[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a major public health challenge. Organized mammography screening (OS) is considered one way to reduce breast cancer mortality. EU recommendations prone mass deployment of OS, and back in 2004, France introduced a national OS programme for women aged 50-74 years. However, in 2012, participation rate was still just 52.7%, well short of the targeted 70% objective. In an effort to re-address the (in)efficiency of the programme, the French National Cancer Institute has drafted an expert-group review of the ethical issues surrounding breast cancer mammography screening.
BMC Medical Ethics 08/2014; 15(1):64. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The EU LeukoTreat program aims to connect, enlarge and improve existing national databases for leukodystrophies (LDs) and other genetic diseases affecting the white matter of the brain. Ethical issues have been placed high on the agenda by pairing the participating LD expert research teams with experts in medical ethics and LD patient families and associations. The overarching goal is to apply core ethics principles to specific project needs and ensure patient rights and protection in research addressing the context of these rare diseases.
This paper looks at how ethical issues were identified and handled at project management level when setting up an ethics committee.
Through a work performed as a co-construction between health professionals, ethics experts, and patient representatives, we expose the major ethical issues identified.
The committee acts as the forum for tackling specific issues tied to database participants to datasharing and patient participation: the thin line between care and research, the need for a charter establishing the commitments binding health professionals and the information items to be delivered. Ongoing feedback on the database, including delivering global results in a broad audience format, emerged as a key recommendation. Information should be available to all patients in the partner countries developing the database and should be scaled to different patient profiles.
This work led to a number of recommendations for ensuring transparency and optimizing the partnership between scientists and patients.
European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society 01/2014; · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Critically ill diabetic and obese patients are at high risk of complications. Arginine availability is lowered in diabetes and in stress situations, yet arginine is necessary for immune response, mainly by its action through nitric oxide (NO). These facts argue for arginine-supplemented diets in critically ill patients. However, studies have raised concerns about possible adverse effects of such diets in intensive-care patients. We therefore analyzed the metabolic and immunologic effects of an arginine-enriched diet in stressed diabetic-obese rats. METHODS: Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (fa/fa) were made endotoxemic by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and then fed 4-d enteral nutrition enriched with arginine (ARG group) or a non-essential amino acid mix (NEAA group). The two groups each were subdivided into three subgroups: the ARG subgroups received 0.5 g (ARG0.5), 2 g (ARG2), and 5 g (ARG5) of arginine per kilogram daily, and the NEAA groups were made isonitrogenous with the corresponding ARG subgroups (NEAA0.5, NEAA2, and NEAA5). Plasma and urinary biomarkers were measured. Cytokine and NO production levels and inducible NO synthase and arginase protein levels were determined from peritoneal macrophages. RESULTS: The survival rate was lower in the ARG5 and NEAA5 subgroups than in all the other subgroups. The nitrogen balance was higher in the ARG5 group than in the NEAA5 group. Plasma triacylglycerol levels were lower in the ARG2 group than in the NEAA2 group. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and NO production in the macrophages decreased and arginase-1 was upregulated in the ARG-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: In this model, mortality was increased by the nitrogen burden rather than by arginine per se. Arginine improved nitrogen balance and had an anti-inflammatory action on macrophages by regulating NO production, probably through arginase-1 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic patients with wounds are at risk of protein malnutrition, have low arginine plasma levels and suffer from delayed wound healing. We sought to determine the efficacy of arginine plus proline supplementation on protein and amino acid metabolism and on wound repair in a model of diabetic rats. METHODS: Eighteen 11-week-old Zucker Diabetic Fatty fa/fa male rats underwent a 7 cm abdominal skin incision with implantation of sponges and daily excision of full thickness round sections of dorsal skin for 5 days. They were randomized to be fed with either a standard formula (S group, Clinutren Iso®), a high protein and arginine (ARG) plus proline (PRO) enriched formula (ARG+PRO group, Clinutren Repair®) or an isonitrogenous isoenergetic control formula (IC group). Nitrogen balance was calculated daily. The rats were killed on day 5, and plasma glucose, insulin and amino acids, and skin epithelialization and angiogenesis were measured. In macrophages, we assessed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase expression, production of nitric oxide (NO) and amino acid metabolism. RESULTS: Both the ARG+PRO and IC groups showed improved nitrogen balance. ARG plus PRO supplementation increased proline and branched-chain amino acid plasma concentrations and improved angiogenesis. Arginase and iNOS expressions in macrophages were reduced, together with NO and citrulline production. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In diabetic rats, ARG plus PRO supplementation improves wound angiogenesis and favors whole body protein metabolism. Low macrophage iNOS expression at day 5 may reflect a low inflammatory state in the wounds, favoring wound closure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obese and type 2 diabetic patients present metabolic disturbance-related alterations in nonspecific immunity, to which the decrease in their plasma arginine contributes. Although diabetes-specific formulas have been developed, they have never been tested in the context of an acute infectious situation as can be seen in intensive care unit patients. Our aim was to investigate the effects of a diabetes-specific diet enriched or not with arginine in a model of infectious stress in a diabetes and obesity situation. As a large intake of arginine may be deleterious, this amino acid was given in graded fashion.
