Joe J Tjandra

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (75)188.36 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients presenting with locally advanced rectal cancer currently receive preoperative radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Although pathologic complete response is achieved for approximately 10% to 30% of patients, a proportion of patients derive no benefit from this therapy while being exposed to toxic side effects of treatment. Therefore, there is a strong need to identify patients who are unlikely to benefit from neoadjuvant therapy to help direct them toward alternate and ultimately more successful treatment options. In this study, we obtained expression profiles from pretreatment biopsies for 51 rectal cancer patients. All patients underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy, followed by resection of the tumor 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment. Gene expression and response to treatment were correlated, and a supervised learning algorithm was used to generate an original predictive classifier and validate previously published classifiers. Novel predictive classifiers based on Mandard's tumor regression grade, metabolic response, TNM (tumor node metastasis) downstaging, and normal tissue expression profiles were generated. Because there were only 7 patients who had minimal treatment response (>80% residual tumor), expression profiles were used to predict good tumor response and outcome. These classifiers peaked at 82% sensitivity and 89% specificity; however, classifiers with the highest sensitivity had poor specificity, and vice versa. Validation of predictive classifiers from previously published reports was attempted using this cohort; however, sensitivity and specificity ranged from 21% to 70%. These results show that the clinical utility of microarrays in predictive medicine is not yet within reach for rectal cancer and alternatives to microarrays should be considered for predictive studies in rectal adenocarcinoma.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2011; 17(9):3039-47. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • J J Tjandra, M K Y Chan, H C H Yeh
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    ABSTRACT: Both injectable silicone biomaterial (PTQ) and pyrolytic carbon-coated beads (Durasphere) have been shown to be effective in treating passive faecal incontinence due to internal sphincter dysfunction. This is a randomized study to evaluate their relative safety and efficacy. Forty patients (mean age 59.5 years vs 58.9 years) were randomized to have inter-sphincteric injection of PTQ or submucosal injection of Durasphere. Patients were assessed with anorectal physiology, endoanal ultrasound, a validated incontinence score and quality of life questionnaires. In the Durasphere group, complications included rectal pain (5%), erosion through rectal mucosa (10%), and type III hypersensitivity reaction (5%). No complications occurred in the PTQ group. Compared with PTQ, Durasphere group has a more rapid action, with improved continence at 2 weeks after injection. In both groups, faecal continence significantly improved 6 weeks after injection, and continued to improve significantly up to 6 months in both groups (P < 0.0001). At 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after injection, significantly more PTQ patients achieved greater than 50% improvement in Wexner's continence score than Durasphere patients (respectively, P = 0.01; P < 0.0001; P = 0.001). There was a significant improvement in faecal incontinence quality of life scale and the 12-month physical health scale of Short Form-12 health survey in the PTQ group but not in the Durasphere group. In patients with internal sphincter dysfunction, injectable silicone biomaterial was safer and more effective than Durasphere.
    Colorectal Disease 05/2009; 11(4):382-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Miranda K Y Chan, Joe J Tjandra
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective study was designed to assess the effectiveness of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence in patients with external anal sphincter defect and to evaluate its efficacy regarding presence and size of sphincter defect. Fifty-three consecutive patients who underwent sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence were divided into two groups: external anal sphincter defect group (n = 21) vs. intact sphincter group (n = 32). Follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months with anorectal physiology, Wexner's score, bowel diary, and quality of life questionnaires. The external anal sphincter defect group (defect <90 degrees:defect 90 degrees-120 degrees = 11:10) and intact sphincter group were comparable with regard to age (mean, 63 vs. 63.6) and sex. Incidence of internal anal sphincter defect and pudendal neuropathy was similar. All 53 patients benefited from sacral nerve stimulation. Weekly incontinent episodes decreased from 13.8 to 5 (P < 0.0001) for patients with external anal sphincter defects and from 6.7 to 2 (P = 0.001) for patients with intact sphincter at 12-month follow-up. Quality of life scores improved in both groups (P < 0.0125). There was no significant difference in improvement in functional outcomes after sacral nerve stimulation between patients with or without external anal sphincter defects. Clinical benefit of sacral nerve stimulation was similar among patients with external anal sphincter defects, irrespective of its size. Presence of pudendal neuropathy did not affect outcome of neurostimulation. Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence is as effective in patients with external anal sphincter defects as those with intact sphincter and the result is similar for defect size up to 120 degrees of circumference.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 07/2008; 51(7):1015-24; discussion 1024-5. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Joe J Tjandra, Miranda K Y Chan
