[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node recurrence after early breast cancer appears to be worse than for other loco-regional recurrences, but better than for distant metastases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between different types of salvage treatment and primary patient characteristics, treatment response, and survival after supraclavicular recurrence (SR) in a large patient population. From the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group treatment database 1977-2003, 305 patients were identified with SR without distant disease as site of first recurrence. Salvage treatment types as well as other factors were related to response and survival. The median follow-up time for progression after SR was 25 months. Complete remission was 76% among patients receiving excision surgery, 67% with combined loco-regional and systemic therapy, and 48% with systemic therapy alone. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival was 18 and 29 months, respectively. The 5-year PFS probability was 15%. In univariate analysis, combination salvage therapy, negative nodal status and low malignancy grade were related to longer PFS. In multivariate analysis, salvage therapy and malignancy grade remained independent factors for survival. In conclusion, the prognosis of SR is generally poor. However, it appears to be a curable condition. An independent marker of improved outcome is local and systemic combination salvage treatment, which can be considered.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2010; 125(3):815-22. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until recently, fluorouracil (F) and leucovorin (L) had been considered the standard therapy for patients with colorectal cancer. However, several studies have shown that oral therapy with UFT/L or capecitabine is as effective as intravenous (i.v.) therapy and in addition it is claimed that patients prefer oral to i.v. therapy as long as efficacy is not compromised. In a previous crossover study by Borner et al., it was shown that 26 out of 31 patients preferred oral therapy with UFT/L to i.v. FL (Mayo regimen) [Borner M, Schöffski P, de Wit R, et al. Patient preferences and pharmacokinetics of oral modulated UFT versus intravenous fluorouracil and leucovorin: a randomised crossover trial in advanced colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer 2002;38:349-58]. The objective of the present study was to investigate patient preference between i.v. FL and oral capecitabine using the design described by Borner. The Nordic FL schedule is a bolus regimen with efficacy comparable to other i.v. regimens and at the same time a very tolerable and easy administered regimen. We randomised 60 patients with colorectal cancer (53 patients received adjuvant therapy and seven patients received palliative therapy) to start therapy with either oral capecitabine or Nordic bolus FL. After 6 weeks of therapy (two courses of capecitabine or three courses of Nordic FL) patients were crossed over to the other regimen. After having completed 12 weeks of therapy the patients (49 evaluable patients) were asked to choose one of the regimens for a further 12 weeks of therapy. Patients had more side-effect when treated with capecitabine and a total of 30 out of 49 (61%) preferred the Nordic FL regimen and 19 (39%) preferred capecitabine. We conclude that patients prefer the regimen with less toxicity and that it is of minor importance whether the medication is administrated orally at home or i.v. at the hospital.
European Journal of Cancer 12/2006; 42(16):2738-43. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objectives of this phase II study were to determine efficacy and safety of the combination of UFT with Leucovorin and mitomycin C in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ninety-seven patients were treated with UFT (91 patients 300 mg/m2, 6 patients 250 mg/m2) + Leucovorin 90 mg days 1-28 q 5 weeks. During the first 4 cycles the patients also received mitomycin C 7 mg/m2 on day 1. At the end of 4 courses patients with benefit from the treatment could receive further courses of UFT and Leucovorin alone. Two patients had a complete response (2%), 20 (21%) had a partial response, 40 (41%) had no change, 19 (20%) had progression, and 16 (17%) were not evaluable for response. The overall response rate by intention to treat was 22/97 (23%). Median time to progression was 5 months and median survival 13 months. Severe (grade 3-4) toxicities included: anorexia 3%, nausea 6%, vomiting 7%, diarrhoea 7%, and fatigue 9%. Febrile neutropenia, renal failure, and thrombocytopenia were seen in 1% of the patients, respectively. The combination of UFT with Leucovorin and mitomycin C shows similar clinical activity with regard to overall response rate (23%) and survival (13 months) to other frontline 5-fluorouracil-based therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. The results indicate that mitomycin C did not increase either efficacy or toxicity. Therefore, phase III trials with this regimen cannot be recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of different dose intensities of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in advanced colorectal cancer was investigated. A total of 312 patients were randomized to receive 400 mg/m2 (group A), 500 mg/m2 (group B) or 600 mg/m2 (group C) of 5-FU with leucovorin 60 mg/m2 on two consecutive days every second week. Treatment continued to progression. Pharmacokinetic analyses with calculation of the area under the concentration (AUC) were performed in 91 patients. The primary endpoint was survival, and secondary endpoints were time to disease progression, toxicity and, if the disease was measurable, tumour response. The study was well balanced in the three groups with respect to a number of patient characteristics. Crude survival as estimated by Kaplan-Meier plots was not statistically significantly different (p = 0.07) but tended to show the best results in the intermediate dose group (median survival 10, 12.5 and 10 months, respectively). Analyses of time to progression or death showed significant differences among the three groups (p = 0.02) with the longest progression-free interval in the intermediate group receiving 500 mg/m2. The objective response rates were 23%, 39% and 28%, respectively (p = 0.02). The actual/projected dose intensity (mg/m2/week) was 92%, 92% and 84%, respectively. AUC did not correlate with response or survival. The frequency of severe side effects in group C was significantly higher than that of groups A and B. The study indicated that an increase from 800 to 1000 mg/m2 of bolus 5-FU fortnightly improved the treatment results but a further increase only worsened the toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of dual modulation of UFT with leucovorin and hydroxyurea in a phase II trial of metastatic colorectal cancer. A total of 77 patients with measurable disease were included. UFT (300 mg/m2) was given with a fixed dose of 1-leucovorin (22.5 mg daily) and hydroxyurea (0.5 g daily) for 28 days followed by a 7 days' rest period. Treatment continued until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Sixty-three patients were evaluable for response. One patient (1.6%) had a complete remission and 13 (20.6%) a partial response for an overall response rate of 22.2%. The treatment was well tolerated. No significant bone marrow depression occurred. Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity was recorded in 28.5% of the patients, and grade 3 in 12.9%. The median time to progression was 6.8 months and the median crude survival was 11 months. In conclusion, hydroxyurea did not appear to increase either the response rate or the toxicity. Phase III trials along the same line cannot be recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data in the literature suggest that for painful bone metastases a single dose is as effective as fractionated radiotherapy. In the present multicentre prospective trial, the effects of 8 Gy x1 and 5 Gy x4 were compared.
A total of 241 patients were randomized to 8 Gy (122 patients) or 20 Gy (119 patients). The primary tumour was in the breast in 39% of patients, in the prostate in 34% of patients, in the lung in 13% of patients and in other locations in 14% of patients. Outcome measures were pain relief as measured by VAS and in half of the patients also by a five-point categorical pain scale, global quality of life (QoL) and analgesic consumption. Evaluation was performed before and 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment.
A total of 239 patients were evaluable for response. The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, primary tumour, metastasis localization, analgesic consumption (type and dose), performance status, prior systemic treatment, degree of pain and QoL. The treatment was completed as planned in 98% of patients. The degree of pain relief did not differ between the two treatment groups. At 4 weeks the difference in pain relief was 6% (95% CI 7, 20%) and at 8 weeks the difference was 13% (95% CI 3, 28%). Neither was there any significant difference in the duration of pain relief, the number of new painful sites and the need for reirradiation and toxicity was minor.
The present randomized study showed that a single fraction of 8 Gy was as effective as 5 Gy x4 in relieving pain from bone metastasis.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 07/1998; 47(3):233-40. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of oral treosulfan in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.
A phase II trial of oral treosulfan 500 mg per day in 30 females with platinum resistant ovarian cancer. All patients had measurable or evaluable disease.
