686-91. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether DNA methylation and the invasive phenotype of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are associated, we studied the role of methylation in the transcriptional regulation of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC), an inhibitor of DNA methylation, on the invasive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. Using the Boyden chamber in vitro invasion assay, we found a statistically significant increase in invasive potential in four of five pancreatic cancer cell lines after treatment with 5Aza-dC. This enhanced invasiveness was associated with the induction of mRNAs for one or more MMPs critical for tumor invasion, including MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, and -14. Addition of an MMP inhibitor (GM6001, GM1489, doxycycline, or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2) blocked the 5Aza-dC-induced increase in the number of invading cells. As shown by a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, 5' CpG sites in MMP-2, -7, and -9 genes were partially or completely methylated in cell lines that expressed little or no corresponding mRNAs. Thus, DNA methylation influences the expression of MMP genes, and use of methylation inhibitors may stimulate the invasion of pancreatic cancer by reactivating invasion-promoting genes.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 03/2003; 95(4):327-30. · 14.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intensive stromal reaction is one of characteristics of pancreatic exocrine carcinoma. The mutual interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and orthotopic tumor-derived fibroblasts have not been clarified yet. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying the tumor-stromal interaction with an in vitro coculture experimental system. Considerable strong c-Met expression was detected in seven out ten lines of human pancreatic carcinoma cells, as determined by Western blotting. For hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-production, however, none or only trace amounts of HGF could be detected in those ten cell lines. Of the two lots of tumor-derived fibroblasts obtained from two pancreatic cancer patients, the fibroblasts capable to produce HGF could initiate an apparent invasion-stimulating response in strong c-Met-expressed Suit-2 and Panc-1 cells but not in faint expressed Mia PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells. A specialized HGF antagonist, NK4 would effectively inhibit the fibroblast-mediated invasive growth, thus proving the key role of the paracrine-fashioned HGF/c-Met pathway in the tumor-stromal interaction. On the other hand, the regulative action of cancer cells on HGF expression of fibroblasts was also investigated using direct or indirect coculture systems. For the fibroblasts that originally did not produce HGF, cancer cells failed to show any HGF-inductive effect. For the HGF-producing fibroblasts, despite of somewhat upregulation or downregulation in fibroblast HGF expression, the feedback regulation by studied pancreatic cancer cells in both coculture modes were relatively limited. This in vitro study sketched out the interaction between cancerous and stromal compartments with an emphasis on HGF/c-Met signal pathway, thus possibly helping to unveil the more complicated mutual modulation in vivo between pancreatic cancer and host mesenchymal tissues.
Cancer Letters 03/2003; 190(1):105-12. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK4, composed of the N-terminal hairpin and subsequent four-kringle domains of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), acts not only as a competitive antagonist of HGF but also as an inhibitor of angiogenesis. By studying the antitumor effect of NK4, we evaluated the potential of gene therapy with NK4 as a treatment for pancreatic cancer. Expression vector pcDNA3-NK4 containing NK4 cDNA was used to transfect human pancreatic cancer cell line SUIT-2. Although the established NK4 transfectant continuously expressed NK4 protein, the expression was shown by migration assay to be insufficient to antagonize HGF in vitro. Proliferation of the NK4 transfectant did not differ significantly from that of a mock transfectant. In vivo, we used models of orthotopic implantation and liver metastasis to transplant NK4-transfected clone or mock-transfected clone into nude mice. Cell proliferation in vivo, evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, did not differ between NK4 and mock transfectants, and this was also the finding in the in vitro assay. However, the NK4-transfected clone showed significant inhibition of tumor progression in both the orthotopic implantation and liver metastasis models. The number of vessels within tumors was significantly decreased, and the apoptotic tumor cells were increased in number. The results of these experiments show that genetic modification of tumor cells with NK4 cDNA yields a significant antitumor effect and that this effect is mainly obtained by NK4's function as an angiogenesis inhibitor rather than as an HGF antagonist. We conclude that the potent angiogenesis inhibitor NK4 may be a promising molecule for gene therapy of pancreatic cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2002; 8(10):3243-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK4, composed of the N-terminal hairpin and subsequent four-kringle domains of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), acts not only as a competitive antagonist for HGF but also as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. This study was designed to assess a therapeutic potential of adenovirus-mediated NK4 gene transfer for disseminated pancreatic cancer cells in the peritoneal lavage of nude mice. We constructed a recombinant adenovirus NK4 (Ad-NK4), which encodes a secretable form of human NK4. In vitro migration of AsPC-1 (human pancreatic cancer cell line) was stimulated by HGF, and it was completely inhibited by Ad-NK4 transfection. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of Ad-NK4 could suppress the development of tumor nodules in a nude mouse peritoneal dissemination model. NK4 expression was detected in the disseminated nodules, liver, pancreas, spleen, and mesenterium. Immunohistochemical study of the disseminated tumors showed a remarkable decrease in microvessel density and an increase in number of apoptotic tumor cells in the Ad-NK4-treated mice. Survival of the Ad-NK4-treated mice was significantly improved. This study indicates that the intraperitoneal transduction of adenovirus-mediated NK4 gene may be a useful therapeutic modality to prevent the development of peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Gene Therapy 11/2002; 9(10):799-806. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy remains a major therapeutic option for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Nevertheless, the effects of irradiation on malignant biological behaviors (e.g., migration and invasion of cancer cells) have yet to be clarified. Thus, we conducted an in vitro study to investigate the radiation-induced alterations around cell migration and invasion capacity.