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    ABSTRACT: Closure of defunctioning loop ileostomy often is associated with division of complex peristomal adhesions through a parastomal incision with limited exposure. The goal was to determine whether sprayable hydrogel adhesion barrier (SprayGel) will reduce peristomal adhesions and facilitate closure of ileostomy. Patients undergoing closure of loop ileostomy were randomized to have hydrogel adhesion barrier sprayed around both limbs of ileostomy for 20 cm (SprayGel group, n = 19), or to control without adhesion barrier (control group, n = 21). Ileostomy was reversed at ten weeks after construction. Extent of peristomal adhesions was scored in blinded manner (each quadrant, range, 1-3: 3 = most severe; total, range, 4-12: 12 = most severe). Use of adhesion barrier was associated with significant reduction in overall adhesion scores (mean, 6.11 vs. 9.67; P < 0.0005), four-quadrant adhesion scores (Quadrant A: 1.68 vs. 2.52, P = 0.002; Quadrant B: 1.42 vs. 2.33, P < 0.0005; Quadrant C: 1.42 vs. 2.24, P < 0.0005; Quadrant D: 1.58 vs. 2.48, P = 0.002), and proportion of patients with dense (scores > or = 8) adhesions (0.11 vs. 0.71; P < 0.0005). Time taken to mobilize (16.53 vs. 21.67 minutes; P = 0.008) and close ileostomy (35.37 vs. 41.90 minutes; P = 0.008) was significantly reduced. Postoperative complications were comparable. A sprayable hydrogel adhesion barrier placed around the limbs of a defunctioning loop ileostomy reduced peristomal adhesions and might facilitate closure of ileostomy.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 07/2008; 51(6):956-60. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized study was designed to compare the effect of sacral neuromodulation with optimal medical therapy in patients with severe fecal incontinence. Patients (aged 39-86 years) with severe fecal incontinence were randomized to have sacral nerve stimulation (SNS group; n = 60) or best supportive therapy (control; n = 60), which consisted of pelvic floor exercises, bulking agent, and dietary manipulation. Full assessment included endoanal ultrasound, anorectal physiology, two-week bowel diary, and fecal incontinence quality of life index. The follow-up duration was 12 months. The sacral nerve stimulation group was similar to the control group with regard to gender (F:M = 11:1 vs. 14:1) and age (mean, 63.9 vs. 63 years). The incidence of a defect of < or = 120 degrees of the external anal sphincter and pudendal neuropathy was similar between the groups. Trial screening improved incontinent episodes by more than 50 percent in 54 patients (90 percent). Full-stage sacral nerve stimulation was performed in 53 of these 54 "successful" patients. There were no septic complications. With sacral nerve stimulation, mean incontinent episodes per week decreased from 9.5 to 3.1 (P < 0.0001) and mean incontinent days per week from 3.3 to 1 (P < 0.0001). Perfect continence was accomplished in 25 patients (47.2 percent). In the sacral nerve stimulation group, there was a significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in fecal incontinence quality of life index in all four domains. By contrast, there was no significant improvement in fecal continence and the fecal incontinence quality of life scores in the control group. Sacral neuromodulation significantly improved the outcome in patients with severe fecal incontinence compared with the control group undergoing optimal medical therapy.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 05/2008; 51(5):494-502. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Jane J. Y. Tan, Joe J. Tjandra
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 01/2008; 51(2):256-256. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Joe J. Tjandra
    01/2008: pages 171 - 177; , ISBN: 9780470757819
  • Joe J. Tjandra
    01/2008: pages 179 - 183; , ISBN: 9780470757819
  • Joe J. Tjandra
    01/2008: pages 191 - 210; , ISBN: 9780470757819
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    ABSTRACT: A standard laparoscopic-assisted operation can be conducted with colorectal anastomosis performed after extraction of specimen and insertion of a pursestring via a small left iliac fossa or suprapubic incision, or completed via hand-assisted laparoscopic technique with a 7-cm to 8-cm suprapubic incision. This study compares the short-term outcomes of either technique. Sixty-three consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted ultralow anterior resection or total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer were examined. The laparoscopic-assisted group (n = 31) had standard laparoscopic-assisted resection, whereas the hand-assisted laparoscopic group (n = 32) had a 7-cm to 8-cm suprapubic incision to allow an open colorectal anastomosis. In patients who were obese or have had multiple abdominal surgeries, the hand-assisted approach was generally favored. All patients had a diverting ileostomy. There was no conversion in either group. Mean operating time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic-assisted group (188.2 vs. 169.8 minutes; P < 0.0001). Mean duration for narcotic analgesia (1.65 vs. 3.38 days, P < 0.0001), mean time to flatus (1.97 vs. 3.19 days, P < 0.0001), and mean duration of intravenous hydration (2.45 vs. 3.88 days, P < 0.0001) were longer in the hand-assisted laparoscopic group. However, the mean length of hospital stay (5.8 vs. 5.9 days, P = 0.379) was similar. There was no major surgical complication in either group; chest infection, wound infection, and thrombophlebitis were similar between the laparoscopic-assisted group and the hand-assisted laparoscopic group. Adequacy of specimen harvest (distal tumor margins, P = 0.995; circumferential resection margin, P = 0.946; number of lymph nodes, P = 0.845) was similar. Although both laparoscopic-assisted and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgeries are safe and feasible for ultralow anterior resection, the hand-assisted technique significantly shortens operating time.