[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE To explore the association of autonomic agents with the development and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS The medical records of all preterm infants screened for ROP were retrospective reviewed. The association between development and severity of ROP and the use and dose(s) of autonomic agents was analyzed, after adjustment for the covariates gestational age, weight, development of septicemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and respiratory distress syndrome. RESULTS A total of 350 infants were screened. Caffeine was used in 338 infants; dopamine in 98 infants. There was a significant association between the use of dopamine and development of ROP (P < 0.001; relative risk [RR] = 1.6 [95% CI, 1.23-2.06]) and the need for ROP treatment (P = 0.001; RR = 4.63 [95% CI, 1.82-11.79]). The number of dopamine doses was significantly associated with the development of any ROP (P < 0.001; RR = 1.07 [95% CI, 1.03-1.1]), the severity of ROP (P < 0.001; RR = 1.09 [95% CI, 1.05-1.14]), and the need for treatment (P < 0.001; RR = 1.09 [95% CI, 1.05-1.14]). The total dose of caffeine was significantly associated with the development of any ROP (P = 0.003; RR = 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01-1.05]) and the need for treatment (P = 0.006, RR = 1.073 [95% CI; 1.021-1.13]). CONCLUSIONS Although a causal relationship was not identified, the use of the autonomic agents caffeine and dopamine was associated with the development and severity of retinopathy of prematurity in this cohort.
Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 02/2013; 17(1):e5–e6. DOI:10.1016/j.jaapos.2012.12.019 · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Severe paretic and restrictive strabismus presents a challenging surgical problem. Despite aggressive, and often multiple, surgical attempts, patients can have recurrence of large angle binocular misalignments. In this paper, we present a series of patients who underwent apically-based orbital bone periosteal flap fixation of the globe in cases of restrictive strabismus due to isolated third-nerve and sixth-nerve palsies, multiple cranial nerve palsies, and severe ocular fibrosis syndrome. Methods: We performed a retrospective study at our institution of patients who underwent a periosteal flap fixation. In all cases presented, the creation of the periosteal flap was performed by an orbital surgeon, and the strabismus surgery and follow-up data points were performed and collected by a strabologist. Results: A total of 8 patients underwent a periosteal flap fixation of the globe. The mean age was 48 years old. Three patients had a third cranial nerve palsy, one patient had congenital fibrosis, one patient had sixth cranial nerve palsy, and three patients had multiple cranial nerve palsies. Five patients had a medial periosteal flap constructed, and 3 patients had a temporal periosteal flap. Seven of the 8 patients had stable postoperative strabometry (binocular misalignment) measurements. A single patient required an additional procedure secondary to postoperative drift (a mild recurrence of binocular misalignment). Conclusions: The surgical correction of severe paretic and restrictive strabismus is complex and can present a formidable challenge. The use of an orbital bone-based periosteal fixation flap, at our institution, has shown satisfactory outcomes not only with regard to improved postoperative deviation, but also, in that most patients required only this single procedure, usually after several prior unsuccessful interventions by standard strabismus surgery procedures.
Binocular Vision and Strabology Quarterly 01/2011; 26(4):230-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little objective evidence exists to guide physician etiquette in pediatric ophthalmology. This article describes the preferences of families visiting a pediatric ophthalmology clinic for the first time.
Review of 149 questionnaires completed by the families of patients visiting a pediatric ophthalmology clinic in a tertiary care center. The Fisher exact and chi-square tests were used to compare subpopulations.
Most respondents preferred that their physician wear a white coat. Men preferred a handshake to a verbal greeting (P = .0264) and professional to business casual attire for both male and female physicians (P = .01, both). African-American parents were more likely to prefer being addressed by surname than other races (P = .008). No statistically significant differences were found comparing the preferences of parents with an advanced education (bachelor and graduate degrees) to those without.
Pediatric ophthalmologists may wish to consider wearing white coats and business casual attire in clinic and addressing parents informally as "mom" or "dad" or by their first name, although etiquette should ultimately be determined on an individual patient basis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the ability to detect simulated retinoblastoma by using the red-reflex test.
Discs that simulated retinoblastoma lesions were affixed to the retina of model eyes with an 8- or 3-mm pupil. The diameter, height, and location of the discs varied. Five examiners evaluated the red reflex with direct ophthalmoscopy by using straight-on and oblique viewing. The generalized estimating equation was used to assess the effects of pupil dilation and observer viewing orientation on tumor detection.