Randomized, controlled experimental study.
University research laboratory.
Zucker diabetic fatty rats.
Gastrostomized Zucker diabetic fatty rats were submitted to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide administration and fed for 7 days with either a diabetes-specific enteral nutrition without (G group, n=7) or with graded arginine supply (1-5 g/kg/day) (GA group, n=7) or a standard enteral nutrition (HP group, n=10).
Survival rate was better in G and GA groups than in the HP group. On day 7, plasma insulin to glucose ratio tended to be lower in the same G and GA groups. Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-α (G: 5.0±1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 3.7±0.8 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.7±0.6 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; p<.05 G vs. HP) and nitric oxide (G: 4.5±1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 5.1±1.0 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.0±0.5 nmol/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; p<.05 G and GA vs. HP) productions were higher in the G and GA groups compared to the HP group. Macrophages from the G and GA groups exhibited increased arginine consumption.
In diabetic obese and endotoxemic rats, a diabetes-specific formula leads to a lower mortality, a decreased insulin resistance, and an improvement in peritoneal macrophage function. Arginine supplementation has no additional effect. These data support the use of such disease-specific diets in critically ill diabetic and obese patients.
Critical care medicine 05/2012; 40(8):2423-30. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excess weight and type 2 diabetes lead to increased susceptibility to infections. Our aim was to investigate the role of diabetes-induced decreased arginine (Arg) availability and of a possible dysregulation of Arg metabolism in macrophages favoring inflammation and dysimmunity via altered nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine productions.
Isolated peritoneal macrophages from Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) or lean rats were incubated with increasing Arg concentration (0-2 mM) and Arg metabolism and regulatory properties were studied.
Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression did not vary with Arg concentration while NO production reached a maximum at 0.5 mM Arg, being significantly lower in macrophages from ZDF rats. Arginase I and II protein levels reached a maximum between 0.25 and 0.5 mM Arg in controls; in macrophages from ZDF rats arginase I was significantly lower and progressively increased up to 2 mM Arg while arginase II was not affected by Arg concentration. In parallel, Arg downregulated TNFα production in both groups and IL-6 only in control.
This in vitro study shows that Arg metabolism is impaired in macrophages from diabetic-obese rats and that improving Arg availability for these cells restores NO production and contributes to the regulation of the inflammatory process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is an antiatherogenic vasodilator synthesized from arginine and, indirectly, from citrulline through argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis is usually treated by statins, which decrease cholesterolemia and increase endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, a treatment associating a statin with arginine or citrulline could be more efficient than statin alone. The aim of this study was to optimize NO production in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) by a combination of simvastatin with arginine or citrulline and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. NO production was measured after stimulation of BAEC in different conditions (simvastatin 0 to 10 μM associated with arginine or citrulline 0 to 5 mM) after 24-hour incubation. Intracellular levels of specific proteins were evaluated by Western-Blot analysis, and mRNA levels of eNOS, iNOS, caveolin-1, ASS and ASL were assessed by RT-PCR. Simvastatin co-administrated with arginine or citrulline increased NO production, but at simvastatin 10 μM, 1 mM arginine-induced NO production was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than 1 mM citrulline-induced NO production. Simvastatin induced an increase in eNOS mRNA expression and protein levels in the presence of arginine or citrulline. ASS and ASL mRNA levels were increased by simvastatin, whereas a high substrate concentration (1 mM) strongly decreased ASL mRNA levels. Combining statin with arginine or citrulline increased NO production in endothelial cells by increasing eNOS protein levels. These results form a strong rationale to evaluate the potential utilization of these in atherosclerosis prevention and treatment.