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 01/2008; 51(1):26-31. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a prospective study to review the natural history of anorectal dysfunction after primary repair for third or fourth degree obstetric tear and to identify the predictive factors for significant faecal incontinence. From January 2003 to December 2005, 121 consecutive women (mean age 29.9 +/- 4.7) who sustained third or fourth degree obstetric tears were assessed. All had primary repair by obstetricians. They were assessed using anorectal physiology testing and endoanal ultrasound. Short-term (3-month postpartum) and medium-term (mean 18.8 +/- 7.7 months) Wexner's continence scores were obtained. Among the 121 women, seven were excluded because of incomplete follow-up. At short-term assessment, 25 out of 114 women were incontinent. One of them underwent another sphincter repair for significant faecal incontinence. Twenty-one and three patients respectively, had mild (Wexner's score 1-4) and moderate (Wexner's score 5-8) symptoms. At medium-term assessment, 24 patients remained incontinent; of these, 20 had mild symptoms (Wexner's score 1-4) and four had moderate incontinence (Wexner's score 5-8). The parity (P = 0.04), degree of obstetric tear (P = 0.036) and short-term Wexner's scores at 3 months postpartum (P < 0.0001) were significantly related to the change in Wexner's scores at medium-term assessment. However, the short-term Wexner's score was the only identifiable predictive factor for significant faecal incontinence. Most women suffering from third or fourth degree obstetric tear were continent or mildly incontinent. Poor Wexner's score at short-term assessment at 3 months postpartum was predictive of faecal incontinence in the medium-term.
    Colorectal Disease 01/2008; 10(7):681-8. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Jane J Y Tan, Miranda Chan, Joe J Tjandra
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence is common and can be socially debilitating. Nonoperative management of fecal incontinence includes dietary modification, antidiarrheal medication, and biofeedback. The traditional surgical approach is sphincteroplasty if there is a defect of the external sphincter. Innovative treatment modalities have included sacral nerve stimulation, injectable implants, dynamic graciloplasty, and artificial bowel sphincter. DISCUSSION: This review was designed to assess the various surgical options available for fecal incontinence and critically evaluate the evidence behind these procedures. The algorithm in the surgical treatment of fecal incontinence is shifting. Injectable therapy and sacral nerve stimulation are likely to be the mainstay in future treatment of moderate and severe fecal incontinence, respectively. Sphincteroplasty is limited to a small group of patients with isolated defect of the external sphincter. A stoma, although effective, can be avoided in most cases.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 12/2007; 50(11):1950-67. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • C H Yeh, S Y Kwok, M K Y Chan, J J Tjandra
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is often prolonged and may cause hypothermia. It is uncertain if heated and humidified carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is beneficial. This is a prospective case-matched study on the use of heated and humidified CO(2) in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Twenty consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery with heated (36 degrees C) and humidified (95%) CO(2) were compared with 20 consecutive patients using standard CO(2) (30.2 degrees C). All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in an institution. The changes in core temperature during surgery, visual quality of images and the short-term clinical outcome were documented. The core temperature fell during surgery in both groups. Although the fall of core temperature was more in the control group, it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The passage of flatus was more delayed in heated and humidified group (P = 0.004), but it did not affect the hospital discharge. All the other parameters, including the quality of visual images and the postoperative pain, were similar in both groups. Despite better temperature maintenance (nonsignificant), pneumoperitoneum using heated and humidified CO(2) gas did not appear to have any clinical benefits in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
    Colorectal Disease 11/2007; 9(8):695-700. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 11/2007; 50(10):1497-507. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Joe J Tjandra, Miranda K Y Chan