The treatment was well tolerated. One patient (3%) achieved a partial response lasting 12+ months. Seven patients had stable disease for 5.3 months (median) range 4.4-7.5 months. Median time to progression was 11.5 weeks (95% C.L. 11-12 weeks). Median survival was 31 weeks (95% C.L. 30-35 weeks).
Oral treosulfan in the present schedule is not recommended in platinum resistant ovarian cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a short-term infusion over 10-30 min is increasing at the cost of a push injection, mainly due to practical advantages. Since even a short prolongation of the administration time results in lower 5-FU peak and area under the curve (AUC) levels, there might be a risk of decreased efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare a rapid intravenous (i.v.) 5-FU injection and a short-term 5-FU infusion with respect to objective responses and toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. 203 patients with measurable advanced colorectal cancer were randomised to bolus 5-FU either as an injection for 2-4 min or as a short-term infusion lasting 10-20 min. In both groups, the 5-FU dose was 500 mg/m2 and leucovorin 60 mg/m2 was given 40 min after the start of 5-FU. Treatment was given on two successive days every other week until progression. Objective tumour regression was seen in 27/100 (27%) in the injection group and in 13/103 (13%) in the infusion group (P = 0.02). Severe toxicity was rare and did not differ significantly between the groups. Progression-free survival tended to be longer in the injection group (P = 0.07), but overall survival did not differ between the groups. Bolus 5-FU should be administered as a rapid i.v. injection rather than as a short-term infusion, since the former rate of administration results in a higher response rate without being significantly more toxic.
European Journal of Cancer 05/1998; 34(5):674-8. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a short-term infusion over 10–30min is increasing at the cost of a push injection, mainly due to practical advantages. Since even a short prolongation of the administration time results in lower 5-FU peak and area under the curve (AUC) levels, there might be a risk of decreased efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare a rapid intravenous (i.v.) 5-FU injection and a short-term 5-FU infusion with respect to objective responses and toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. 203 patients with measurable advanced colorectal cancer were randomised to bolus 5-FU either as an injection for 2–4min or as a short-term infusion lasting 10–20min. In both groups, the 5-FU dose was 500mg/m2 and leucovorin 60mg/m2 was given 40min after the start of 5-FU. Treatment was given on two successive days every other week until progression. Objective tumour regression was seen in 27/100 (27%) in the injection group and in 13/103 (13%) in the infusion group (P=0.02). Severe toxicity was rare and did not differ significantly between the groups. Progression-free survival tended to be longer in the injection group (P=0.07), but overall survival did not differ between the groups. Bolus 5-FU should be administered as a rapid i.v. injection rather than as a short-term infusion, since the former rate of administration results in a higher response rate without being significantly more toxic.
European Journal of Cancer 01/1998; 34(5):674-678. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the effect of a doubled carboplatin dose-intensity in epithelial ovarian cancer in combination with a fixed dose of cyclophosphamide.
A total of 222 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer stages II to IV were included in the study. Following surgery, patients were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin at an area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) of 4 (AUC4) or carboplatin at an AUC of 8 (AUC8) and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 given every 4 weeks for six courses. The AUC was calculated according to Calvert's formula. In 123 patients, the carboplatin AUC was also measured based on a single-sample method and the results were compared with the calculated AUC. The end points of the trial were complete pathologic remission (CPR) and crude survival.
Approximately 50% of patients in both arms underwent second-look surgery. The frequency of CPR was 32% and 30%, respectively. The survival curves showed no significant difference (P = .84). The dose-intensity of cyclophosphamide was almost identical in the two arms, whereas that of carboplatin was different. In the AUC8 arm, the dose-intensity was 1.86 times that of the AUC4 arm. The results also demonstrated good agreement between the calculated and the measured AUC in most patients. Bone marrow toxicity was significantly higher in the AUC8 arm.