Three cell lines from human pancreatic cancer were included in the study. gamma-radiation was used for irradiation treatment. Cell migration and invasion ability were evaluated by Transwell migration assay and Matrigel invasion assay. The activity of MMP-2 and 9, and expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator were investigated with gelatin zymography and immunoblot, respectively.
Irradiation enhances invasive potential in some pancreatic cancer cells, whereas it significantly inhibits cell proliferation and migration. This hitherto unknown biological effect of irradiation involves enhanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity. Consequently, simultaneous administration of an MMP inhibitor, CGS27023A, suppresses the radiation-enhanced invasion through blockade of transition of MMP-2 from latent type to active type.
Because radiation may increase invasion ability through activating MMP proteolytic system, simultaneous administration of the MMP inhibitor during radiotherapy could be a potent adjuvant therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2002; 8(4):1223-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of adenovirally-mediated transfer of the sequence of NK4, an antagonist for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), against human pancreatic carcinoma. HGF has been implicated to play an important role in invasion and metastasis of various human cancers through tumor-stromal interactions. Although NK4 has been shown to block the metastatic behavior of cancer cells, problems with cellular delivery of NK4 must be addressed before it can be used for clinical trials. The effects of NK4 gene transduction mediated by recombinant adenovirus (Ad-NK4) were evaluated in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (SUIT-2) by in vitro scattering assays, invasion assays, and subcutaneous transplantation in nude mice. NK4 transduction markedly inhibited scattering and invasion of SUIT-2 cells stimulated by HGF without affecting cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, Ad-NK4 significantly inhibited the growth of tumors transplanted to nude mice. The tumor reduction induced by Ad-NK4 was associated with a decreased number of blood vessels surrounding the tumors. These findings suggest that Ad-NK4 gene therapy may be a unique and promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2002; 19(5):417-26. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is involved in malignant behavior of cancers as a mediator in tumor-stromal interactions through enhancing tumor invasion and metastasis. We found recently that NK4, a four-kringle fragment of HGF, functions as both an HGF-antagonist and an angiogenesis inhibitor. We have now determined whether blockade of the HGF-c-Met/HGF receptor pathway and tumor angiogenesis by administration of recombinant NK4 would inhibit growth, invasion, and metastasis of human pancreatic carcinoma implanted into the pancreas of nude mice. When treatment with NK4 or anti-HGF neutralizing antibody was initiated from the third day after orthotopic injection of SUIT-2 human pancreatic cancer cells, both NK4 and anti-HGF antibody suppressed the conversion of orthotopic pancreatic tumors from carcinoma in situ to aberrantly invading cancers during days 3-14. On the other hand, when the treatment was begun on day 10, a time when cancer cells were already invading surrounding tissues, NK4 but not anti-HGF antibody inhibited tumor growth, peritoneal dissemination, and ascites accumulation at 4 weeks after the inoculation. Antitumor effects of NK4 correlated with decreased microvessel density in pancreatic tumors thereby indicating that the antiangiogenic activity of NK4 may have mainly contributed to its antitumor effects. Moreover, although NK4-treatment was initiated from the end stage (day 24 after tumor inoculation), NK4 prolonged survival time of mice, and the suppression of peritoneal dissemination, ascites accumulation, and invasion of metastasized cancer cells into the peritoneal wall were remarkable. We propose that simultaneous targeting of both tumor angiogenesis and the HGF-mediated invasion-metastasis may prove to be a new approach to treating patients with pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Research 11/2001; 61(20):7518-24. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor microenvironment is one of the key factors affecting the cellular response to radiation; however, the influence of serum concentration on tumor radiosensitivity remains poorly understood. We recently discovered that gamma-irradiation of tumor cells causes centrosome overduplication, which may lead to lethal nuclear fragmentation through the establishment of multipolar mitotic spindles. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serum depletion on radiation-induced cell death in relation to the centrosome dynamics in human pancreatic cancer cells. Exposure of Capan-1 cells to gamma-irradiation resulted in a time-dependent increase in cells containing multiple centrosomes in association with the appearance of mitotic cell death. Treatment of irradiated cells with serum depletion drastically accelerated centrosome overduplication and the formation of multipolar spindles, resulting in increased nuclear fragmentation and cell death. Cell cycle analysis of irradiated cultures revealed that the reduced serum level increased the population of cells arrested in the G2/M phase, which might be responsible for the abnormal centrosome accumulation. These findings suggest that serum concentration can influence radiation-induced cell killing through modulating cell cycle progression and possibly centrosome overduplication.