Significant 3-way interactions between pupil dilation, observer orientation, and tumor diameter (P < .004) or height (P < .02) were detected; these relationships depended on tumor diameter and height. A similar 3-way interaction was found between pupil dilation, observer orientation, and tumor location in degrees from the fovea (P < .001). Oblique viewing and pupillary dilation improved the tumor-detection rate. With straight-on viewing, the degree of detection was <48% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39%-57%) for even the largest lesions, compared with 96% (95% CI: 93%-98%) for oblique viewing. For peripheral lesions, the percentage detection for straight-on viewing was 35% (95% CI: 21%-50%) for 30 degrees from the fovea and 16% (95% CI: 2%-31%) for 60 degrees from the fovea; these detection rates significantly improved with oblique viewing to 70% or higher (P < .001).
Detection of simulated retinoblastoma was better when lesions were large and when oblique viewing and dilation were used. Peripheral location was negatively associated with detection. Red-reflex testing to detect leukocoria may be improved with oblique viewing and pharmacologic dilation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A limbal surgical approach for strabismus surgery is often recommended for older patients, in the belief that the conjunctiva of older patients is too thin and prone to tear during surgery performed through a cul-de-sac incision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the cul-de-sac approach in patients more than 40 years of age.
This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients more than 40 years of age who underwent strabismus surgery using a modified cul-de-sac approach to reduce manipulation of the conjunctiva during surgery.
A total of 32 cul-de-sac incisions were used to operate on 37 muscles in 19 consecutive patients more than 40 years old. The man age was 58 yeasr (41-77 years) with 8 patients (12 incisions) more than 60 years old. Absorbable sutures were used to close 28 of the incisions, with 19 incisions requiring 1 suture, 7 requiring 2 sutures, and 2 incisions in 2 patients requiring more than 2 sutures. Tears resulting in extension of the conjunctival incision occurred in several patients, but no other complications were encountered. One week following surgery, 28 (87.5%) of the incisions were well closed, while a small opening was noted with 4 (12.5%) of the incisions, but none required further intervention, and all healed well.
Strabismus surgery can be performed through a cul-de-sac incision in older patients. Slight modifications of the surgical technique to prevent excessive manipulation of the incision and to reduce the risk of tearing the conjunctiva are helpful. The cul-de-sac approach offers some important potential advantages to older patients undergoing strabismus surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if key findings on initial examination are predictive of ability to achieve and maintain functional alignment (residual esotropia of less than 8 prism diopters) with single-vision spectacles, bifocals, or surgery in children with accommodative esotropia.
Retrospective, observational case series.
Institutional review of 68 consecutive accommodative esotropia patients. Exclusion criteria included previous spectacles use, other ocular pathologic features or surgery, or follow-up of less than 2 years. The main outcome measure was the ability to achieve functional alignment.
Mean age at the time of single-vision spectacle prescription (P = .02), mean cycloplegic refractive error (P = .016), amblyopia (P = .02), uncorrected near deviation (P < .001), and uncorrected distance deviation (P < .001) differed significantly between children who achieved functional alignment with single-vision lenses and those who did not. The most parsimonious prediction model revealed that presence of amblyopia (P = .113; odds ratio [OR], 0.138; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.012 to 1.59), uncorrected distance deviation (P = .004; OR, 1.156; 95% CI, 1.049 to 1.274), mean cycloplegic refractive error (P = .008; OR, 0.300; 95% CI, 0.123 to 0.732), and age at time of single-vision lens prescription (P = .007; OR, 0.259; 95% CI, 0.097 to 0.690) were the best predictors of ability to achieve orthotropia with single-vision spectacles with a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI, 71% to 99%) and specificity of 91% (95% CI, 75% to 98%).
Significant differences exist in the clinical presentations of children who achieve functional orthotropia with single-vision spectacles and those who require bifocals or surgery. An evidence-based algorithm may help practitioners predict which intervention is most likely to benefit an individual child.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 05/2009; 148(3):466-70. DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2009.03.032 · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the level of ophthalmology resident interest in pediatric ophthalmology.
An 18-item 5-point Likert scale was used to determine interest in pediatric ophthalmology among ophthalmology residents in the United States.