A doubling of the carboplatin dose-intensity did not result in any significant improvement of pathologic remission or survival. Calvert's formula can be used to give a fairly accurate estimate of the carboplatin AUC. Bone marrow toxicity increased with higher dose-intensity, and a further increase of dose is only feasible with growth-factor or stem-cell support.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/1997; 15(1):193-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-six patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer received epirubicin as second-line therapy after primary treatment with carboplatin and cyclophosphamide. Thirty-four patients were evaluatable for response, 36 for toxicity. There were 9 responses (response rate 26.4%, 95% CI = 12.9-44.4), 2 complete and 7 partial. Median duration of response was 149 days (range 42-183); 4 patients with partial remission are still on study. Toxicity consisted of fatal cardiac failure and paravenous injection (1 patient), fatal leukopenia and sepsis (1 patient), and severe loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and general malaise in 3 patients. Platelet nadir grade 4 (WHO) was observed in 2 patients while leukocyte nadir grade 4 was seen in 3 patients. The present study showed a high response rate from standard-dose epirubicin. Toxicity was acceptable in most patients, but 2 patients died from treatment complications which gives a treatment-related mortality rate of 6%. Response was primarily seen in patients with minor tumor load and in good general condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test for possible correlations between dose of single-drug epirubicin and efficacy/toxicity in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. The study also included analysis of a correlation between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters.
Two hundred eighty-seven women were randomized to receive either 40, 60, 90, or 135 mg/m2 of epirubicin intravenously (IV) every 3 weeks. Treatment consisted of first-line cytotoxic therapy for metastatic disease. In patients with early progressive disease after either 40 or 60 mg/m2, dose escalation to 135 mg/m2 was performed. A full pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in 78 patients.
Among 263 eligible patients, an increase in response rate and time to progression was found with an increase in dose from 40 to 90 mg/m2, while no increase in efficacy was found from 90 to 135 mg/m2. Multivariate analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model with time to progression as the end point, confirmed that epirubicin dose more than 60 mg/m2 was an independent prognostic covariate. Furthermore, a significant association was established between randomized dose and both hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. No association between pharmacokinetic parameters and efficacy parameters was demonstrated. On the other hand, a significant correlation between pharmacokinetic parameters and both hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity was found.
An increase in dose of epirubicin from 40 to 90 mg/m2 is accompanied by increased efficacy. Further increases in dose do not yield increased efficacy. A positive correlation between epirubicin dose and toxicity, as well as a correlation between pharmacokinetic parameters and toxicity, was also established.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/1996; 14(4):1146-55. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two hundred-two patients with FIGO stages III and IV epithelial ovarian cancer were randomized to 6 or 12 cycles of cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, and cisplatin (CAP). Patients in complete clinical response underwent a second-look laparotomy, 1 month after cessation of chemotherapy. Patients randomized to 6 cycles and found to be in partial remission at second-look were to receive a further 6 cycles of CAP. Rate of complete pathological response was 23% for 6 cycles of CAP and 25% for 12 cycles; the median survival was 23 months for 6 cycles and 27 months for 12 cycles, and 3-year survival was 29% for 6 cycles and 35% for 12 cycles. None of these differences were statistically significant. Fifty-four patients randomized to 6 cycles were found to be in partial surgical remission at second-look laparotomy, and 24 of these patients agreed to a further 6 cycles and a third-look laparotomy. Six of these 24 patients had a complete pathological response at third-look, improving the complete response rate to 28% in those originally randomized to 6 cycles. However, 3 of these patients all had macroscopic tumors removed at second-look, and two had microscopic disease at second-look. Among patients achieving complete response mean cumulative doses in the CAP 6 cycle group were approximately 50% of those in the CAP 12 cycle group. However, when all patients were considered, this difference was only approximately 15% owing the continuation of chemotherapy in the partial responders of the 6 cycle group and early stopping for chemotherapy in the CAP 12 cycle group due to toxicity or progression. Patients in complete pathological response also showed similar survivals for 6 and 12 cycles. In conclusion, the study did not show a correlation between mean cumulative doses and complete pathological response and survival.