Cancer Letters 10/2001; 170(1):81-9. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicates that loss of centrosome integrity may be a major cause of genetic instability underlying various human cancers. The aim of this study was to define the role of centrosome defects during the in vivo tumor progression of pancreatic carcinoma using an orthotopic implantation model. Injection of Suit-2 human pancreatic cancer cells into the pancreata of nude mice reproduced the pattern of local tumor growth and distant metastasis observed in humans. Pancreatic xenografts, peritoneal disseminations, and hepatic metastases were harvested, and tumor cells were examined for centrosomes by immunofluorescence microscopy. Centrosome abnormalities, characterized by increased numbers of centrosomes, were detected in only a small fraction of parental Suit-2 cells in culture, whereas the frequency was markedly increased in cells isolated from the pancreatic xenografts. Abnormal centrosome numbers were found at higher frequencies in metastatic foci than in pancreatic xenografts. A significant positive correlation existed between the fraction of cells with multiple centrosomes and that with multipolar mitotic spindles, suggesting a functional involvement of aberrant centrosomes in spindle disorganization and chromosome missegregation. In addition, the increased frequency of abnormal centrosomes was associated with an enhanced degree of chromosomal instability. These findings suggest a novel model of pancreatic tumor progression whereby a stepwise increase in the magnitude of centrosomal abnormalities confers an increased chance for aberrant mitotic events, thus accelerating genetic instability and causing the tumor to progress to a more advanced stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal instability, characterized by abnormal numbers or structures of chromosomes, is a common feature of human cancers, but the mechanisms behind these changes are still unclear. Since centrosomes play a pivotal role in balanced chromosomal segregation during mitosis, we attempted to investigate the association between centrosome abnormalities and chromosomal instability in a large number of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed centrosomes that were highly atypical with respect to their size, shape, and number in most cell lines. These abnormal centrosomes contributed to the assembly of multipolar spindles, resulting in defective mitosis and chromosome mis-segregation. Interestingly, a high frequency of centrosome defects inversely correlated with the growth rate of cells in culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a dramatic variation of chromosome numbers in cell lines with the defective centrosome phenotype. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation existed between the level of centrosome defects and the level of chromosomal imbalances. These results indicate that centrosome abnormalities can lead to spindle disorganization and chromosome segregation errors, which may drive the accumulation of chromosomal alterations. Thus, defects in centrosome function may be an underlying cause of genetic instability in human pancreatic cancers.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 05/2001; 126(1):13-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal instability is a common feature of pancreatic carcinoma, but its biological significance remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between chromosomal instability and biological aggressiveness in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to examine changes in chromosomal numbers in a total of 13 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also assessed the potential for tumor aggressiveness within cancer cells by in vitro migration and invasion assay and by subcutaneous implantation into nude mice.
Chromosomal instability, characterized by numerical variations in copy numbers of chromosome 8, was observed in most cell lines, and the magnitude of instability was correlated well with both motility (P < 0.001) and invasion rate (P < 0.001) of these cells. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation existed between chromosome instability and tumor growth in vivo (P < 0.01).