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    ABSTRACT: This is a systematic review to evaluate the impact of various follow-up intensities and strategies on the outcome of patients after curative surgery for colorectal cancer. All randomized trials up to January 2007, comparing different follow-up intensities and strategies, were retrieved. Meta-analysis was performed by using the Forest plot review. Eight randomized, clinical trials with 2,923 patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curative resection were reviewed. There was a significant reduction in overall mortality in patients having intensive follow-up (intensive vs. less intensive follow-up: 21.8 vs. 25.7 percent; P = 0.01). Regular surveillance with serum carcinoembryonic antigen (P = 0.0002) and colonoscopy (P = 0.04) demonstrated a significant impact on overall mortality. However, cancer-related mortality did not show any significant difference. There was no significant difference in all-site recurrence and in local or distant metastasis. Detection of isolated local and hepatic recurrences was similar. Intensive follow-up detected asymptomatic recurrence more frequently (18.9 vs. 6.3 percent; P < 0.00001) and 5.91 months earlier than less intensive follow-up protocol; these were demonstrated with all investigation strategies used. Intensive surveillance program detected recurrences that were significantly more amenable to surgical reresection (10.7 vs. 5.7 percent; P = 0.0002). The chance of curative reresection were significantly better with more intensive follow-up (24.3 vs. 9.9 percent; P = 0.0001), independent of the investigation strategies used. Intensive follow-up after curative resection of colorectal cancer improved overall survival and reresection rate for recurrent disease. However, the cancer-related mortality was not improved and the survival benefit was not related to earlier detection and treatment of recurrent disease.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 11/2007; 50(11):1783-99. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Joe J Tjandra, Miranda K Y Chan
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    ABSTRACT: The procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (stapled hemorrhoidopexy) has been introduced as an alternative to conventional hemorrhoidectomy. This is a systematic review on stapled hemorrhoidopexy of all randomized, controlled trials that have been published until August 2006. All published, randomized, controlled trials comparing stapled hemorrhoidopexy to conventional hemorrhoidectomy were identified from Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and all Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, Cochrane Database of Systemic Review, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) between January 1991 and August 2006. Meta-analysis was performed by using the Forest plot review if feasible. A total of 25 randomized, controlled trials with 1,918 procedures were reviewed. The follow-up duration was from 1 to 62 months. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy was associated with less operating time (weighted mean difference, -11.35 minutes; P = 0.006), earlier return of bowel function (weighted mean difference -9.91 hours; P < 0.00001), and shorter hospital stay (weighted mean difference, -1.07 days; P = 0.0004). There was less pain after stapled hemorrhoidopexy, as evidenced by lower pain scores at rest and on defecation and 37.6 percent reduction in analgesic requirement. The stapled hemorrhoidopexy allowed a faster functional recovery with shorter time off work (weighted mean difference, -8.45 days; P < 0.00001), earlier return to normal activities (weighted mean difference, -15.85 days; P = 0.03), and better wound healing (odds ratio, 0.1; P = 0.0006). The patients' satisfaction was significantly higher with stapled hemorrhoidopexy than conventional hemorrhoidectomy (odds ratio, 2.33; P = 0.003). Although there was increase in the recurrence of hemorrhoids at one year or more after stapled procedure (5.7 vs. 1 percent; odds ratio, 3.48; P = 0.02), the overall incidence of recurrent hemorrhoidal symptoms--early (fewer than 6 months; stapled vs. conventional: 24.8 vs. 31.7 percent; P = 0.08) or late (1 year or more) recurrence rate (stapled vs. conventional: 25.3 vs. 18.7 percent; P = 0.07)--was similar. The overall complication rate did not differ significantly from that of conventional procedure (stapled vs. conventional: 20.2 vs. 25.2 percent; P = 0.06). Compared with conventional surgery, stapled hemorrhoidopexy has less postoperative bleeding (odds ratio, 0.52; P = 0.001), wound complication (odds ratio, 0.05; P = 0.005), constipation (odds ratio, 0.45; P = 0.02), and pruritus (odds ratio, 0.19; P = 0.02). The overall need of surgical (odds ratio, 1.27; P = 0.4) and nonsurgical (odds ratio, 1.07; P = 0.82) reintervention after the two procedures was similar. The Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoid (stapled hemorrhoidopexy) is safe with many short-term benefits. The long-term results are similar to conventional procedure.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 07/2007; 50(6):878-92. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some haemorrhoids are associated with high resting anal canal pressures. The aim of this study was to assess if Rectogesic, a topical glyceryl trinitrate 0.2% ointment was effective in relieving symptoms of early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures. This was a prospective, two-centre, open label study of 58 patients with persistent haemorrhoidal symptoms. Patients with first or second degree haemorrhoids and a maximum resting anal canal pressure > 70 mmHg were included. Rectogesic was applied three times a day for 14 days. Anorectal manometry was performed 30 min after the first application of Rectogesic. A 28-day diary was completed during 14 days of therapy and for 14 days after cessation of treatment. This recorded the incidence of rectal bleeding, and visual analogue scales for anal pain, throbbing, pruritus, irritation and difficulty in bowel movement. Maximum resting anal canal pressures were reduced after application of Rectogesic (115.0 +/- 40.4 mmHg vs 94.7 +/- 34.1 mmHg, P < 0.001). In the study period and at 14 days after cessation of Rectogesic, there was significant reduction in rectal bleeding (P = 0.0002), and significant improvement of anal pain (P = 0.0024), throbbing (P = 0.0355), pruritus (P = 0.0043), irritation (P = 0.0000) and difficulty in bowel movement (P = 0.001). The main adverse event was headache in 43.1% of patients. Rectogesic is a safe and feasible treatment for patients with early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures.