European journal of pharmacology 09/2011; 670(2-3):566-70. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary-supplemented arginine has been shown to have positive effects on cardiovascular disease, but several drawbacks exist and could potentially be avoided by using L-citrulline, since it is recycled to L-arginine. However, citrulline is very rapidly metabolized. We therefore developed a sustained-release form of citrulline and evaluated its metabolic behavior in rats.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: receiving "empty microcapsule" (control group), 1 g/kg/d immediate-release citrulline (IR citrulline group), or 1 g/kg/d sustained-release citrulline (SR citrulline group). Citrulline was given each day at 9 a.m. after blood samples for 9 d, and on day 10, blood samples were drawn every 4 h to study the decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations.
SR citrulline led to a sustained increase in citrullinemia and argininemia compared to IR citrulline, and on day 6 argininemia was significantly (P < 0.01) higher with SR compared to IR citrulline. Moreover, argininemia was significantly higher in the SR citrulline group than in controls throughout the study and SR citrulline maintained high argininemia and citrullinemia, at least over 12 h.
This experimental study provides a strong rationale for using this new formulation for atherosclerosis treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a method for pig islet isolation with the following original features: first, we set up a reproducible, rapid, sterile, and simple method for pancreas procurement and preparation with double duct incannulation. Second, we demonstrated that UW solution can be used for pancreas digestion; third, we designed an original method for pancreas digestion, derived from the method originally described by Ricordi, except that a double digestion circuit made it possible to digest continuously, within one step, the pancreas, which makes the method operator-independent; finally we designed a simple method for islet purification based on a two-layer Histopaque/ UW density gradient and the use of the COBE 2991 cell processor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous experimental studies have highlighted that citrulline (CIT) could be a promising pharmaconutrient. However, its pharmacokinetic characteristics and tolerance to loading have not been studied to date. The objective was to characterise the plasma kinetics of CIT in a multiple-dosing study design and to assess the effect of CIT intake on the concentrations of other plasma amino acids (AA). The effects of CIT loading on anabolic hormones were also determined. Eight fasting healthy males underwent four separate oral loading tests (2, 5, 10 or 15 g CIT) in random order. Blood was drawn ten times over an 8 h period for measurement of plasma AA, insulin and growth hormone (Gh). Urine samples were collected before CIT administration and over the next 24 h. None of the subjects experienced side effects whatever the CIT dose. Concerning AA, only CIT, ornithine (ORN) and arginine (ARG) plasma concentrations were affected (maximum concentration 146 (sem 8) to 303 (sem 11) micromol/l (ARG) and 81 (sem 4) to 179 (sem 10) micromol/l (ORN); time to reach maximum concentration 1.17 (sem 0.26) to 2.29 (sem 0.20) h (ARG) and 1.38 (sem 0.25) to 1.79 (sem 0.11) h (ORN) according to CIT dose). Even at high doses, urinary excretion of CIT remained low ( < 5 %). Plasma insulin and Gh were not affected by CIT administration. Short-term CIT administration is safe and well-tolerated. CIT is a potent precursor of ARG. However, at the highest doses, CIT accumulated in plasma while plasma ARG levels increased less than expected. This may be due to saturation of the renal conversion of CIT into ARG.
British Journal Of Nutrition 04/2008; 99(4):855-62. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Endothelial dysfunction occured very early in atherogenesis. It is due to decrease in NO production by endothelial cells leading to loss of vasodilation. NO is synthetised in endothelial cells by the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) from arginine, with production of citrulline. Citrulline can be recycled in arginine, via arginino succinate synthase (ASS) and arginino succinate lyase (ASL). Moreover, statine increases eNOS activity and synthesis and therefore improves endothelial function.
Materials and methods NO was determined using a nitrate and nitrite fluorimetric assay.
Results: NO production was increased in the presence of simvastatine and arginine or citrulline. This increase was more important with arginine compared to citrulline at 1mM. Without any substrate in the medium, an increase in eNOS protein level was found. In the presence of arginine 1mM, the simvastatine effect on eNOS protein level was more pronounced than in the presence of arginine 0,5mM. The effect was found also in the presence of citrulline 1mM. The same results were observed with eNOS mRNA level. Finally, when cells were incubated with arginine 0,5mM, simvastatine lead to increase ASL and ASS mRNA expression.
Conclusion: The association of substrate with simvastatine induces an increase NO production, compared with arginine or citrulline or statine only, which is in agreement with the increase in BAECs of eNOS mRNA and protein levels.
The FASEB Journal 04/2008; 22(1094.6):1094. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic and endocrine disturbances associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes may impair the normal metabolic response to injury. Our objective was to investigate amino acid metabolism in endotoxaemic type 2 diabetic obese rats.
A metabolic study was performed over 4 days using male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (fa/fa) and lean littermates (fa/+) divided into three groups: ad libitum-fed groups which underwent no treatment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated groups receiving E. coli LPS by i.p. injection, and pair-fed groups to the respective LPS groups. We evaluated the effect of endotoxaemia on body weight, food intake and tissue weights. Nitrogen loss and muscular proteolysis were measured daily by determination of urinary 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion. Plasma, intestine and muscle amino acid levels were measured.
The data showed that ad libitum-fed ZDF rats had lower plasma arginine and glutamine levels than ad libitum-fed control rats. Compared with control rats, the LPS-treated ZDF rats presented lower thymic involution, a lower 3-MH:creatinine ratio and higher cumulative nitrogen balance.
Against our working hypothesis, ZDF rats did not show an impaired metabolic response, and even appeared to be less sensitive to the stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work compared the nutritional efficiency of a recently available enteral formula enriched with arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants and supplied nitrogen as peptides (Crucial, Nestle Clinical Nutrition) with that of a standard polymeric formula (Sondalis HP, Nestle Clinical Nutrition) in endotoxemic rats.
Male Wistar rats (209 +/- 2 g) underwent catheter gastrostomy and received Sondalis HP until they recovered their preoperative weight. At that time (day 0), an endotoxemic shock was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli, 8 mg/kg) and rats then received 290 kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 3.29 g of nitrogen x kg(-1) x d(-1) in the form of Crucial (IED group, n = 7) or Sondalis HP (S group, n = 6) for 3 d. Another group underwent no treatment and was fed ad libitum (AL group). Rats were killed on day 3. Results are presented as mean +/- standard error of the mean (analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls test).
The endotoxemic shock induced a weight loss in group S on days 1 and 2 and a weight gain in group IED (-3.5 +/- 1.3 g in group S versus +6.0 +/- 2.2 g in group IED, P < 0.05). In the same way, atrophy of extensor digitorum longus muscle was observed in group S, whereas wasting was limited in group IED (102 +/- 4 mg in group IED versus 90 +/- 3 mg in group S versus 119 +/- 3 mg in group AL, P < 0.05). Muscular atrophy was associated with muscular glutamine depletion and correlated with hyperphenylalaninemia (R = 0.60), with the latter being blunted in group IED (57 +/- 1 microM/L in group AL versus 77 +/- 4 microM/L in group S versus 66 +/- 2 microM/L in group IED, P < 0.05). No difference was observed between the experimental groups of endotoxemic rats with respect to nitrogen balance, urinary excretion of 3-methyl histidine, or total tissue protein content.
Crucial counteracts injury-mediated weight loss, extensor digitorum longus muscle atrophy, and hyperphenylalaninemia in endotoxemic rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the risk of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) infection is a major obstacle to the xenotransplantation of porcine tissue, we investigated whether an AN69 hollow fibre membrane, used for islets of Langerhans transplantation, could prevent the transfer of PERVs and thus reduce the risk of PERV infection. PK15 cells were used as a PERV source. A specific and highly sensitive RCR was used for detection of a PERV provirus DNA (gag region) and a porcine mtDNA. Human U293 cells were incubated in vitro with encapsulated PK15 cells, concentrated encapsulated PK15 supernatant, or concentrated PK15 supernatant as a control. CD1 mice were implanted in vivo with encapsulated PK15 cells or injected with PK15 supernatant. We found no infection in human cells incubated with either encapsulated PK15 supernatant or in 10 out of 11 samples after coincubation with encapsulated PK15 cells. Infection of human cells was, however, detected in 1 out of 11 samples after coincubation with encapsulated PK15 cells. The presence of PERV provirus DNA and porcine mtDNA was detected in all the investigated tissues of the mice injected with PK15 supematant and in various tissues of the mice implanted with encapsulated PK15 cells. Four weeks after the last injection of PK15 supernatant or a fiber explantation, no mouse showed any presence of PERV provirus DNA or porcine mtDNA. Our results demonstrate that AN69 hollow fiber membrane will reduce but not abolish the risk of PERV infection. Because the real risk of PERV infection still remains unknown, it is necessary to investigate further the real protection that could be provided by hollow fibers to ensure the safety of clinical xenotransplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased susceptibility to infections in obese patients may be related to decreased availability of arginine and glutamine, which may affect immune cell functions. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro effects of these amino acids on the function of macrophages from obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats. Macrophages, isolated from male Zucker obese or lean rats by peritoneal lavage, were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) without arginine or glutamine. Arginine or glutamine was added to the medium at increasing final concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mM). After stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli (40 microg/ml), productions of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and of nitric oxide (NO) were measured after 3 or 48 h incubation, respectively. NO production, lower in macrophages from obese rats, decreased in macrophages from lean rats (0 mM: 2,423 +/- 1,174 vs. 2 mM: 198 +/- 31 microM/mg protein/24 h; P < 0.05), but not in those from obese rats, when glutamine was added. TNFalpha production, lower in macrophages from obese rats, was inversely correlated with glutamine concentration. In the presence of arginine, NO production was constantly higher in macrophages from obese rats. It peaked at 0.5 mM arginine and decreased thereafter in both groups. TNFalpha production in macrophages from lean rats was unaffected by arginine, but decreased in macrophages from obese rats (0 mM: 1920 +/- 450 vs. 2 mM: 810 +/- 90 microM/mg protein/3 h; P < 0.05). These results suggest that abnormalities in cell signalling or in arginine and glutamine metabolism in macrophages of obese rats, resulting in decreased TNFalpha production and increased NO release, may contribute to increased susceptibility to infection in insulin-resistant states.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2005; 202(1):153-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG), known for its anabolic properties, induces insulin secretion in vitro. The present study was undertaken to further characterize this effect in vivo and investigate a possible interaction with glucose both in vivo and in vitro. Male Wistar rats received an intravenous bolus of OKG (25 mg/kg) and/or glucose (0.8 g/kg) or saline, and their plasma insulin and glucose levels were monitored for 30 minutes. OKG alone increased plasma insulin to a similar extent to glucose. In combination with glucose, OKG significantly increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro, and led to a significant increase in glucose utilization in vivo. The absence of significant variations in plasma arginine and glutamine suggests a direct effect of OKG on the pancreas. To assess the involvement of the synthesis of nitric oxide and glutamine in OKG-induced insulin secretion, the experiments were repeated in the presence of inhibitors of these 2 pathways, respectively L-nitroarginine-methylester (L-NAME) and methionine sulfoximine (MSO). Both inhibitors were able significantly to reduce OKG-induced insulin secretion without affecting either basal or glucose-induced insulin release. Thus OKG acts directly with glucose on islets to induce insulin secretion via mechanisms involving NO and glutamine synthesis. In addition, our results suggest that OKG and glucose act via separate pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) administration in human subjects elicits insulin secretion. We investigated whether this action was related to an effect of OKG on islets of Langerhans, and addressed the underlying mechanisms of action. For this purpose the influence of OKG on insulin secretion was measured in isolated rat islets of Langerhans under two different conditions. In incubated islets, OKG (0.25 to 2.5 mmol/l) significantly and dose-relatedly increased insulin secretion (1.7- to 4.2-fold; P<0.05 v. basal). To study the kinetics of OKG-stimulated insulin secretion, perifusion experiments were performed, which showed that OKG affected insulin secretion in both initial and later phases. Experiments using alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) (1 mmol/l) or ornithine (Orn) (2 mmol/l) alone, in concentrations equal to that of OKG, showed that the OKG-induced insulin secretion could not be obtained by either component alone, suggesting that an alpha-KG-Orn interaction is mandatory for the insulin-secreting effect to occur. Since data obtained in vivo suggest that effects of OKG may depend on the synthesis of NO, glutamine and/or polyamines, three metabolic pathways potentially involved in insulin secretion, we then evaluated their contribution by means of their respective inhibitors: l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME), methionine sulfoximine (MSO) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Both l-NAME and MSO were able significantly to reduce OKG-induced insulin secretion (30 and 40 % respectively; P<0.05), while DFMO was ineffective. Thus OKG is an effective stimulator of insulin secretion, requiring the joint presence of both Orn and alpha-KG, and acting mainly via the synthesis of NO and glutamine. A better understanding of OKG insulino-secretory properties and its mechanisms of action are a prerequisite for its use in insulin-compromised situations.
British Journal Of Nutrition 02/2003; 89(2):249-57. · 3.30 Impact Factor