The response rate was 23% (316 of 1,341). Of the respondents, 74% agreed they had a clinical role model in pediatric ophthalmology, 66% perceived a good job market for this field, and 67% cited liking strabismus surgery. The majority of residents (56%) found pediatric patients difficult to examine and 50% stated income levels for pediatric ophthalmologists are low.
Although most residents have an overall positive view about pediatric ophthalmology, few indicate interest in pursuing a fellowship. Specifically, most residents reported having a clinical role model in pediatric ophthalmology, perceiving a good job market, and liking strabismus surgery, whereas few residents had interest in further pediatric training and many found pediatric patients difficult to examine and income levels low.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report (1) the prevalence of bacteremia among infants with dacryocystitis and (2) the influence of timing of antibiotic administration on the need for repeat probing in the management of these patients.
A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 25 infants < or =6 weeks of age treated for acute dacryocystitis was conducted, including analysis of laboratory data and outcomes.
Of 22 infants who underwent blood cultures, 5 (22.7%) were bacteremic. Twenty-one of the 25 infants underwent nasolacrimal duct probing. Infants who received preoperative antibiotics were less likely to require a repeat probing than those who did not (6% vs. 80%), and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.004).
The high rate of bacteremia in this series of patients and the significantly lower incidence of repeat probing among infants who received preprocedural antibiotics suggests that blood cultures and subsequent administration of intravenous antibiotics should be considered prior to probing of infants with dacryocystitis.
Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 07/2008; 12(5):456-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.04.006 · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the prominence of central vision in primates, it has generally been assumed that signals from the fovea dominate refractive development. To test this assumption, the authors determined whether an intact fovea was essential for either normal emmetropization or the vision-induced myopic errors produced by form deprivation.
In 13 rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age, the fovea and most of the perifovea in one eye were ablated by laser photocoagulation. Five of these animals were subsequently allowed unrestricted vision. For the other eight monkeys with foveal ablations, a diffuser lens was secured in front of the treated eyes to produce form deprivation. Refractive development was assessed along the pupillary axis by retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Control data were obtained from 21 normal monkeys and three infants reared with plano lenses in front of both eyes.
Foveal ablations had no apparent effect on emmetropization. Refractive errors for both eyes of the treated infants allowed unrestricted vision were within the control range throughout the observation period, and there were no systematic interocular differences in refractive error or axial length. In addition, foveal ablation did not prevent form deprivation myopia; six of the eight infants that experienced monocular form deprivation developed myopic axial anisometropias outside the control range.
Visual signals from the fovea are not essential for normal refractive development or the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth produced by form deprivation. Conversely, the peripheral retina, in isolation, can regulate emmetropizing responses and produce anomalous refractive errors in response to abnormal visual experience. These results indicate that peripheral vision should be considered when assessing the effects of visual experience on refractive development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare structural and functional outcomes and efficiency of diode laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when delivered in a pulsed mode versus a near-continuous mode.
A retrospective study was conducted of 138 patients who underwent diode laser photocoagulation for threshold ROP using either pulsed or near-continuous delivery. Laser-related complications and structural and functional outcomes were analyzed. Prospectively, time efficiency and total energy used were evaluated in nine infants with bilateral symmetric high-risk prethreshold ROP in which one eye of each infant was randomized to pulsed and the fellow eye to near-continuous delivery.
There was no significant difference between groups with regards to prevalence of posterior disease (Zone 1 or posterior Zone 2) (p = 0.11), postoperative vitreous haze (p = 0.60), postoperative complications (p = 0.38), retinal detachment (p = 0.90), strabismus (p = 0.73), amblyopia (p = 0.69), or refractive error (p = 0.95). Mean time for treatment was 23 minutes using pulsed delivery versus 14 minutes per eye with near-continuous delivery (p < 0.001). The mean total power used per eye with pulsed mode delivery was 1.5 x 10(5) W versus 1.1 x 10(5) W with near-continuous delivery (p = 0.015).
No differences in complications, functional outcome, or structural outcome were found between using pulsed mode and near-continuous mode diode laser delivery for high-risk ROP. Near-continuous laser delivery, in our hands, was more time-efficient and used less total power.
Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 08/2007; 11(4):388-92. DOI:10.1016/j.jaapos.2006.11.011 · 1.00 Impact Factor