These results suggest that the increased level of chromosomal instability may play a critical role in the development of aggressive tumor phenotype during pancreatic cancer progression. J. Surg. Oncol. 2001;76:181-187.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 04/2001; 76(3):181-7. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the highly aggressive behaviour, i.e. invasive, disseminative and metastatic properties, the outcome for patients with pancreatic cancer is morbid. A better understanding and interference with the malignant behaviour of pancreatic cancer may provide new directions for treatment. We report here the induction of highly motile and invasive properties in human pancreatic cancer cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and blockage of these properties by NK4, a newly identified antagonist for HGF. In all of eight human pancreatic cancer cell lines we used (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, H-48N, KP-1N, KP-2, KP-3, MIA PaCa-2 and SUIT-2 cells), the c-Met/HGF receptor was expressed at varying levels. Although weak mitogenic activity of HGF was seen only in SUIT-2 and KP-3 cells, HGF strongly stimulated migration and invasion of these pancreatic cancer cells, except for BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. In contrast, migration and invasion potently induced by HGF in KP-1N, KP-3 and SUIT-2 cells were inhibited by NK4. The invasion of SUIT-2 cells was also potently stimulated with the influence of cocultured pancreatic fibroblasts and by ascitic fluid obtained after pancreatic cancer resection, however, invasiveness of the cancer cells in such conditions was practically abolished by NK4. Consistently, the ascitic fluid in patients who had undergone pancreatic cancer surgery contained high levels of HGF. These findings mean that HGF is probably involved in invasion, dissemination, and metastasis of pancreatic cancer, particularly through tumour-stromal interaction and after resection of the pancreatic cancer. NK4, an effective antagonist of HGF, may prove to have the potential for anti-invasion/metastasis.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2001; 84(6):864-73. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the recent clinical finding that high telomerase activity is an unfavorable prognostic marker for various human malignant tumors, there has been no experimental evidence supporting the link between telomerase and tumor aggressiveness. In the current investigation, the authors examined the relation between telomerase activity and potential for biologic aggressiveness in human pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Telomerase activity was measured in a poorly metastatic cell line HPC-3 and its highly metastatic variant HPC-3H4, as well as in many pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Aggressive behavior of cancer cells was assessed by in vitro migration and invasion assay.
Compared with parental HPC-3, HPC-3H4 displayed higher telomerase activity, which was associated with a scattered phenotype and enhanced migration activity. Furthermore, the authors found that relative telomerase levels correlated well with both motility (P = 0.0041) and invasion (P = 0.0114) in 13 pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. There was, however, no significant association between telomerase activity and cell proliferation. When telomerase activity of KP-1N cells was inhibited by transfection with antisense oligonucleotides, their motility and invasion rates were significantly decreased.
The authors concluded that the magnitude of telomerase activation may reflect the potential for aggressive behavior within cancer cells. These findings support the clinical utility of telomerase activity as a prognostic indicator. Their results also suggest a therapeutic potential for telomerase inhibitors to prevent tumor invasion and possibly metastasis.
Cancer 03/2001; 91(3):496-504. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microangiography with about 10 μm resolution has been carried out for depicting angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer using a high-resolution detector and a third generation synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. In synchrotron radiation radiography, a long source-to-object distance and a small source spot can produce high-resolution images. VX2 carcinoma had been transplanted in a rabbit auricle. By using this imaging system, small tumor blood vessels with diameters of 20-30 μm in an immature vascular network produced by angiogenesis were visualized after contrast material injection to the auricular artery.
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2001. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE; 02/2001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to compare differences in the depiction of small vessels in tumors on microangiograms obtained with a conventional soft X-ray system and with a synchrotron radiation (SR) system, and to evaluate the microangioarchitecture of these tumors and the process of their growth neovascularization. The SR system consisted of a monochromatic X-ray source of 37.6keV just above the K absorption edge of barium and two fluorescent-screen CCD-camera lens-coupling systems. One of the CCD systems had a 24μm equivalent pixel size and an input field size of 24×24mm. The other system had a 6μm equivalent pixel size and an input field of 6×6mm. Microangiograms using the soft X-ray system depicted small vessels (diameter 20–50μm), but the microangioarchitecture of the tumors could not be evaluated from conventional images. The monochromatic SR system allowed depiction of small vessels with a diameter of less than 25μm. In addition, this system allowed us to confirm the process of growth neovascularization in the tumors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2001; 467:1346-1348. · 1.14 Impact Factor