    Colorectal Disease 06/2007; 9(5):457-63. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Jane J Y Tan, Joe J Tjandra
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic surgery in Crohn's disease. A search of published studies in English between January 1990 and February 2006 was performed by using the MEDLINE and PubMed databases and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The studies were reviewed by two independent assessors. Meta-analysis with the Forest plot was performed when raw data, means, and standard deviations were available. The rate of conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery was 11.2 percent. Laparoscopic procedures took longer to perform compared with open procedures, with a weighted mean difference of 25.54 minutes (P = 0.03). Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery had a more rapid recovery of bowel function, with a weighted mean difference of 0.75 days (P = 0.02) and were able to tolerate oral intake earlier, with a weighted mean difference of 1.43 days (P = 0.0008). The duration of hospitalization was shorter, with a weighted mean difference of 1.82 days (P = 0.02). Morbidity was lower for laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures (odds ratio, 0.57; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.37-0.87; P = 0.01). The rate of disease recurrence was similar for both laparoscopic and open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery for Crohn's disease takes longer to perform, but there are significant short-term benefits to the patient. The morbidity also is lower, and the rate of disease recurrence is similar. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery for Crohn's disease is both safe and feasible.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 06/2007; 50(5):576-85. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Faecal incontinence is a common but complex problem that can be difficult to treat successfully. Whereas some patients are helped by antidiarrhoeal drugs such as loperamide or codeine phosphate, this is a holding measure rather than a cure. Surgical treatments are limited, and some are complex with a high morbidity rate. The search for minimally invasive therapies continues. Sacral nerve stimulation is becoming the preferred option in many cases of internal and external anal sphincter dysfunction, but it is expensive and involves a two-stage procedure.
    12/2006: pages 221-227;
  • J J Y Tan, J J Tjandra
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic surgery for patients with ulcerative colitis. A search of published studies in English between January 1992 and September 2005 was obtained, using the MEDLINE and PubMed databases and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Two independent assessors reviewed the studies using a standardized protocol. Where raw data, means and standard deviations were available, meta-analysis was performed using the Forest plot review. Studies where medians and ranges were presented were separately analysed. The duration of surgery for laparoscopic and open procedures were similar (weighted mean difference 62.92 min, P = 0.19). Patients were able to tolerate oral intake significantly earlier, with a weighted mean difference of 1.39 days (P = 0.002), but recovery of bowel function was similar (weighted mean difference 0.73 days, P = 0.36). The length of hospital stay was shorter for patients who had undergone laparoscopic surgery, with a weighted mean difference of 2.64 days (P = 0.003). The complication rate was higher in open colectomy, compared to laparoscopic colectomy (67.6%vs 39.7%, P = 0.005). For restorative proctocolectomy, complication rates were comparable between the laparoscopic and open groups (P = 0.25). The time taken to perform laparoscopic surgery is similar to open surgery. Patients are able to tolerate oral intake earlier, and have a shorter hospitalization. Laparoscopic colectomy was safer compared to the open procedure, but both were equally safe for patients who had restorative proctocolectomy. Thus, laparoscopic surgery for ulcerative colitis is both safe and feasible.
    Colorectal Disease 11/2006; 8(8):626-36. · 2.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
188.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2009
    • University of Melbourne
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience
      • • Royal Melbourne Hospital Clinical School
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1998–2008
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2007
    • Fletcher Allen Health Care
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 1999
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia