David K Coats

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States

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Publications (102)265.25 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To explore the association of autonomic agents with the development and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
    Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 02/2013; 17(1):e5–e6. · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 02/2011; 15(1). · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little objective evidence exists to guide physician etiquette in pediatric ophthalmology. This article describes the preferences of families visiting a pediatric ophthalmology clinic for the first time. Review of 149 questionnaires completed by the families of patients visiting a pediatric ophthalmology clinic in a tertiary care center. The Fisher exact and chi-square tests were used to compare subpopulations. Most respondents preferred that their physician wear a white coat. Men preferred a handshake to a verbal greeting (P = .0264) and professional to business casual attire for both male and female physicians (P = .01, both). African-American parents were more likely to prefer being addressed by surname than other races (P = .008). No statistically significant differences were found comparing the preferences of parents with an advanced education (bachelor and graduate degrees) to those without. Pediatric ophthalmologists may wish to consider wearing white coats and business casual attire in clinic and addressing parents informally as "mom" or "dad" or by their first name, although etiquette should ultimately be determined on an individual patient basis.
    Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus 10/2010; 48(6):336-9. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the ability to detect simulated retinoblastoma by using the red-reflex test. Discs that simulated retinoblastoma lesions were affixed to the retina of model eyes with an 8- or 3-mm pupil. The diameter, height, and location of the discs varied. Five examiners evaluated the red reflex with direct ophthalmoscopy by using straight-on and oblique viewing. The generalized estimating equation was used to assess the effects of pupil dilation and observer viewing orientation on tumor detection. Significant 3-way interactions between pupil dilation, observer orientation, and tumor diameter (P < .004) or height (P < .02) were detected; these relationships depended on tumor diameter and height. A similar 3-way interaction was found between pupil dilation, observer orientation, and tumor location in degrees from the fovea (P < .001). Oblique viewing and pupillary dilation improved the tumor-detection rate. With straight-on viewing, the degree of detection was <48% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39%-57%) for even the largest lesions, compared with 96% (95% CI: 93%-98%) for oblique viewing. For peripheral lesions, the percentage detection for straight-on viewing was 35% (95% CI: 21%-50%) for 30 degrees from the fovea and 16% (95% CI: 2%-31%) for 60 degrees from the fovea; these detection rates significantly improved with oblique viewing to 70% or higher (P < .001). Detection of simulated retinoblastoma was better when lesions were large and when oblique viewing and dilation were used. Peripheral location was negatively associated with detection. Red-reflex testing to detect leukocoria may be improved with oblique viewing and pharmacologic dilation.
    PEDIATRICS 07/2010; 126(1):e202-7. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if key findings on initial examination are predictive of ability to achieve and maintain functional alignment (residual esotropia of less than 8 prism diopters) with single-vision spectacles, bifocals, or surgery in children with accommodative esotropia. Retrospective, observational case series. Institutional review of 68 consecutive accommodative esotropia patients. Exclusion criteria included previous spectacles use, other ocular pathologic features or surgery, or follow-up of less than 2 years. The main outcome measure was the ability to achieve functional alignment. Mean age at the time of single-vision spectacle prescription (P = .02), mean cycloplegic refractive error (P = .016), amblyopia (P = .02), uncorrected near deviation (P < .001), and uncorrected distance deviation (P < .001) differed significantly between children who achieved functional alignment with single-vision lenses and those who did not. The most parsimonious prediction model revealed that presence of amblyopia (P = .113; odds ratio [OR], 0.138; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.012 to 1.59), uncorrected distance deviation (P = .004; OR, 1.156; 95% CI, 1.049 to 1.274), mean cycloplegic refractive error (P = .008; OR, 0.300; 95% CI, 0.123 to 0.732), and age at time of single-vision lens prescription (P = .007; OR, 0.259; 95% CI, 0.097 to 0.690) were the best predictors of ability to achieve orthotropia with single-vision spectacles with a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI, 71% to 99%) and specificity of 91% (95% CI, 75% to 98%). Significant differences exist in the clinical presentations of children who achieve functional orthotropia with single-vision spectacles and those who require bifocals or surgery. An evidence-based algorithm may help practitioners predict which intervention is most likely to benefit an individual child.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 05/2009; 148(3):466-70. · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 02/2009; 13(1). · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • David K Coats
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    ABSTRACT: A limbal surgical approach for strabismus surgery is often recommended for older patients, in the belief that the conjunctiva of older patients is too thin and prone to tear during surgery performed through a cul-de-sac incision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the cul-de-sac approach in patients more than 40 years of age. This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients more than 40 years of age who underwent strabismus surgery using a modified cul-de-sac approach to reduce manipulation of the conjunctiva during surgery. A total of 32 cul-de-sac incisions were used to operate on 37 muscles in 19 consecutive patients more than 40 years old. The man age was 58 yeasr (41-77 years) with 8 patients (12 incisions) more than 60 years old. Absorbable sutures were used to close 28 of the incisions, with 19 incisions requiring 1 suture, 7 requiring 2 sutures, and 2 incisions in 2 patients requiring more than 2 sutures. Tears resulting in extension of the conjunctival incision occurred in several patients, but no other complications were encountered. One week following surgery, 28 (87.5%) of the incisions were well closed, while a small opening was noted with 4 (12.5%) of the incisions, but none required further intervention, and all healed well. Strabismus surgery can be performed through a cul-de-sac incision in older patients. Slight modifications of the surgical technique to prevent excessive manipulation of the incision and to reduce the risk of tearing the conjunctiva are helpful. The cul-de-sac approach offers some important potential advantages to older patients undergoing strabismus surgery.
    Binocular vision & strabismus quarterly 01/2009; 24(4):233-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To report (1) the prevalence of bacteremia among infants with dacryocystitis and (2) the influence of timing of antibiotic administration on the need for repeat probing in the management of these patients. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 25 infants < or =6 weeks of age treated for acute dacryocystitis was conducted, including analysis of laboratory data and outcomes. Of 22 infants who underwent blood cultures, 5 (22.7%) were bacteremic. Twenty-one of the 25 infants underwent nasolacrimal duct probing. Infants who received preoperative antibiotics were less likely to require a repeat probing than those who did not (6% vs. 80%), and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.004). The high rate of bacteremia in this series of patients and the significantly lower incidence of repeat probing among infants who received preprocedural antibiotics suggests that blood cultures and subsequent administration of intravenous antibiotics should be considered prior to probing of infants with dacryocystitis.
    Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 07/2008; 12(5):456-9. · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • David Coats, Evelyn A Paysse
    Ophthalmology 01/2008; 114(12):2369. · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • David K Coats, Mohamad Jaafar
    Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus 01/2008; 45(6):325-8. · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • David K Coats, Edward Raab
    Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus 01/2008; 45(3):134-6. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the prominence of central vision in primates, it has generally been assumed that signals from the fovea dominate refractive development. To test this assumption, the authors determined whether an intact fovea was essential for either normal emmetropization or the vision-induced myopic errors produced by form deprivation. In 13 rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age, the fovea and most of the perifovea in one eye were ablated by laser photocoagulation. Five of these animals were subsequently allowed unrestricted vision. For the other eight monkeys with foveal ablations, a diffuser lens was secured in front of the treated eyes to produce form deprivation. Refractive development was assessed along the pupillary axis by retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Control data were obtained from 21 normal monkeys and three infants reared with plano lenses in front of both eyes. Foveal ablations had no apparent effect on emmetropization. Refractive errors for both eyes of the treated infants allowed unrestricted vision were within the control range throughout the observation period, and there were no systematic interocular differences in refractive error or axial length. In addition, foveal ablation did not prevent form deprivation myopia; six of the eight infants that experienced monocular form deprivation developed myopic axial anisometropias outside the control range. Visual signals from the fovea are not essential for normal refractive development or the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth produced by form deprivation. Conversely, the peripheral retina, in isolation, can regulate emmetropizing responses and produce anomalous refractive errors in response to abnormal visual experience. These results indicate that peripheral vision should be considered when assessing the effects of visual experience on refractive development.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 10/2007; 48(9):3914-22. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare structural and functional outcomes and efficiency of diode laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when delivered in a pulsed mode versus a near-continuous mode. A retrospective study was conducted of 138 patients who underwent diode laser photocoagulation for threshold ROP using either pulsed or near-continuous delivery. Laser-related complications and structural and functional outcomes were analyzed. Prospectively, time efficiency and total energy used were evaluated in nine infants with bilateral symmetric high-risk prethreshold ROP in which one eye of each infant was randomized to pulsed and the fellow eye to near-continuous delivery. There was no significant difference between groups with regards to prevalence of posterior disease (Zone 1 or posterior Zone 2) (p = 0.11), postoperative vitreous haze (p = 0.60), postoperative complications (p = 0.38), retinal detachment (p = 0.90), strabismus (p = 0.73), amblyopia (p = 0.69), or refractive error (p = 0.95). Mean time for treatment was 23 minutes using pulsed delivery versus 14 minutes per eye with near-continuous delivery (p < 0.001). The mean total power used per eye with pulsed mode delivery was 1.5 x 10(5) W versus 1.1 x 10(5) W with near-continuous delivery (p = 0.015). No differences in complications, functional outcome, or structural outcome were found between using pulsed mode and near-continuous mode diode laser delivery for high-risk ROP. Near-continuous laser delivery, in our hands, was more time-efficient and used less total power.
    Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 08/2007; 11(4):388-92. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance the safety and efficacy of surgical treatment of strabismus, we sought to measure and determine the ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) profile of scleral tunnels created with needles commonly used during strabismus surgery, to determine which needles are less likely to create the complication of scleral perforation. Adult cadaver eyes were secured in a styrofoam head. Intraocular pressure was maintained between 15 and 21 mm Hg. Then S14, S24, S28 and TG100 needles were used to create scleral tunnels simulating those created during routine strabismus surgery. Ten scleral tunnels were created with each needle type at 3 different sites on the globe, for a total of 120 passes. The thickness of the sclera and the maximum depth and length of each scleral tunnel were measured using UBM. The mean tunnel depth below the scleral surface (+/- SD) was 0.43 +/-0.11 mm, 0.37 +/-0.09, 0.40 +/-0.08 and 0.34 +/-0.07 mm, for the S14, S24, S28 and TG100 needles, respectively (P=0.002, One way ANOVA). For both the S14 and S28 needles, there was a "statistically significant" P 0.05) linear trend of an increase in the depth of the pass as the length of the pass increased (P=0.01 for the S14 and P=0.02 for the S28 {Pearson Correlation 2 tailed test}). A similar trend was found with the S24 needle but the trend was not "statistically significant" (P=0.35). No such trend was found with the TG100 needle. Needle design had a definite impact on the characteristics of scleral tunnels created to simulate those made during strabismus surgery and may influence needle selection by the surgeon for different or various surgical circumstances, but the differences were not such as to predicate for or against the general use of any of these four needles for strabismus surgery.
    Binocular vision & strabismus quarterly 02/2007; 22(2):102-8.
  • Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 02/2007; 11(1):109-109. · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Ophthalmology 11/2006; 113(11):2117–2118. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the visual acuity of eyes successfully treated with 3-port lens-sparing vitrectomy for stage 4 retinopathy of prematurity. Of 102 consecutive eyes achieving at least posterior pole reattachment, 30 eyes of 26 patients were tested by Teller or Allen acuity measurements and were subsequently converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). Visual outcomes were also examined as either favorable or unfavorable (Snellen equivalent >20/200). Seventy-two eyes were not tested because of either inability to perform testing (age or neurologic sequelae related to prematurity) or loss of follow-up. Of those tested, mean +/- SD logMAR visual acuity for the stage 4A and stage 4B groups was 0.51 +/- 0.09 (Snellen approximate 20/62) and 1.03 +/- 0.19 (Snellen approximate 20/200), respectively (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.64; P = .001). Of those eyes assessed by Teller measurements, 10 of 10 stage 4A eyes and 3 (37.5%) of 8 stage 4B eyes had favorable outcomes; among eyes assessed with Allen measurements, 4 of 4 stage 4A eyes and 0 of 8 stage 4B eyes had favorable outcomes. The majority of eyes were not tested. Among eyes tested after successful 3-port lens-sparing vitrectomy, some eyes treated prior to macular detachment may be associated with a more favorable outcome and improved maintenance of functional visual acuity.
    Archives of Ophthalmology 06/2006; 124(5):675-9. · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present strabismus data for premature infants with prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) enrolled in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. The prevalence of strabismus was tabulated for all of the infants with high-risk prethreshold disease who participated in the randomized trial of the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study and were examined at 6 and/or 9 months' corrected age as well as for all of the infants with low-risk prethreshold disease who were examined at 6 months' corrected age. Presence or absence of strabismus at 6 and 9 months' corrected age. The prevalence of strabismus at 6 months was higher for infants with high-risk prethreshold ROP than for those with low-risk prethreshold ROP (20.3% vs 9.6%, respectively; P<.001). Risk factors associated with the development of strabismus at 9 months include abnormal fixation behavior, presence of amblyopia, and outborn birth status (ie, born outside of a study-affiliated hospital). At 9 months, 30% of infants with high-risk prethreshold ROP had strabismus, although only 42% showed strabismus at 6 months. Thirty percent of infants with strabismus at 6 months showed normal alignment at 9 months. Infants with high-risk prethreshold ROP show significant variability in the presence vs absence of strabismus in the first year of life; thus, conservative management is recommended. Ophthalmologists managing strabismus in infants who have high-risk prethreshold ROP should be aware of the significant variability in ocular alignment during the first year of life.
    Archives of Ophthalmology 06/2006; 124(6):766-73. · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Madhuri Chilakapati, David K. Coats
    Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 02/2006; 10(1):84. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term visual acuity (VA) and refractive error responses to excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in children. Prospective interventional case-control study. Eleven children, 2 to 11 years old, with anisometropic amblyopia who were noncompliant with conventional therapy with glasses or contact lenses and occlusion therapy were treated with PRK. A cohort derived retrospectively of 13 compliant and 10 noncompliant children with refractive errors similar to those of the PRK group who were treated with traditional anisometropic amblyopia therapy served as control groups. Photorefractive keratectomy for the eye with the higher refractive error. (1) Refractive error reduction and stability in the treated eye, (2) cycloplegic refraction, (3) VA, (4) stereoacuity, and (5) corneal haze up to 3 years after PRK. Compliant and noncompliant children with anisometropia amblyopia were analyzed as controls for refractive error and VA. Preoperative refractive errors were -13.70 diopters (D) (+/-3.77) for the myopic group and +4.75 D (+/-0.50) for the hyperopic group. Mean postoperative refractive errors at last follow-up (mean, 31 months) were -3.55 D (+/-2.2.5) and +1.41 D (+/-1.07) for the myopic and hyperopic groups, respectively. At last follow-up, cycloplegic refractions in 4 (50%) of 8 myopes and all hyperopes (100%) were within 3 D of that of the fellow eye. Five (63%) of 8 myopic children achieved a refraction within 2 D of the target refraction. Two (67%) of 3 hyperopic patients maintained their refractions within 2 D of the target. Refractive regressions (from 1 year after surgery to last follow-up) were 0.50+/-1.41 D (myopes) and 0.60+/-0.57 D (hyperopes). Seven children (77%) were able to perform psychophysical VA testing preoperatively and postoperatively. Five (71%) of the 7 children had uncorrected VA improvement of at least 2 lines, and 4 (57%) of 7 had best spectacle-corrected VA improvement of at least 2 lines, with 1 improving 7 lines. Five (55%) of 9 children had improvement of their stereoacuity at last follow-up. Subepithelial corneal haze remained negligible. The mean final VA of the PRK group was significantly better than that of the noncompliant control group (P = 0.003). The mean final refractive error for both myopic and hyperopic groups was also significantly better that that of the control groups (P = 0.007 and P<0.0001, respectively). Photorefractive keratectomy for severe anisometropic amblyopia in children resulted in long-term stable reduction in refractive error and improvement in VA and stereopsis, with negligible persistent corneal haze.
    Ophthalmology 02/2006; 113(2):169-76. · 5.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
265.25 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2009
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Cullen Eye Institute
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 2004
    • Houston Eye Associates
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Texas Eye Institute
      Angleton, Texas, United States
  • 2001–2004
    • Texas Children's Hospital
      • Division of Ophthalmology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1995
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Indianapolis, IN, United States